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Republic of Singapore

Politics of Singapore Part 1

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Republic of Singapore

  1. 1. Reporter: Mylene S. Pilongo BSE IV-Social Science
  2. 2. Republic of Singapore "MAJULAH SINGAPURA" Reporter: Mylene S. Pilongo BSE IV-Social Science
  3. 3. Flag of Singapore Coat of Arms of Singapore Republic of Singapore
  4. 4. Politics of Singapore  The politics of Singapore takes the form of a parliamentary representative democratic republic whereby the President of Singapore is the head of state, the Prime Minister of Singapore is the head of government, and of a multi-party system.  Executive power is exercised by the cabinet from the parliament, and to a lesser extent, the President. Cabinet has the general direction and control of the Government and is accountable to Parliament.
  5. 5. Politics of Singapore  Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Singapore. The legislature is the parliament, which consists of the president as its head and a single chamber whose members are elected by popular vote.  The role of the president as the head of state has been, historically, largely ceremonial although the constitution was amended in 1991 to give the president some veto powers in a few key decisions.
  6. 6. Political Background  Singaporean politics have been dominated by the People's Action Party (PAP) since the 1959 general election when Lee Kuan Yew became Singapore's first prime minister.
  7. 7. Political Background  The Economist Intelligence Unit classifies Singapore as a "hybrid" country, with authoritarian and democratic elements.  Freedom House does not consider Singapore an "electoral democracy" and ranks the country as "partly free".  Reporters Without Borders ranked Singapore 140th out of 167 countries in its 2005 Press Freedom Index.
  8. 8. Political Background  It has also been alleged that the PAP employs censorship, gerrymandering and the filing of civil suits against the opposition for libel or slander to impede their success.  Several former and present members of the opposition, including Francis Seow, J.B. Jeyaretnam and Chee Soon Juan perceive the Singaporean courts as favourable towards the government and the PAP due to a lack of separation of powers.
  9. 9. Political Climate  Singapore has consistently been rated as the least- corrupt country in Asia and amongst the top ten cleanest in the world by Transparency International.  The World Bank's governance indicators have also rated Singapore highly on rule of law, control of corruption and government effectiveness.
  10. 10. Majulah Singapura !
  11. 11. Political Climate  Although Singapore's laws are inherited from British and British Indian laws, including many elements of English common law, the PAP has also consistently rejected liberal democratic values.  Laws restricting the freedom of speech are justified by claims that they are intended to prohibit speech that may breed ill will or cause disharmony within Singapore's multiracial, multi- religious society.
  12. 12. EXECUTIVE (President) President The President of the Republic of Singapore is Singapore's head of state. Tony Tan Keng Yam The President's official residence is the Istana.
  13. 13. EXECUTIVE (President)  The executive authority of the nation is vested in the President and exercisable by him or her or by the Cabinet or any minister authorized by the Cabinet.  However, it is the Cabinet that has the general direction and control of the Government, and in most cases the President exercises powers in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet or a minister acting under the Cabinet's general authority. Constitutional position and role
  14. 14. EXECUTIVE (President)  As a component of the legislature together with Parliament, the President is also jointly vested with the legislative power of Singapore. The President's primary role in the exercise of legislative power to make laws is assenting to bills passed by Parliament. "Be it enacted by the President with the advice and consent of the Parliament of Singapore, as follows:" Constitutional position and role
  15. 15. EXECUTIVE (President)  The President has been called "Singapore's No. 1 diplomat".  In addition, he or she contributes to the nation's external relations by undertaking overseas trips on Cabinet's advice.  Presidents have also used the office to champion charitable causes. Constitutional position and role
  16. 16. EXECUTIVE (President)  The powers of the President of Singapore are divided into those which the President may exercise in his or her own discretion, and those he or she must exercise in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet of Singapore or of a Minister acting under the general authority of the Cabinet.  In addition, the President is required to consult the Council of Presidential Advisers (CPA) when performing some of his functions. Powers
  17. 17. EXECUTIVE (President)  A guarantee may only be given or a loan raised by the Government if the President concurs, and his or her approval is also needed for budgets of specified statutory boards.  Has personal discretion to withhold assent to any bill in Parliament providing directly or indirectly for the direct or indirect variation, changing or increase in powers of the Central Provident Fund Board. Powers
  18. 18. EXECUTIVE (President)  The President is also empowered to approve changes to key civil service positions, such as: - Chief Justice, - Attorney-General, - chairman and members of the Public Service Commission - Chief of Defense Force - Commissioner of Police Powers
  19. 19. EXECUTIVE (President)  He or she also appoints as Prime Minister a Member of Parliament (MP) who, in his or her personal judgment, is likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs.  The President has certain powers of oversight over the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau. Powers
