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UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF
HONORABLE SIR ARIF
MUTI UR REHMAN KHAN LODHI – 4463
ARSHAD HUSSAIN – 4467
JAVED GULAB – 4453
STUDENTS OF MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
IQRA UNIVERSITY, QUETTA CAMPUS
DATED DECEMBER, 2010
which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by
trusted executives of large public corporations.
Such misdeeds typically involve complex methods
for misusing or misdirecting funds, overstating
revenues, understating expenses, overstating the
value of corporate assets or underreporting the
existence of liabilities.
Sometimes with the cooperation of officials in other
corporations or affiliates.
Top Ten Corporate Frauds!
Enron (USA) – 2001 – Lose of more than $11 billion to shareholders
Worldcom (USA) – Profits inflated by $3.8 Billions
Bank of Credit and Commerce International (UK) - £5.6bn deficit (at closure)
Subprime Mortgage (USA) – 2008 – Merged with JP Bank with $3 Billions
Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities (USA) - $50 billion
American International Group (AIG) (USA) -
Barlow Clowes (United Kingdom) – 1990s - £150m to compensate
Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (USA) – 2006 - fined $400 million
Daewoo Group (South Korea) – 2005- $54.20 Billions
Satyam Computers (India) – 2009 - Rs. 7,100 crores
Inflated its net worth by up to $1.7 billion
Just Ten… No!
Nugan Hand Bank
El Paso Corporation
Bank of Credit and Commerce International
Merck & Co.
Chiquita Brands International
Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC
Anglo Irish Bank
Waste Management, Inc.
We will Discuss…
Overview (1985 – 2000s)
Enron Corporation is an energy trading, natural
gas, and electric utilities company based in
Employed around 21,000 people more than 40
Countries by mid-2001, before it went bankrupt.
Fraudulent accounting techniques allowed it to be
listed as the seventh largest company in the US.
Tactics used by Enron…
From at least 1998 through late 2001, Enron's
executives and senior managers engaged in
wide-ranging (Diversification) schemes to
deceive the investing public about the true
nature and profitability.
By manipulating Enron's publicly reported
financial results (FS) and making false and
misleading public representations.
Tactics used by Enron…
The scheme's objectives were: To produce that reported earnings steadily grew by
approximately 15-20% Per Annum.
To meet or exceed, without fail, the expectations of
investment analysts about Enron's EPS.
To persuade the investing public that Enron's
future profitability would continue to grow.
Quarterly earnings targets were imposed on each
of the company's business units based on EPS
goals and not on true forecasts.
When the budget targets could not be met,
through results from business operations, they
were achieved through the use of fraudulent
The primary purpose was to increase the share
price which increased from $30 per share in 1998
to $80 in 2001 even after a stock split.
The rising stock prices enriched
senior managers in the form of: Salary, Bonuses, Grants of Artificially
Appreciating Stock Options, Restricted
Stock, and Phantom stock, and Prestige
within their professions and communities.
Manipulating reserve accounts to maintain the appearance of
continual earnings, growth and to mask volatility in earnings by
concealing earnings during highly profitable periods and releasing
them for use during less profitable periods.
Concealing losses in individual "business segments" through
fraudulent manipulation of "segment reporting," and deceptive use of
reserved earnings to cover losses in one segment with earnings in
Manufacturing earnings through fraudulent inflation of asset values
and avoiding losses through the use of fraudulent devices designed to
"hedge," or lock-in, inflated asset values.
Structuring of financial transactions using improper accounting
techniques in order to achieve earnings objectives.
CONCEALMENT OF UNCOLLECTIBLE RECEIVABLES
Conceal huge receivables (valued in the hundreds
of millions of dollars), accumulated during the
California energy crisis.
That California public utilities owed to Enron and
believed it would not be collected.
The California utilities were refusing to pay these
amount, and they likely were headed for
Enron concluded that it should book a large
reserve for these unrecoverable receivables.
CONCEALMENT OF EES FAILURES BY
In the first quarter of 2001, new EES managers
discovered and quantified hundreds of
millions of dollars in inflated valuations of EES
contracts that would have to be recorded as
losses. This would wipe out EES's modest
reported profits and reveal it was a badly
mismanaged business that was losing large
amounts of money.
EES “Enron Energy Services”
CONCEALMENT OF EES FAILURES BY
Senior management decided to conceal these EES
losses from investors by offsetting them with
Enron Wholesale trading profits earned in that
As well as Profits improperly reserved in prior
This was accomplished through a "reorganization"
of Enron's business segments that was made
effective for the first quarter of 2001, enabling
Enron to avoid reporting the losses in the EES
Other Tactics used by Enron…
FRAUDULENT VALUATION OF "MERCHANT"
MANIPULATIVE DEVICES USED IN ENRON
and so on…
At the end!
Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, allowing it to reorganise while
protected from creditors.
Enron has sought to salvage its business by spinning off various assets.
Enron's core business, the energy trading arm, has been tied up in a
complex deal with UBS Warburg. The bank has not paid for the trading
unit, but will share some of the profits with Enron.
Centrica, part of the former British Gas, has bought Enron's European
retail arm for £96.4m.
Dynegy, a smaller rival, has won a key pipeline in the US after merger
talks fell through. The pipeline was then resold to Warren Buffet.
Overview (1983 – 2000s)
WorldCom was one of the big success stories of the 1990s. It
was a symbol of aggressive capitalism.
Founded by Bernie Ebbers, one of the most aggressive acquirer
during the US mergers and acquisitions boom of the 1990s.
WorldCom's asset value had soared to $180bn before the US
capital market started witnessing a downtrend.
Admitted in March 2002 that it will have to restate its financial
results to account for: -
Billions of dollars in improper bookkeeping after an internal audit.
Showed transfers of about $3.06 billion for 2001 and $797 million
for the first quarter of 2002.
There transactions were not made in accordance with generally
accepted accounting principles.
In August 2002, An internal audit has revealed an additional $3.3bn
of improperly reported earnings.
Taking the total to more than $7bn, double the level previously
$3.3bn was money from the company's reserves, which was
misrepresented as operating income.
As a result of the discovery, WorldCom said that its financial
statements for the year 2000 will have to be reissued.
Also said it may now write off $50.6bn in intangible assets.
The company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on 22 July.
Chapter 11 is a process that protects it from its creditors while it tries
It became the largest bankruptcy in US history, listing $107bn in
total assets and $41bn in debts.
In May 2003, WorldCom agreed to pay a record amount to the US
MCI (formerly WorldCom), while neither admitting nor denying any
wrongdoing, came to a settlement over its massive accountancy
It will pay $500m to the Securities and Exchange Commission, the
highest fine ever imposed by the regulator.
The original figure of $1.5bn was scaled down as MCI declared itself
bankrupt and so received favorable treatment.
The settlement sorts out the civil lawsuits that have been filed.
But the criminal cases relating primarily to the actions of former
employees at the company are still pending.
Scandal Discovered in March 2002.
Overstated cash flow by booking $3.8 billion in operating
expenses as capital expenses.
Gave founder Bernard Ebbers $400 million in off-the-books
The company found another $3.3 billion in improperly booked
funds, taking the total misstatement to $7.2 billion, and it may
have to take a goodwill charge of $50 billion.
Former CFO Scott Sullivan and ex-controller David Myers
have been arrested and criminally charged.
On 9th March 2005, four foreign banks agreed to pay $428.4
millions for settling the class action law suit by investors
accusing them of hiding risks at WorldCom before its collapse.
Overview (1961 – 2000s)
An Italian dairy and food company and Europe's biggest
Declared bankrupt in late 2003.
36,000 workers around the world and 5,000 Italian dairy
farms dependent on the company.
At the end of 2003, one of the biggest corporate accounting
scandals in history came to light as a 8 billion euro.
In 1999, Parmalat set up a subsidiary in the Cayman Islands
The first indication of financial problems came in early 2003.
As the company tried to sell 500 million euro in bonds.
After this CFO Fausto Tonna resigned in March replaced by
The crisis became public in November as the Parmalat
Questions were raised about transactions with mutual fund
Epicurum, (Another company linked to Parmalat)
Ferraris resigned less than a week later replaced by Luciano
In December, Del Soldato resigned, unable to get cash from
Epicurum fund, needed to pay debts and make bond
Tanzi himself resigned as chairman and CEO.
Parmalat's bank, Bank of America, then released a document
showing 3.95 billion Euros in Bonlat's bank account as a
Minister Silvio Berlusconi initiated a Fraud
investigation and appointed Bondi to administer the
Calisto Tanzi, once a symbol of unlimited success, was
detained hours after the firm was declared officially insolvent
and eventually charged with financial fraud and money
Italians were shocked that such a vast and established empire
could crumble so quickly.
Tanzi reportedly admitted during questioning in prison, that
he diverted funds from Parmalat into Parmatour and
Thanking You For Patience!
Mati ur Rehman
Security Analysis (Specialization-IV)
Masters in Business Administation,