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Bab 4 Income Statement and Related Information

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Bab 4 Income Statement and Related Information

  1. 1. Income Statement and Related Information Chapter 4 Intermediate Accounting 12th Edition Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield Prepared by Coby Harmon, University of California, Santa Barbara
  2. 2. <ul><li>Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a single-step income statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a multiple-step income statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to report irregular items. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain intraperiod tax allocation. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify where to report earnings per share information. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a retained earnings statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to report other comprehensive income. </li></ul>Learning Objectives
  3. 3. Income Statement <ul><li>Usefulness </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Earnings </li></ul>Format of the Income Statement Reporting Irregular Items Special Reporting Issues <ul><li>Intraperiod tax allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Earnings per share </li></ul><ul><li>Retained earnings statement </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive income </li></ul><ul><li>Discontinued operations </li></ul><ul><li>Extraordinary items </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual gains and losses </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in accounting principles </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Corrections of errors </li></ul>Income Statement and Related Information <ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Single-step </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-step </li></ul><ul><li>Condensed income statements </li></ul>
  4. 4. Income Statement <ul><li>Evaluate past performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting future performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Help assess the risk or uncertainty of achieving future cash flows. </li></ul>Usefulness of the Income Statement LO 1 Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement.
  5. 5. Income Statement <ul><li>Companies omit items that cannot be measured reliably. </li></ul><ul><li>Income is affected by the accounting methods employed. </li></ul><ul><li>Income measurement involves judgment. </li></ul>Limitations of the Income Statement LO 1 Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement.
  6. 6. Income Statement <ul><li>Companies have incentives to manage income to meet or beat Wall Street expectations, so that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the market price of stock increases and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the value of stock options increase. </li></ul></ul>LO 1 Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement. Quality of earnings is reduced if earnings management results in information that is less useful for predicting future earnings and cash flows. Quality of Earnings
  7. 7. Elements of the Income Statement LO 1 Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement. Revenues – Inflows or other enhancements of assets or settlements of its liabilities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations. <ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fee revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dividend revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent revenue </li></ul></ul>Examples of Revenue Accounts
  8. 8. Elements of the Income Statement LO 1 Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement. Expenses – Outflows or other using-up of assets or incurrences of liabilities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations. <ul><ul><li>Cost of goods sold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depreciation expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rent expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salary expense </li></ul></ul>Examples of Expense Accounts
  9. 9. Elements of the Income Statement LO 1 Understand the uses and limitations of an income statement. Gains – Increases in equity (net assets) from peripheral or incidental transactions. Losses - Decreases in equity (net assets) from peripheral or incidental transactions. <ul><li>Gains and losses can result from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sale of investments or plant assets, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>settlement of liabilities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write-offs of assets. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Single-Step Income Statement LO 2 Prepare a single-step income statement. The single-step statement consists of just two groupings: Revenues Expenses Net Income Single- Step No distinction between Operating and Non-operating categories.
  11. 11. Single-Step Income Statement The single-step income statement emphasizes a. the gross profit figure. b. total revenues and total expenses. c. extraordinary items more than it is emphasized in the multiple-step income statement. d. the various components of income from continuing operations. Review LO 2 Prepare a single-step income statement.
  12. 12. Multiple-Step Income Statement <ul><li>Separates operating transactions from nonoperating transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Matches costs and expenses with related revenues. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights certain intermediate components of income that analysts use. </li></ul>LO 3 Prepare a multiple-step income statement. Background
  13. 13. Multiple-Step Income Statement LO 3 Prepare a multiple-step income statement. The presentation divides information into major sections. 1. Operating Section 2. Nonoperating Section 3. Income tax
  14. 14. Multiple-Step Income Statement Review A separation of operating and non operating activities of a company exists in a. both a multiple-step and single-step income statement. b. a multiple-step but not a single-step income statement . c. a single-step but not a multiple-step income statement . d. neither a single-step nor a multiple-step income statement . LO 3 Prepare a multiple-step income statement.
  15. 15. Reporting Irregular Items LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items. Illustration 4-5 Number of Irregular Items Reported in a Recent Year by 600 Large Companies Companies are required to report irregular items in the financial statements so users can determine the long-run earning power of the company.