  20. 20. EXECUTIVE (President) ◉He or she must be a citizen of Singapore. ◉He or she must not be less than 45 years of age. ◉His or her name must appear in a current register of electors. ◉He or she is resident in Singapore on Nomination Day and has been so for a total period not less than 10 years; Qualifications
  21. 21. EXECUTIVE (President) ◉He or she must not be subject to any of the following disqualifications: (a) being and having been found or declared to be of unsound mind; (b) being an undischarged bankrupt; (c) holding an office of profit; (d) having been nominated for election to Parliament or the office of President or having acted as election agent to a person so nominated, failing to lodge any return of election expenses required by law within the time and in the manner so required; Disqualifications
  22. 22. EXECUTIVE (President) (e) having been convicted of an offence by a court of law in Singapore or Malaysia and sentenced to imprisonment for a term of not less than one year or to a fine of not less than S$2,000 and having not received a free pardon, provided that where the conviction is by a court of law in Malaysia, the person shall not be disqualified unless the offence is also one which, had it been committed in Singapore, would have been punishable by a court of law in Singapore; Disqualifications
  23. 23. EXECUTIVE (President) (f) having voluntarily acquired the citizenship of, or exercised rights of citizenship in, a foreign country, or having made a declaration of allegiance to a foreign country; (g) being disqualified under any law relating to offences in connection with elections to Parliament or the office of President by reason of having been convicted of such an offence or having in proceedings relating to such an election been proved guilty of an act constituting such an offence. Disqualifications
  24. 24. EXECUTIVE (President) ◉He or she must be a person of integrity, good character and reputation. ◉He or she must not be a member of any political party on the date of his or her nomination for election ◉He or she must have for a period of not less than three years held office — Qualifications
  25. 25. EXECUTIVE (President) (a) as Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker, Attorney-General, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, Auditor-General, Accountant- General or Permanent Secretary; (b) as chairperson or chief executive officer (CEO) of the Central Provident Fund Board, the Housing and Development Board, the Jurong Town Corporation or the Monetary Authority of Singapore; Qualifications
  26. 26. EXECUTIVE (President) (c) as chairperson of the board of directors or CEO of a company incorporated or registered under the Companies Act with a paid-up capital of at least $100 million or its equivalent in foreign currency; or (d) in any other similar or comparable position of seniority and responsibility in any other organisation or department of equivalent size or complexity in the public or private sector which has given him such experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs as to enable him to carry out effectively the functions and duties of the office of President. Qualifications
  27. 27. The strictness of these qualifications led to the 1999 and 2005 elections being “walkovers” as S.R. Nathan was the only qualified candidate on nomination day. EXECUTIVE (President)
  28. 28. EXECUTIVE (President)  The person elected to the office of President assumes office on the day his predecessor ceases to hold office or, if the office is vacant, on the day following his election. Upon his assumption of office, the President is required to take and subscribe in the presence of the Chief Justice or of another Justice of the Supreme Court the Oath of Office, which states: Assumption of office and disabilities
  29. 29. EXECUTIVE (President) I, [name], having been elected President of the Republic of Singapore, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully discharge my duties as such to the best of my ability without fear or favour, affection or ill-will, and without regard to any previous affiliation with any political party, and that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic, and that I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore.
  30. 30. EXECUTIVE (President)  Once elected, the President shall: - not hold any other office created or recognized by the Constitution; - not actively engage in any commercial enterprise; - not be a member of any political party; and - if he or she is a member of Parliament, vacate his or her seat in Parliament. Assumption of office and disabilities
  31. 31. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  The Cabinet of Singapore forms the Government (executive branch) of Singapore together with the President of Singapore.  It is led by the Prime Minister of Singapore who is the head of government. The Prime Minister is a Member of Parliament (MP) appointed by the President who selects a person that in his or her view is likely to command the confidence of a majority of the Parliament of Singapore.
  32. 32. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  The other members of the Cabinet are Ministers who are Members of Parliament appointed by the President on the Prime Minister's advice.  Cabinet members are prohibited from holding any office of profit and from actively engaging in any commercial enterprise.  The Cabinet generally directs and controls the Government and is collectively responsible to Parliament.
  33. 33. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  Ministers may be designated by the Prime Minister to be in charge of particular ministries, or as Ministers in the Prime Minister's Office.  Singapore's ministers are among the best paid in the world.  Prior to a salary review in 2011, the Prime Minister's annual salary was S$3.07 million, while the pay of ministerial-grade officers ranged between S$1.58 million and S$2.37 million.
