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abortion ppt

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abortion ppt

  1. 1. HSC321-Legal & Ethical Issues Group # 2 Abortion
  2. 2. If it isnt a baby, then you arent pregnant, so what are you aborting? -Author Unknown
  3. 3. What is Abortion?• Abortion is described as the expulsion of the products of conception before the embryo or fetus is viable. Any interruption of human pregnancy prior to the 28th week of gestation or the delivery of a fetus weighing less than 500 grams is known as abortion.
  4. 4. Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage)• This is defined as the delivery of a nonviable embryo or fetus (the fetus cannot survive) before the 20th week of pregnancy due to fetal or maternal factors.• Recurrent spontaneous abortion- the occurrence of three or more consecutive losses of clinically recognized pregnancies prior to the 20th week of gestation (Immunological reactions, in which maternal antibodies mistake the fetus for foreign tissue, have been implicated in recurrent, or habitual spontaneous abortions).• It is estimated that at least 20% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage (estimates range from 15% to 75%). Most occur in the first two weeks after conception, and in many cases the mother is not aware of the pregnancy.
  5. 5. Therapeutic Abortion• This procedure is performed to preserve the health or life of the mother. It can be induced for medical reasons or an elective decision to end the pregnancy (eg.prevent the birth of a deformed child or a child conceived as a result of rape or incest). Elective (Induced) Abortion• Defined as a procedure intended to terminate a suspected or known intrauterine pregnancy and to produce a nonviable fetus at any gestational age(CDC, 2010), deemed necessary by the woman carrying it and performed at her request.
  6. 6. Methods Of Conducting AbortionsSUCTION (VACUUM ASPIRATION) ABORTION-The cervix is stretched to allowpassage of a hollow suction tubewith a sharp-edged openingsnear its tip into the uterus. -Powerful suction force is thenapplied, allowing the fetus to beripped apart then suctioned out of the uterus into a collectioncontainer.-Most 1st trimester abortions inNorth America and the UnitedKingdom are done in this manner.
  7. 7. DILATATION & EVACUATION (D and E) ABORTION -Used for 2nd trimester abortions, at which point in fetal development the fetal bones become calcified.
  8. 8. SALT POISONING ABORTION-Used after 16 weeks, this technique isemployed often in third world nations becauseof its cost effectiveness and ease ofadministration.-A syringe of a concentrated salt solution isinjected into the amniotic fluid via a long needlethrough the mother‘s abdomen. The fetus thenbreathes and swallows the hyper-salted amnioticfluid. The fetus struggles and sometimes seizesuntil dead within usually one hour. -The mother typically then delivers a dead fetuswithin one to two days. The fetal skin upondelivery, having been chemically burned away,usually presents as a glazed red surface.-This abortion procedure was first developed inNazi concentration camps during WorldWar II.
  9. 9. DILATION and EXTRACTION (D and X); akaPARTIAL BIRTH ABORTIONUsed in well developed 2nd and 3rd trimester pregnancies.
  10. 10. HYSTEROTOMY ABORTION-Used for late term abortions in rareinstances.-Identical to a Caesarian Section deliveryused to deliver a live baby in the presence ofcertain pregnancy/fetal complications, exceptthe objective there is to deliver a dead fetus.-The live fetus is first terminated while still inthe mother‘s womb, such as by cutting of theumbilical cord.-Once the fetus is dead, the fetus is thenphysically lifted out of the mother‘s womb andthe abortion is completed.
  11. 11. PROSTOGLANDIN ABORTIONUsed to abort mid and later term pregnancies. Thehormone is administered to the pregnant woman into theamniotic fluid or by vaginal suppositories. It inducesviolent premature labor contractions, thus expelling thefetus which usually dies in the process of delivery. Drugslethal to the fetus are often injected into the amniotic fluid,to assure fetal death before delivery.INDUCED LABOUR (LIVE BIRTH) ABORTIONPremature delivery of a commonly midterm fetus isinduced via various means, the objective being to deliver apremature baby that is not capable of surviving outside theuterus.When such abortions typically produce the complication oflive birth, the now delivered living baby is provided only―comfort care― - wrapping the infant in a blanket - anddenied all medical and nursing care. Such infants canlinger for hours before dying of ―natural causes.‖
  12. 12. Background History of Abortion• The moral and legal issues raised by the practice of abortion has tested the philosophers, theologians, and statesmen of every age since the dawn of civilization.• The Stoics belief that abortion should be allowed up to the moment of birth was vigorously opposed by the Pythagoreans who believed that the soul was infused into the body at conception and that to abort a fetus would be to commit murder.