  16. 16. Reporting Irregular Items <ul><li>Irregular items fall into six categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discontinued operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraordinary items. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual gains and losses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in accounting principle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in estimates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrections of errors. </li></ul></ul>LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  17. 17. Reporting Irregular Items <ul><li>Discontinued Operations occurs when, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) company eliminates the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>results of operations and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cash flows of a component . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there is no significant continuing involvement in that component. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amount reported “net of tax.” </li></ul>LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  18. 18. Reporting Discontinued Operations Exercise: McCarthy Corporation had after tax income from continuing operations of $55,000,000 in 2007. During 2007, it disposed of its restaurant division at a pretax loss of $270,000. Prior to disposal, the division operated at a pretax loss of $450,000 in 2007. Assume a tax rate of 30%. Prepare a partial income statement for McCarthy. Income from continuing operations $55,000,000 Discontinued operations: Loss from operations, net of $135,000 tax 315,000 Loss on disposal, net of $81,000 tax 189,000 Net income $54,496,000 Total loss on discontinued operations 504,000 LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  19. 19. Reporting Discontinued Operations Discontinued Operations are reported after “Income from continuing operations.” Previously labeled as “Net Income”. Moved to LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  20. 20. Reporting Irregular Items <ul><li>Extraordinary items are nonrecurring material items that differ significantly from a company’s typical business activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Extraordinary Item must be both of an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual Nature and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occur Infrequently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Company must consider the environment in which it operates. </li></ul><ul><li>Amount reported “net of tax.” </li></ul>LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  21. 21. Reporting Extraordinary Items Are these items Extraordinary? (a) A large portion of a tobacco manufacturer’s crops are destroyed by a hail storm. Severe damage from hail storms in the locality where the manufacturer grows tobacco is rare. (b) A citrus grower's Florida crop is damaged by frost. (c) A company sells a block of common stock of a publicly traded company. The block of shares, which represents less than 10% of the publicly-held company, is the only security investment the company has ever owned. YES NO YES LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  22. 22. Reporting Extraordinary Items Are these items Extraordinary? (d) A large diversified company sells a block of shares from its portfolio of securities which it has acquired for investment purposes. This is the first sale from its portfolio of securities. (e) An earthquake destroys one of the oil refineries owned by a large multi-national oil company. Earthquakes are rare in this geographical location. (f) A company experiences a material loss in the repurchase of a large bond issue that has been outstanding for 3 years. The company regularly repurchases bonds of this nature. NO YES NO LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  23. 23. Reporting Extraordinary Items Exercise: McCarthy Corporation had after tax income from continuing operations of $55,000,000 in 2007. In addition, it suffered an unusual and infrequent pretax loss of $770,000 from a volcano eruption. The corporation’s tax rate is 30%. Prepare a partial income statement for McCarthy Corporation beginning with income from continuing operations. Income from continuing operations $55,000,000 Extraordinary loss, net of $231,000 tax 539,000 Net income $54,461,000 ($770,000 x 30% = $231,000 tax) LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  24. 24. Reporting Extraordinary Items Extraordinary Items are reported after “Income from continuing operations.” Previously labeled as “Net Income”. Moved to LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  25. 25. Reporting Irregular Items Reporting when both Discontinued Operations and Extraordinary Items are present. Discontinued Operations Extraordinary Item LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  26. 26. Reporting Irregular Items Irregular transactions such as discontinued operations and extraordinary items should be reported separately in a. both a single-step and multiple-step income statement . b. a single-step income statement only . c. a multiple-step income statement only . d. neither a single-step nor a multiple-step income statement . Review LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  27. 27. Reporting Irregular Items <ul><li>Unusual Gains and Losses </li></ul><ul><li>Material items that are unusual or infrequent , but not both , should be reported in a separate section just above “Income from continuing operations before income taxes.” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples can include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write-downs of inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign exchange transaction gains and losses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Board prohibits net-of-tax treatment for these items. </li></ul>LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  28. 28. Reporting Irregular Items <ul><li>Changes in Accounting Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrospective adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative effect adjustment to beginning retained earnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approach preserves comparability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change from FIFO to average cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change from the percentage-of-completion to the completed-contract method </li></ul></ul></ul>LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  29. 29. Reporting Irregular Items <ul><li>Changes in Estimate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounted for in the period of change and future periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not handled retrospectively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not considered errors or extraordinary items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Useful lives and salvage values of depreciable assets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowance for uncollectible receivables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory obsolescence </li></ul></ul></ul>LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Arcadia HS, purchased equipment for $510,000 which was estimated to have a useful life of 10 years with a salvage value of $10,000 at the end of that time. Depreciation has been recorded for 7 years on a straight-line basis. In 2005 (year 8), it is determined that the total estimated life should be 15 years with a salvage value of $5,000 at the end of that time. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the journal entry to correct the prior years’ depreciation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate the depreciation expense for 2005. </li></ul></ul>Change in Estimate Example No Entry Required LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  31. 31. Change in Estimate Example Equipment $510,000 Fixed Assets: Accumulated depreciation 350,000 Net book value (NBV) $160,000 Balance Sheet (Dec. 31, 2004) After 7 years Equipment cost $510,000 Salvage value - 10,000 Depreciable base 500,000 Useful life (original) 10 years Annual depreciation $ 50,000 x 7 years = $350,000 First, establish NBV at date of change in estimate. LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  32. 32. Change in Estimate Example After 7 years Net book value $160,000 Salvage value (new) 5,000 Depreciable base 155,000 Useful life remaining 8 years Annual depreciation $ 19,375 Depreciation Expense calculation for 2005. Depreciation expense 19,375 Accumulated depreciation 19,375 Journal entry for 2005 LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  33. 33. Reporting Irregular Items <ul><li>Corrections of Errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result from: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mathematical mistakes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mistakes in application of accounting principles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oversight or misuse of facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrections treated as prior period adjustments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustment to the beginning balance of retained earnings </li></ul></ul>LO 4 Explain how to report irregular items.
