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Kazi Habibur Rahaman 151-23-4231
Muhib Billah 151-23-4182
Md Redoy Chowdhury 153-23-4499
Farhana Zaman Shopnil 153-23-4532
Non-woven fabric is a fabric like material made from staple
fibre (short) and long fibres (continuous long), bonded
together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent
All fiber (Natural, Manmade) always has to achieve some specific
requirements, the fiber choice with the appropriate application of
bonding becomes essential
This can be achieved by comparing the requirements to be met
together with their obtained results from individual fiber
Nonwoven fabric bonding can be defined
Bonding of Spun Laid Web
Mechanical bonding is when the fibers are not altered by either heat or
chemicals and are instead bonded by an alternate method
Hydro-Entanglement bonding (also called spunlace), bonds the fibers by
mechanically intertwining the fibers with water jets. Similar to spunlace
there is also needlepunching/needlefelting which uses needles to intertwine
the fibers as opposed to water jets. Also there is ultrasonic pattern bonding
for use in materials that need to be a bit softer than other nonwovens.
Needles are the heart of the needle-punching process
Needle-punching is a nonwoven process by which the fibres are mechanically
entangled to produce a nonwoven fabric by repeated penetration of barbed
needles through a preformed dry fibrous web.
The machine which accomplishes this process is known as needle loom.
Hydroentanglement, spunlacing, hydraulic entanglement, and water jet
needling are synonymous terms describing the process of mechanically
bonding the fibres in a web by means of high energy water jets.
The machine which accomplishes this is known as hydroentanglement or
Linings and clothes, etc.
Chemical Bonding or sometimes referred to as adhesion bonding methods
involve applying adhesive binders to webs by saturating, coating or spraying,
printing (as in print bonding) or foaming technics.
Print bonding is used when specific patterns are required and where it is
necessary to have the majority of fibers free of binder for functional reasons.
To Provide structural integrity and numerous other properties to achieve
effective performance of nonwoven fabric
Air or water is used to dilute the binder and as a mean to carry the binder to
One advantage of diluting binder with air rather than with water is that
drying is faster and energy cost is reduced remarkably.
Foam is generated mechanically and can be stabilized with a stabilizing agent
to prevent collapse during application.
Foam can be applied so as to remain at the surface or can be made to
penetrate all the way through the fabric cross-section.
Typical spray bonding process.
Here the binder is sprayed onto a moving web in fine droplet form through a
system of nozzles, which can be statically mounted across the machine or
transverse from one side to the other side of the machine. It is used to make
highly porous and bulky products.
This is possible because the substrate does not need to pass between nip
The main advantage of this method is that the nonwoven is not compressed
and the original bulk and structure is retained.
The disadvantages include lack of control of the uniformity of spraying, poor
binder penetration, high level of overspray and waste, and possible lack of
shear stability of the binder.
Hygiene and medical products
The first thermally bonded nonwovens were introduced in the 1942 by REED.
The thermal bonding process also addresses the quality requirements of
new raw materials
higher production speeds
which have made thermal bonding
more economical for both durable
The methods for thermal bonding include the use of a heat sealer
which heats the fibers until they slightly melt together and
is often used in combination with a lower melting point binder fiber.
The second is using a large oven for curing which works basically the same as
the heat sealer except after the fibers are heated they are then left to dry out harden
The final method is calendaring through heated rollers (called spun bond when
combined with spun laid webs), calendars can be smooth faced for an overall bond or
patterned for a softer, more tear resistant bond (see close-up on left).
The formation of a bond during thermal bonding follows in sequence through
three critical steps:
heating the web to partially melt the crystalline region,
repetition of the newly released chain segments across the fibre-fibre interface,
subsequent cooling of the web to re-solidify it and to trap the chain segments that
diffused across the fibre-fibre interface.
Thermal Bonding Types
Through Air Thermal Bonding
Radiant Heat Bonding