  13. 13. • Early Roman law was silent as to abortion; and abortion and infanticide was common in Rome, especially among the upper classes.• Abortion induced by herbs or manipulation was used as a form of birth control in ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome and probably earlier. In the Middle Ages in Western Europe it was generally accepted in the early months of pregnancy.• Opposition by scholars and the growing influence of the Christian religion brought about the first prohibition of abortion during the reign of Severus ( 193-211 A.D.). These laws made abortion a high criminal offense and subjected a woman who violated the provisions to banishment.
  14. 14. • Chinese folklore dates back to 3000 BC where Emperor Shennong prescribed mercury to induce an abortion.• In 2nd & 3rd century, Tertullian (A Christian theologian) described surgical methods for carrying out abortions.• In the eight century Sanskrit text instructed women wishing to induce an abortion to sit over a pot of steam or stewed onions.• However, in the 19th century opinion about abortion changed.
  15. 15. • In 1803, Britain first passed antiabortion laws, which then became stricter throughout the century.• In 1869 the Roman Catholic Church prohibited abortion under any circumstances.• The U.S. followed as individual states began to outlaw abortion. By 1880, most abortions were illegal in the U.S., except those ``necessary to save the life of the woman.‗• However, In the 1950s, about a million illegal abortions a year were performed in the U.S. Poor women and women of colour ran the greatest risks with illegal abortions.
  16. 16. • Techniques used in those days were non-surgical; the most common methods used were either dosing the pregnant woman with a near- fatal amount of poison so that a miscarriage could occur, or letting poison directly into the uterus with one of a variety of ― long needles, hooks, and knives.‖• Attitudes toward abortion became more liberal in the 20th cent. By the 1970s, abortion had been legalized in most European countries and Japan; as well as in the United States, under a 1973 Supreme Court ruling which took precedence over state laws that banned abortion. However, there were restrictions in the legislation for later stage abortions.
  17. 17. Abortion & the Laws of GuyanaPrior to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, theperformance of abortions in Guyana was found to be illegal underthe Criminal Law (Offences) Act.The 1995 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was passed soasTo preserve or enhance both the dignity and the sanctity of ―life‖by decreasing the incidence of induced abortionTo enhance the attainment of ―safe motherhood‖ by theelimination of deaths and complications stemmed from unsafeabortionTo specifically stipulate the circumstances in which a woman isgranted termination of her pregnancy
  18. 18. Definition of Terms Approved Institution- any institution proved by the Minister for the purposes of this act, such as that of a clinic, hospital, maternity home, etc. Authorized Medical Practitioner- any person registered as duly qualified practitioner under the Medical Practitioner Act. Fetus- An unborn human baby which also includes an embryo. Person of Unsound Mind- a person who is suffering from mental derangement.
  19. 19.  Pregnancy- an intra-uterine human pregnancy where the fetus is viable. Termination of Pregnancy- termination of human pregnancy with an intention other than to produce a live birth. Pro-Life -This is defined as the responsibility or obligation of the government to preserve all human life regardless of intent, viability or quality of life concerns. Pro-Choice -This is the belief that women have the right to choose to abort the baby. (A pro-choice view is that a baby does not have the human rights).
  20. 20. Counselling The Act states with regards to counselling, that any female seeking treatment for the termination of her pregnancy must undergo both pre and post abortion counselling. The pregnant woman is also expected to wait for a 48 hour time period after she has made a request for medical termination of pregnancy to facilitate these requirements or regulations.