  34. 34. Intraperiod Tax Allocation <ul><li>Relates the income tax expense to the specific items that give rise to the amount of the tax expense. </li></ul><ul><li>Income tax is allocated to the following items: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Income from continuing operations before tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Discontinued operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Extraordinary items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) Changes in accounting principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) Correction of errors </li></ul></ul>LO 5 Explain intraperiod tax allocation.
  35. 35. Example of Intraperiod Tax Allocation Total Tax Allocated $24,000 (135) (61) (231) $23,573 Note: losses reduce the total tax LO 5 Explain intraperiod tax allocation.
  36. 36. Earnings Per Share <ul><li>An important business indicator. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the dollars earned by each share of common stock. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be disclosed on the the income statement. </li></ul>LO 6 Identify where to report earnings per share information. <ul><ul><li>Net income - Preferred dividends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weighted average number of shares outstanding </li></ul>Calculation
  37. 37. Earnings Per Share Brief Exercise 4-8 In 2007, Kirby Puckett Corporation reported net income of $1,200,000. It declared and paid preferred stock dividends of $250,000. During 2007, Puckett had a weighted average of 190,000 common shares outstanding. Compute Puckett’s 2007 earnings per share. - $250,000 $1,200,000 190,000 = $5.00 per share LO 6 Identify where to report earnings per share information. <ul><ul><li>Net income - Preferred dividends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weighted average number of shares outstanding </li></ul>
  38. 38. Retained Earnings Statement LO 7 Prepare a retained earnings statement. Increase <ul><li>Net income </li></ul><ul><li>Change in accounting principle </li></ul><ul><li>Error corrections </li></ul>Decrease <ul><li>Net loss </li></ul><ul><li>Dividends </li></ul><ul><li>Change in accounting principles </li></ul><ul><li>Error corrections </li></ul>Changes in Retained Earnings
  39. 39. Retained Earnings Statement Before issuing the report for the year ended December 31, 2007, you discover a $50,000 error (net of tax) that caused the 2006 inventory to be overstated (overstated inventory caused COGS to be lower and thus net income to be higher in 2006). Would this discovery have any impact on the reporting of the Statement of Retained Earnings for 2007? LO 7 Prepare a retained earnings statement.
  40. 40. Retained Earnings Statement LO 7 Prepare a retained earnings statement.
  41. 41. Retained Earnings Statement <ul><li>Restricted Retained Earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Disclosed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In notes to the financial statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Appropriated Retained Earnings </li></ul></ul>LO 7 Prepare a retained earnings statement.
  42. 42. <ul><li>All changes in equity during a period except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners. </li></ul>Comprehensive Income Other Comprehensive Income <ul><li>Unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation gains and losses on foreign currency. </li></ul><ul><li>Plus others </li></ul>+ Reported in Stockholders’ Equity LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income.
  43. 43. Comprehensive Income Review Gains and losses that bypass net income but affect stockholders' equity are referred to as a. comprehensive income. b. other comprehensive income . c. prior period income . d. unusual gains and losses . LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income.
  44. 44. <ul><li>Three approaches to reporting Comprehensive Income (SFAS No. 130, June 1997): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A second separate income statement; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A combined income statement of comprehensive income; or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As part of the statement of stockholders’ equity </li></ul></ul>Comprehensive Income LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income.
  45. 45. Comprehensive Income Two-Statement Format for Comprehensive Income LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income. Illustration 4-19
  46. 46. Comprehensive Income Combined Income Statement LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income.
  47. 47. Comprehensive Income LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income. Statement of Stockholders’ Equity (most common) Illustration 4-20
  48. 48. Comprehensive Income LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income. Balance Sheet Presentation Illustration 4-21 Regardless of the display format used, the accumulated other comprehensive income of $90,000 is reported in the stockholders’ equity section of the balance sheet.
  49. 49. Comprehensive Income Review The FASB decided that the components of other comprehensive income must be displayed a. in a second separate income statement. b. in a combined income statement of comprehensive income . c. as a part of the statement of stockholders' equity . d. Any of these options is permissible . LO 8 Explain how to report other comprehensive income.
  50. 50. Copyright Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.

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