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The significance of educational policies

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The significance of educational policies

  1. 1. The Significance of Educational Policies SCLY2: Education
  2. 2. Education in the UK: 1944-70s How was it organised? What were students experiences?
  3. 3. The Tripartite System Browne p328 <ul><li>KEY LEGISLATION: 1944 Education Act (driven by Con. Ed. Sec. R.A. Butler ) </li></ul><ul><li>This established three types of secondary school that existed from 1944 until 1965. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Modern schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All students sat the 11+ exam, an IQ test, at age 11 and the result of this determined where you were most likely to go. </li></ul><ul><li>15-20% of students with top results went to grammar schools, the rest went to secondary modern. Hardly any technical schools were set up. </li></ul><ul><li>LIST TWO ADVANTAGES AND TWO DISADVANTAGES OF THIS SYSTEM </li></ul>
  4. 4. Comprehensivisation <ul><li>The Labour government of the early 1960s disliked selection and pushed for the introduction of a comprehensive system, admitting students of all abilities and backgrounds – this was formalised by Ed. Sec. Anthony Crosland through Circular 10/65 in 1965. </li></ul><ul><li>True comprehensive schools have no selection by ability at all </li></ul><ul><li>This is a very controversial area. Conservatives have traditionally supported selection with grammar schools whereas Labour have preferred a comprehensive system. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2005 ‘specialist’ schools have been allowed to select 10% of their intake based upon an ‘aptitude’ in that subject area. Nower Hill is a specialist arts and science school however we do not select based on these categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection can still take place in school through banding, streaming and setting </li></ul><ul><li>Use p329-332 in Browne to construct a table outlining the main arguments in favour and against selective education. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Academic Selection Arguments In Favour Arguments Against
  6. 6. 1988 onwards: The Marketisation of Education <ul><li>KEY LEGISLATION: 1988 Education Reform Act </li></ul><ul><li>Write a summary of the definition of marketisation from p333 </li></ul><ul><li>Key Features </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces local authority control </li></ul><ul><li>Increases central government input through introduction of a National Curriculum, generalised testing and inspections. </li></ul><ul><li>Further empowers individual school governing bodies, Headteachers and parents and students through choice and competition. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Evaluating the Marketisation of Education <ul><li>Use the prospectus of Thomas Telford School to answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Which companies sponsor the school and might there be any problems presented by this? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the governing body of the school formed? </li></ul><ul><li>Pages 4-5 highlight some of the extra support in place, how might these impact on exam results on p8? </li></ul><ul><li>p12 highlights the careers guidance and support that is available – how might Sociological explanations be relevant here? (eg. Functionalist, Marxist – use specific vocabulary) </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the pros and cons of the admissions policy on p18 </li></ul><ul><li>Use the table on p334 of Browne to summarise whether you feel Thomas Telford School has a positive impact on the local community. (min. 250 words) </li></ul>
  8. 8. The 4 main aims of educational change <ul><li>Economic efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on vocational education – meeting the needs of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Raising educational standards </li></ul><ul><li>Creating equality of opportunity in a meritocratic society. </li></ul>The role of vocational education <ul><li>Focus on 14-18 – improving the skills of the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Work experience in Years 10 & 11 is seen as key preparation (NH has just phased this out, good/bad? Why?) </li></ul><ul><li>More educational courses that are closely related to the world of work, NVQs, BTECs, college courses. </li></ul><ul><li>CLICK: Supporting students to an appropriate path or pushing them out to help results?? </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Product of Marketisation Good/Bad – why? Consider the impact both positive and negative on schools in Harrow
  10. 10. Harrow League Tables 5 GCSEs or equivalent qualifications at A*-C inc. English & Maths 5 GCSEs at A*-C inc. English, Maths, at least Double Award Science, a language, and History or Geography A statistical measure showing how much progress students make on average between the end of KS2 and end of KS4. The national average is 1000
  11. 11. How do the league tables change when we sort by EBacc % or Value Added <ul><li>What is the best way to measure school performance: </li></ul><ul><li>5 A*-C? </li></ul><ul><li>EBacc? </li></ul><ul><li>Value Added? </li></ul><ul><li>Has the development of league tables had a positive effect on: </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of education? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Raising Standards in Education <ul><li>Using p336-339 of Browne, summarise the intention and impact of each change in the organisation of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer at least one criticism for each change. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Market Liberal Perspectives
  14. 14. New Right & Educational Reform <ul><li>Theory often has a big impact on government policy which means that sociologists can have a direct impact on your life. </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret Thatcher (1979-1990) and John Major (1990-1997) supported this approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Using p49/50 of Haralambos summarise each of the 4 types of new right reform that were introduced – particularly looking at policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Education & Economic Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Competition, Choice & Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Testing & Examining </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Content </li></ul><ul><li>THEN: answer the questions below: </li></ul><ul><li>In your opinion, which reform could have the most positive impact on students? </li></ul><ul><li>Which reform do you feel is most beneficial for the economy and wider society? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you witnessed the effects of any of these reforms and how have they impacted on your life and the attitudes/perceptions of your family? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you disagree with the motives behind any of the reforms? </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Ransom (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Policies create an overemphasis on results at the expense of other aspects of education” </li></ul><ul><li>Levin & Belfield (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>“ found in the USA that league tables led to a bigger increase in standards for middle class students thus creating more inequality between working and middle class students” </li></ul><ul><li>Ball, et al (1994) – KEY CRITICISM – LEARN IT! </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on the impact that choice and competition was having on different social groups. They found that the changes had a big impact: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>League tables meant schools wanted to attract more academically able students to boost rankings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming and setting was reintroduced to target resources on those most likely to be successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools wanted to develop a public ‘image’ and created glossy brochures portraying themselves as very academic – eg. Uniform standards, rigour of subjects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in cooperation between schools as they competed with one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THESE FACTORS HAVE CREATED A SHIFT FROM COMPREHENSIVE TO MARKET VALUES IN EDUCATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reforms divided parents into two groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privileged/Skilled Choosers: often middle class and have the time to explore and investigate the best school for their child –even moving house or paying for private education if necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disconnected choosers: often working class and will only consider two closest schools because they may not have a car or easy access to public transport. They may also consider happiness as more important than academic reputation. They are more likely to send children to an under-subscribed school </li></ul></ul>Criticisms of New Right reforms
  16. 16. New Labour & Education EMA was introduced in 2004