  21. 21. Laws Regarding A Woman’s Termination of Pregnancy The Act distinctly states four different time periods; all of which carries separate regulations that must be abided or adhered to before termination of the pregnancy can lawfully take place. These time periods include: Termination of pregnancy of NOT more than eight (8) weeks Termination of pregnancy of MORE than eight weeks (8) but NOT more than twelve (12) weeks Termination of pregnancy of MORE than twelve weeks (12) but NOT more than sixteen (16) weeks Termination of pregnancy of MORE than sixteen (16) weeks
  22. 22. Termination of pregnancy of NOT more than eight (8) weeks The treatment for the termination of a pregnancy of not more than eight weeks by the use of any other ―lawful‖ method outside that of surgical procedures must at all times be administered or supervised by a medical practitioner. However, it is not necessary for this termination process to be carried out in an approved institution such as hospitals or clinics.
  23. 23. Termination of pregnancy of MORE thaneight weeks (8) but NOT more than twelve (12) weeks This must also be administered by a medical practitioner or an assistant under the supervision of an authorised medical practitioner. In this case, however it is mandatory that this termination process takes place within an approved institution. Additionally, the treatment regarding the termination of a pregnancy can only be administered if: It is an institution approved for that particular purpose The medical practitioner administering the treatment believes that-the continuance of pregnancy would involve risk to the pregnant woman or may be of grave injury to her physicalor mental health
  24. 24. - there is substantial risk that if the child were born, it would suffer from physical or mental abnormalities and can be seriously handicapped - on account of being a person of ―unsound mind‖, the pregnant woman will not be capable of taking care of the infant Where the pregnant woman reasonably believes that her pregnancy was caused by an act of rape or incest and submits a paper to that effect. Where the pregnant woman is known to be HIV positive. Where there is clear evidence that the pregnancy resulted in spite of the use of a recognized contraceptive method by the pregnant woman or her partner.
  25. 25. Termination of pregnancy of MORE thantwelve weeks (12) but NOT more than sixteen (16) weeks This treatment must also be administered by a medical practitioner and the termination process must take place within an approved institution. Treatment can only be administered if TWO medical practitioners are of the opinion of matters previously listed or specified in the time period ―more than 8 weeks but not less than 12 weeks‖.
  26. 26. Termination of pregnancy of MORE than sixteen (16) weeks The treatment of termination of pregnancy of more than sixteen weeks must be administered by only an authorised medical practitioner in an approved institution. Treatment can only be administered if THREE medical practitioners are of the opinion of matters also previously listed or specified in the time period ―more than 8 weeks but not less than 12 weeks‖.
  27. 27. ConsentThe Act also thoroughly states the circumstances under which consentis required and the restrictions with which a medical practitioner musthave. These include: Written or oral consent must be given from a pregnant woman of sound mind before administering treatment for the termination of her pregnancy. Conversely, in the case of the treatment or termination of a pregnancy of a woman of “unsound mind”, medical practitioner must be given a written or oral consent by her guardian. In the treatment concerning abortion for a child of any age, the medical practitioner should encourage the child to inform her parents /guardians, but is NOT required to obtain any consent from them or even notify them. In relation to a pregnant woman of any marital status, the medical practitioner may encourage the patient to inform her partner, but again is NOT required to obtain this partner‘s consent or even notify them.
  28. 28. Non-liability of a Medical Practitioner No medical practitioner including persons authorised by a medical practitioner is held liable or legally responsible for the treatment and supervision of the termination of a pregnancy once consent has been given. unless of course the actual procedure was conducted in a negligent manner. Non-Application of Particular Provisions Counseling, consent and the number of medical opinions may not be required where the termination of the pregnancy is immediately necessary to save the life of the woman or to prevent permanent injury to her physical or mental health. Under such circumstances any authorised medical practitioner can administer the treatment.
  29. 29.  No person should be held under legal duty to participate in any part of a termination of pregnancy when he is said to hold a conscientious objection. Conscientious objection to participate in the treatment may be discharged by a statement on oath or affirmation to the effect. Nothing should affect the duty of a person to participate in the treatment for termination of a pregnancy where the immediate treatment is necessary to save the life of the patient or prevent grave permanent injury.
