3. Negotiation is a process where each party
involved in negotiating tries to gain an
advantage for themselves by the end of
the process. Negotiation is intended to
aim at compromise.
A process in which two or more parties exchange goods and
services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them.
2- KAVITA SINGH:
Negotiation is a process by which two or more parties each
which its own goals & perspectives coordinate areas of interest
through concessions & compromise to reach an agreement and
take the joint decision about areas of common concerns in a
situation in which neither side has nor wants to use power.
5. 3- Rubin and Brown (1975)
Negotiation refers to a process in which individuals work
together to formulate agreements about the issues in
dispute. This process assumes that the parties involved are
willing to communicate and to generate offers, counteroffers, or both. Agreement occurs if and only if the offers
made are accepted by both of the parties.
4- Minton( 2001)
The degree to which the interests of the parties are
aligned can facilitate the range and type of outcomes
available for resolution.
6. 1-DISTRIBUTIVE NEGOTIATION
The most distributive feature is that it operates under a zero sum
game, that the gain made by one person is loss incurred by the
Each person involved in the negotiation defines ultimate point
where the settlement will be made.
The characteristic feature of integrative bargaining is that it relies
in win-win situation and therefore uses a collaborative model of
conflict resolution. Both parties involved in negotiation process
jointly look at the problem, try to search for alternatives and try to
evaluate them and reach a mutually acceptable decision or
7. 1-DISTRIBUTIVE NEGOTIATION
Strategies used in it are
I want it all
Good cop, bad cop
Strategies used in it are
Focus on interests and not position
Separate the people from the problem
Insist on using objective criteria
Invest option for mutual gains
The aim of contract negotiation is firstly to achieve certainty, to record what is
being supplied, when, in what quantities and to what standard, and what are the
consequences of delay or failure to meet the agreed requirements.
The best deal
Seeking clarity does not conflict with the view that negotiations should achieve
the best deal, it merely points out that both parties to a negotiation have to
understand what it is that they have agreed to.
Achievement of an Organization's objectives
The goal of every negotiation must be to achieve a result which, even if it
falls short of the original objective, can be considered a satisfactory
advancement towards it.
Create of a long-term relationship between the parties
Whilst this is not always possible, and some cultures, such as the
Japanese, place more emphasis on this aspect of negotiation, this is
increasingly important as companies build networks of alliance partners.
Negotiation is a dialog intended to resolve disputes
and reach to an agreement
It is the primary method of alternative dispute
Negotiation can also be done to satisfy individual
Negotiations are daily affairs in business, legal
proceedings, government affairs, and other such
11. Negotiation Skills and Role Distribution:
A good negotiating team has members with diverse skills
Behavior Analyzing Skills
Having people with these qualities is a definite
advantage during the process of negotiation.
Depending on their skills, the members are assigned
certain roles and responsibilities in the negotiation
12. There are some roles and responsibilities of
negotiators that can use during negotiation are;
Unity within the team is the most important attribute
the team should understand the subject
Decide which information is needed and which is not in the
Took some points that provide help to other side try to avoid them
prepared with full range of knowledge and expertise
knowing the other side very well
Team leader discus eith other team members such as behavior
analysts, and take their feedback
It is good way to solve internal disputes
Specify what you want
Put forward the solutions
Focus on objectives
Listen carefully and question thoroughly
Seek compromise: get win/win if possible
Remember optimum and fallback positions
Ask for what you want:modify if you need
Don`t concede without exchanging
Decide on areas of possible flexibility
Use stratagies ,tactics and countertactics
Make counter offers
Know when to walk away
20. Distributive Bargaining:
Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of
resources : a win loose situation
Integrative Bargaining :
Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can
create a win win sloution.
22. The role of personality traits in negotiation :
Traits do not appear to have a significantly direct affect
on the outcomes of either bargaining or negotiating
Gender Differences in Negotiations
Women negotiate no differently from men, although men
apparently negotiate slightly better outcomes.
Men and women with similar power bases use the same
Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and their success as
negotiators are less favorable than men’s