• SCOTT “ Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action
to accomplish desired way .”
• “ Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a
desired course of action. ”
• There can be positive motivation and negative motivation.
• Positive motivation such as higher pay, power position etc.
• Negative motivation implies the use of penalties, punishments etc.
2. Coaching, Counseling, Training-
Which is which ?
• Training: Structured process to provide knowledge and teach skills .
• Counseling: Problem solving directed at specific issues affecting
• Coaching: An on going process. Enables learning and development.
3. Expectancy Theory and Motivational Skills
• Based on the premise that the amount of effort people expend
depends on how much reward they expect to get in return. Based on
a rational, economic view of people.
• Basic components: VIE theory - Valence (attractiveness of outcome);
Instrumentality (probability that action will lead to preferred reward
or preference to outcome expectancy); Expectancy (probability
assigned by individual that effort will lead to correct performance of
the task, or effort-to-performance expectancy).
4. Expectancy Theory and Motivational Skills
Effort Expectancy Performance Instrumentality Outcome
5. Leadership Skills and behaviors Associated
with VIE Theory:
• Application of skills or behaviors.
1. Determine levels & kinds of performance needed to achieve organization goals.
2. Make the performance level attainable by individuals being motivated.
3. Train and encourage people.
4. Make explicit the link between rewards and performance.
5. Make sure rewards are large enough.
6. Analyze what factors work in opposition to the effectiveness of the reward.
7. Explain the meaning and implication of second-level outcomes.
8. Understand individual differences in valences.
9. Use Pygmalion effect (communicate confidence in better outcome) to increase
10. Ensure that the system is equitable for everyone.
6. Goal-Setting Theory
Premise: Behavior is regulated by values and goals. A goal is what is to be
accomplished; values create within us a desire to behave in a way that is
consistent with them.
• Specific goals lead to higher performance than do generalized goals.
• Performance generally improves in direct proportion to goal
• For goals to improve performance, the group members must accept
• Goals are more effective when they are used to evaluate
• Goals should be linked to feedback and rewards.
• Group goal setting is as important as individual goal setting.
7. Behavioral Modification
• A system of motivation in which an attempt is made to change behavior by
manipulating reward and punishment. Behavior that leads to a positive
consequence tends to be repeated, and that which leads to negative
consequences tends not to be repeated.
• Positive reinforcement rewards right response by increasing the
probability to performance repetition.
• Avoidance motivation (negative reinforcement) rewarding by taking away
an uncomfortable consequence of their behavior.
• Punishment is presentation of an undesirable consequence.
• Extinction is decreasing the frequency of undesirable behavior by removing
the desirable consequence of such behavior.
8. Behavioral Modification
• Rules for the Use of Behavior Modification:
1. Target the desired behavior
2. Choose an appropriate reward or punishment.
3. Supply ample feedback
4. Do not give everyone the same size reward.
5. Find some constructive behavior to reward.
6. Schedule rewards intermittently.
7. Rewards and punishment should follow the behavior closely in time.
8. Change the reward periodically.
9. Coaching Philosophy, Skills and Techniques
• Leaders who deal directly with people are good coaches. A major purpose of coaching is to
achieve enthusiasm and high performance in a team setting.
• To Coach is to:
• Facilitate accomplishment, in the sense of being less discouraging and moving excessive controls
• Enable others to act and build on their strengths.
• Care enough to invest time in building personal relationship with people.
• A paradigm shift from traditional management which focuses on control, order and compliance.
• Focus on uncovering actions that enable people to contribute more fully and productively.
• A dyad.
• Make team members aware of one another’s skills and how these skills can be contribute to
attaining the group’s goals.
10. Coaching Philosophy, Skills and Techniques
1. Communicate clear expectations to group members.
2. Provide specific feedback.
3. Listen attentively.
4. Help remove obstacles.
5. Give emotional support.
6. Reflect feelings.
7. Reflect content or meaning.
8. Give some constructive advice.
9. Allow for modeling of desired performance or behavior.
10. Gain a commitment to change.
11. Coaching Philosophy, Skills and Techniques
Coaching through Difficult Times
View troubled work associates as people going through difficult times,
rather than as difficult people. Four aspects of coaching relationship
can help a group member through troubled times:
1. Validate – show respect.
2. Inquiry – question to understand the nature of the problem.
3. Possibility – belief of individual’s potential to improve.
4. Responsibility – working with the individual to find a creative