  30. 30. Penalties Inadequate Record Keeping Should any individual or approved institution deliberately refuse, incompletely maintain, document misleading information of the patient or completely fails to maintain medical records concerning termination, that person or the owner or manager of that institution will be held responsible or liable and can be fined $20,000 along with 6 months of imprisonment. False Grounds for Abortion Any statement made by a pregnant woman is deemed to be intentionally false or misleading, this patient shall be held liable for this offence and can be fined $7000 fine in addition to 6 months of imprisonment.
  31. 31.  Breach of Confidentiality Should any medical practitioner, approved institution or person employed or working in this institution with lawful access to records and shares this information with any member of the general public or other parties, thereby breaching confidentiality, he or she can be fined $100,000 as well as 1 year of imprisonment. Failure to Comply With Any Provision of this Act Any person who contravenes or fails to comply with any provision of the this Act, for which no penalties has been stated by the Act or Criminal Law (Offences) Act, shall be held liable and can be fined $10, 000 along with 3 months of imprisonment.
  32. 32. Guyana’s Abortion Laws vs. The Morality of Society- Our Findings Number of Persons that Participated In survey35302520 number of Participants1510 5 0 Males Females
  33. 33. Religious Backgrounds Of Participants Number of Participants0 5 10 15 20 25
  34. 34. Graph showing the various age groups interviewed 25 20No. of persons 15 No. of Persons 10 5 0 <18 18-25 25-35 35-45 >45 Age As visible in the graph above, a majority of the persons were between the ages 18- 25 while a minority of persons were below 18 years old. The second most interviewed group was between the ages 35- 45.
  35. 35. Graph showing how the different genders view abortion3025201510 5 0 Pro-life Pro-choice M FThe Graph above shows that 8 males and 17 females view anabortion as pro-life while 10 males and 15 females view anabortion as pro- choice. It can be seen that there is an equaldistribution between the choice of pro-life and pro- choice.
  36. 36. Chart showing religion influence the views of abortion. 2% 42% 56% yes no unsureFrom the above graph it can be seen that 56% of thepeople say that religion influence their views on abortion.The other 42% claimed that religion has no influence ontheir views while another 2% were unsure.
  37. 37. CHART SHOWING RESPONSES TO IF ABORTION IS MURDER 38403530 2625 total persons that respond20 total males that respond15 12 12 total females that respond10 5 6 5 0 yes no
  38. 38. Pie chart showing what are persons views of an abortion 26% Killing a Fetus Killing a clump of tissues Killing a baby 10% 64%The above figure shows a pie chart which displays persons‘ views ofan abortion. 64%, which is the majority of persons, view an abortionas killing a fetus, followed by 26% who view an abortion as killing aclump of tissues. A very small percentage (10%) view an abortion akilling a baby.
  39. 39. Graph showing the various considerations that should be made if Abortion was illegal in Guyana. others 2% foetus examined to be teenage pregnancy abnormal. 21% 20% women who are dependent on drugs/alcohol 16% pregnancy as the result of sexual assault/rape 34% single women 7%As displayed on the graph, Majority of the respondents (34%) consideredthat Pregnancy as a result of sexual assault/rape should be kept forconsideration if abortion was illegal, then followed by Teenagepregnancy (21%). However, a small quantity of the respondents agreed thatsingle women are to be considered in relation to abortion.
  40. 40. CHART SHOWING RESPONSES TO IF ABORTION IS A WOMANS ISSUE 11 total females that respond 21 total males that respond 12 6 23 total persons that respond 27 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 brown= yes pink= noOut of 50 participants, 27 viewed abortion is a woman‘s issue while23 persons disagreed.For males, 6 persons said yes and 12 persons said it is not a woman‘sissue.
  41. 41. CHART SHOWING IF ABORTION IS DANGEROUS60B50 64030 420 44 2 2810 16 0 total persons that respond total males that respond total females that respond Blue- yes red= no• Total persons that responded positive to this question were 44 while 6 persons responded negative.
