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  2. 2. TITTLE <br />The Impact Of Cooling Media And Hardening Temperature On The Physical Properties Of The Materials.<br />
  3. 3. ABSTRACT<br />The project is carried out to investigate the effect of cooling media (medium) and changes in hardening temperature (quenching) on AISI D2 tool steel. Assessment to be made ​​in this study was to detect and see the forms to determine the microstructure and hardness of the best.<br />
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION<br />The various types of heat-treatment processes (heating and cooling of metals)<br />The usual methods of heat-treating ferrous metals are annealing, normalizing, hardening, and tempering. <br />Successful heat treatment requires close control over all factors affecting the heating and cooling of a metal (proper equipment is available). <br />
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY <br />To study the effect of cooling media in the heat treatment process.<br />To study the influence of hardening temperature on the material hardness in heat treatment process.<br />To study the quench media characteristics in accordance with the distribution of cooling rates in a particular work piece.<br />To study the influence of cooling time on the material hardness in heat treatment process. <br />
  6. 6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY<br />Specimens are AISI D2 tool steel with a diameter of 30 mm and 50 mm length. <br />Specimens will be carburized by using an electric furnace. <br />The quenching temperatures use are 1000, 1020 and 1040 °C.<br />The specimens were cooled in different cooling media such as tap water, brine (salt bath), ice and SAE 40 engine oil. <br />
  7. 7. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />1) AISI D2 alloy steel <br /><ul><li>High-carbon (1.55 %), high-chromium (12 %), molybdenum (0.75 %), vanadium (0.9 %), silicon (0.3 %) and manganese (0.35 %).
  8. 8. Characterized : High wear resistance, high compressive strength, good through-hardening properties, high stability in hardening, and good resistance to tempering-back. (McClaflin and Fatemi , 2004).
  9. 9. Melting point is 2525 ° F (1385 °C) . Yield strength is 111,000 psi [17].</li></li></ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW<br />2) Butler (1942), Once the heating of the ferrite-spheroidized carbide microstructure to the austenitizing temperature in highly alloyed tool steels requires a preheat step to equalize the temperature through a section, thereby preventing distortion or cracking that might occur if the surface and centre sections heat at significantly different rates.<br />
  10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />3) Scott (1941) and Haberling (1981), stated that once the austenite is formed, the alloying elements and carbon partition themselves between the austenite and the carbides according to the requirements of equilibrium at a given temperature. As the carbides dissolve, the austenite becomes rich in carbon and alloying element content at AISI D2 tool steel. <br />
  11. 11. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />Arain (1999), <br /><ul><li>Study the behaviour of AISI D2 and Hl3 tool steels at various austenitizing temperatures, annealed samples of D2 and Hl3 tool steels were heat treated in a vacuum, a controlled atmosphere, and an open atmosphere furnace.
  12. 12. After hardening, relation between hardness, microstructure, and impact toughness.
  13. 13. The samples (1 in x 1 in x 1 in), refer table 1.
  14. 14. Abrasive paper to 600 grit.
  15. 15. The hardness tests provided a measure of D2 and Hl3 tool steel resistance to permanent or plastic deformation after hardening and tempering at various temperatures. </li></li></ul><li>Table 1: Austenitizing temperature, soaking time, and cooling practice used for AISI D2 (Arain, 1999).<br />
  16. 16. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />5) Roberts (1962), <br /><ul><li>Heat treatment AISI D2 (salt bath, with air or oil cooling).
  17. 17. First, quenching from medium temperatures (1080-1100°C) followed by tempering at about 550 °C confers a high hot (Rockwell C) hardness (62 HRC).
  18. 18. The quenching temperature cannot be further increased because of the need to avoid grain coarsening and an excessive austenite stabilization deriving from carbide dissolution.</li></li></ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW<br />6) Tiziani (1985), <br /><ul><li>Heat treatment (vacuum furnace : quenching from 1050, 1075 and 1100°C; austenitization time (17 and 30 min; 0.5 Pa pressure during heating; 102 Pa pressure during austenitization).