  34. 34. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  Singapore inherited a Westminster system of government from the British.  In such systems, there is an overlap between the executive and legislative branches of government.  The head of state, who is the President of Singapore, is a member of both the executive Government of Singapore and the Parliament of Singapore but plays a minimal role in them. Structure of government
  35. 35. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  Executive power lies in the hands of the Cabinet, which is made up of the Prime Minister of Singapore (the head of government) and other Ministers. At the same time, the Prime Minister and Ministers are also Members of Parliament (MPs).  Following constitutional reforms in 1991, the office of President was transformed from an appointed to an elected post. Thus, both the President and MPs are elected to their posts by the citizens of Singapore in separate elections. Structure of government
  36. 36. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  The President appoints as Prime Minister an MP who, in his judgment, is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the MPs.  The Prime Minister is the head of the government of the Republic of Singapore. Appointment of Cabinet Lee Hsien Loong
  37. 37. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  The President also appoints other Ministers to the Cabinet from among the MPs, acting in accordance with the Prime Minister's advice.  Before entering on the duties of their office, the Prime Minister and other Ministers must take and subscribe (sign) the Oath of Allegiance and an oath for the due execution of their offices before the President. Appointment of Cabinet
  38. 38. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  Cabinet members are prohibited from holding any office of profit or actively engaging in any commercial enterprise.  In addition, they are required to comply with a Code of Conduct for Ministers. Appointment of Cabinet
  39. 39. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  The President must declare the office of Prime Minister vacant if the Prime Minister resigns his office, or if the President, acting in his discretion, is satisfied that the Prime Minister has ceased to command the confidence of a majority of the MPs.  In the latter situation, the President is required first to inform the Prime Minister of his evaluation in this regard, and if the Prime Minister requests him to, the President may dissolve Parliament instead of making a declaration of vacancy. Vacation of Office
  40. 40. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  Other Cabinet ministers must vacate their office if they resign, or if their appointments are revoked by the President acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister.A person who has vacated his or her office as Minister may, if qualified, be subsequently appointed again as a Minister.  The Prime Minister and other Ministers who make up the Cabinet do not vacate their offices upon a dissolution of Parliament, but continue in their posts until the first sitting of the next Parliament following a general election. Vacation of Office
  41. 41. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  The Prime Minister may, by giving written directions, charge any Minister with responsibility for any department or subject.  In practice, this is done by issuing notifications that are published in the Government Gazette. Responsibilities of Ministers
  42. 42. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore) It is hereby notified for general information that, pursuant to Article 30(1) of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, the Prime Minister has directed that Mr S. Jayakumar shall, with effect from 1st April 2009, be charged with the responsibility for the following matters: (a) national security issues involving or affecting more than one Ministry; (b) Chairmanship of the Security Policy Review Committee; (c) foreign policy issues involving or affecting more than one Ministry; and (d) foreign policy issues which involve legal negotiation or international adjudication
  43. 43. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  In 1994, a Prime Minister received a monthly salary of nearly S$96,000 (about $1.15 million a year), while other ministers earned about $48,900 a month ($586,800 a year).  In February 1996 it was reported that a survey of 19 countries by the World Economic Forum magazine World Link had found that political leaders and senior civil servants of Singapore had the highest salaries. Remunerations
  44. 44. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  In April 2007, the Prime Minister's annual salary increased to S$3.1 million (US$2.05 million), about five times that of the then President of the United States George W. Bush who earned US$400,000.  At present, Singapore PM Lee Hsien Loong remains highest paid country leader with $1.7m annual salary. Remunerations
  45. 45. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  At present, persons who have reached the age of 50 years and retired as MPs and who have served in this capacity for not less than nine years may be granted a pension for the rest of their lives. The annual amount payable is 1⁄30 of the person's highest annual salary for every completed year of service and 1⁄360 for every uncompleted year, up to a ceiling of two-thirds of the Member's annual salary. Pensions
  46. 46. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore)  In addition, a retired MP who is at least 50 years old and has for not less than eight years held the office of Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Senior Minister or Minister may receive an additional pension each year of 1⁄27 of his or her highest annual salary for each completed year of service and 1⁄324for each uncompleted year, subject again to a ceiling of two-thirds of the office-holder's annual salary. Pensions
  47. 47. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore) Here’s a look at all the HIGHEST PAID POLITICIANS in Singapore.
  48. 48. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore) Portfolio Minister Photo Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong Deputy Prime Minister Co-ordinating Minister for National Security Teo Chee Hean Deputy Prime Minister Co-ordinating Minister for Economic and Social Policies Tharman Shanmugaratnam Co-ordinating Minister for Infrastructure Minister for Transport Khaw Boon Wan
  49. 49. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore) Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Chan Chun Sing Minister for Communications and Information Minister-in-charge of Muslim Affairs Yaacob Ibrahim Minister for Culture, Community and Youth Grace Fu Hai Yien Minister for Defense Ng Eng Hen Acting Minister for Education (Schools) Ng Chee Meng
  50. 50. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore) Acting Minister for Education (Higher Education and Skills) Ong Ye Kung Minister for the Environment and Water Resources Masagos Zulkifli Minister for Finance Heng Swee Keat Minister for Foreign Affairs Vivian Balakrishnan Minister for Health Gan Kim Yong
  51. 51. EXECUTIVE (Cabinet of Singapore) Minister for Home Affairs Minister for Law K. Shanmugam Minister for Manpower Lim Swee Say Minister for National Development Lawrence Wong Minister for Social and Family Development Tan Chuan-Jin Minister for Trade and Industry (Industry) S. Iswaran Minister for Trade and Industry (Trade) Lim Hng Kiang