  19. 19. Cooling in a nitrogen flow at 5 bar and results of quenching treatments are summarized in table 2 (austenitization time 17 min). </li></ul>Table 2: Results of quenching experiments (Tiziani, 1985).<br />
  20. 20. LITERATURE REVIEW<br />7) Hassan (2003), <br /><ul><li>Has conducted heat treatment commonly used quenchants are water, oil, brine, and synthetic solutions.
  21. 21. Polymer quenchant though can provide severity between those of water and oil has the problem of varying concentration during the quenching process and it is also more expensive.
  22. 22. Brine produces more quenching severity than water; but it also has a problem of corrosive attack on the components and the equipment used for the quenching.</li></li></ul><li>LITERATURE REVIEW<br />8) Etching Technique for Steel [16],<br /><ul><li>Etching with 2 to 3 % nitric acid in alcohol (nital).
  23. 23. Etching time 20 s</li></li></ul><li>RESEARCH METHODOLOGY<br />
  24. 24. Conclusions<br />Experimenter's first goal to understand the process and used to study effects of parameters as they are set at various level. Methods of experimentation using the one-factor-at-a time (OFAT).<br />
  25. 25. PROJECT SCHEDULE<br />
  26. 26. REFERENCES<br />Engineering Steel, Cold Work Tool Steel-AISI D2, TATA STEEL, www.tatasteelnz.com.<br />E. Ameen , "Dimensional Changes of tool steels During Quenching and Tempering," Trans ASM ,28 (1940), P 472.<br />G. M. Butler, "Study of Dimensional and Other Changes in Various Die Steels Due to Heat Treatment," Trans ASM, 30 (1942), P 191.<br />H. Scott, and T. H. Gray, "Dimensional Changes on Hardening High-Chromium Tool Steels," Trans ASM, 29 (1941), P503.<br />Haberling, T. E. W. Tech Berich, (1981), 7, 161. <br />
  27. 27. N. Yamanaka, and K. Kusaka, 'Influence of Vanadium and Molybdenum on the properties of Air-Hardening Die steel Containing 1.5% carbon and 12% chromium," Testu-to-Hagane, 41 (1955), p 673.<br />A. (Ayooq ) Arain, Heat Treatment and Toughness Behaviour of Tool Steels (D2 and H13) for Cutting Blades, National Library of Canada, 395 Wellington Street Ottawa ON KIA ON 4, Canada, (1999).<br />G. A. Roberts, J. C. Hamaker and A. R. Johnson, Tool Steel, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1962.<br />A. Tiziani, A. Molinari, L. Fedrizzi and A. Zambon, 4th Int. Congr. on Heat Treatment of Materials, Berlin, 1985.<br />M.M. Mahasneh, S.M.A. Al-Qawabah and U.F. Al-Qawabeha, Experimental and FEM Investigation of Heat Treatment on the Torsional Aspects of D2 Alloy Steel Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology (2010), 2(6): 552-557.<br />
  28. 28. D. Dasa, A.K. Duttab, K.K. Rayc, Influence of varied cryotreatment on the wear behavior of AISI D2 steel, ScienceDirect , Wear 266 (2009) 297–309.<br />Product Manual, ENCORE METALS, 7470 Vantage Way Tilbury Industrial Park Delta, British Columbia. debrabrunner@encoremetals.com.<br />S. B. Hassan, Hardening Characteristics of Plain Carbon Steel Using Fatty- based oils as quenchants, NSE, Technical Transactions, 38, (2003) 19-29.<br />Material Safety Data Sheet, Castrol Product name Magnatec 10W-40, BP Oil New Zealand Limited , 20 Customs House Quay Wellington 1, New Zealand.<br />http://www.nabertherm.de/ , Electrical furnace (nabertherm)<br />George F. Vander Voort, Metallography Principles And Practice, McGraw-Hill Series in Materials Science and Engineering. (1999).<br />Edition Machinery Handbook, copyrighted and published in 2000 by Industrial Press, Inc. of New York.<br />
  29. 29. Thank You<br />