  42. 42. CHART SHOWING IF THE FETUS SHOULD BE GIVEN PINK= YESGREEN= NO HUMAN RIGHTS PINK- YES GREEN- NO 34 25 16 9 9 7total persons that respond total males that respond total females that respond
  43. 43. Pie chart showing persons opinion as whether abortion should be a free/fee procedure 26% FEE FREE 74%As visible in the pie chart 74% of the populationinterviewed believes that a fee should be paid for anabortion while 26% believes that an abortion must befree of cost.
  44. 44. CHART SHOWING RESPONSES TO WHEN ABORTION SHOULD TAKE PLACE 40 40 30 26 20 14 10 10 4 6 0 total persons that respond total males that respond total females that respondBLUE= BEFORE 4TH MTHPINK=AFTER 4TH MTH BUT BEFORE 6TH MTH
  45. 45. Graph showing who is responsible for the woman death during and after an abortion. 25 22 20 19 15 Respondents. 10 5 5 1 0 0 patient doctor relative counsellor all ResponceAs showed in the graph above majority of the respondents claim thatthe Patients (19) as well as the Doctor (22) are responsible for thedeath, if the woman dies during or after an abortion. 5 ofrespondents also agreed that all of the persons involved during theabortion are responsible.
  47. 47. Countries Worldwide & Abortion Laws Liberalization• Between 1950 and 1985, nearly all industrialized countries-and several others-liberalized their abortion laws. Since 1994, more than 25 countries worldwide have liberalized their abortion laws-while only a handful have tightened legal restrictions on abortion.• Liberal abortion laws do not increase abortion rates The World Health Organization has recognized that "women all over the world are highly likely to have an induced abortion when faced with an unplanned pregnancy - irrespective of legal conditions."
  48. 48. • Countries in the Global North and north Asia generally have the most liberal abortion laws• These countries generally permit abortion either without restriction as to reason or on broad grounds, such as for socioeconomic reasons. However, some countries in these regions, including Poland, Malta, and the Republic of Korea, maintain restrictive abortion laws that run counter to the regional trend.• In contrast, countries in the Global South have generally adopted restrictive abortion laws• Most countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and southern Asia have severe abortion laws. Furthermore, three of the four countries generally considered to prohibit abortion altogether-Chile, El Salvador, and Nicaragua-are located in Latin America.
  49. 49. WORLDWIDE INCIDENCE AND TRENDS• Between 1995 and 2003, the abortion rate (per 1,000 Women aged 15–44) for the world overall dropped from 35 to 29, but remained virtually unchanged, at 28, in 2008.• Since 2003, the number of abortions fell by 600,000 in the developed world but increased by 2.8 million in the developing world.• In 2008, six million abortions were performed in developed countries and 38 million in developing countries.• Globally there is no consensus on the issue of abortion, but in order to prevent the misuse of induced abortions, most countries have created independent abortion laws.
  50. 50. WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION- Declaration on Therapeutic AbortionThis international organization postulates that:-The physician is morally obligated to ―maintain respect forhuman life from beginning to end.‖-Further, the decision to terminate a pregnancy is a ―matter ofindividual conviction and conscience that must be respected.‖-―Where the law allows therapeutic abortion to be performed,the procedure should be performed by a physician competentto do so in premises approved by an appropriate authority.‖-If the physicians convictions do not allow for this, they maywithdraw while ensuring the continuity of medical care by aanother qualified physician.
  51. 51. Abortion by country
  52. 52. RUSSIA• Russia was the first country in the world to legalize abortion, in 1920. The procedure was briefly driven underground, but was lifted in 1953.• A decade later, the practice had become so common that the USSR registered 5.5 million abortions, compared to 2 million live births.• 2006 showed 1.6 million abortions compared to 1.5 million live births -- a dismal figure, especially in a country struggling with a looming demographic crisis.• The most recent law cap abortions at 12 weeks, imposes a waiting period of up to one week from initial consultations and requires women over six weeks pregnant to see the embryo on ultrasound, hear its heartbeat and have counseling to determine how to proceed.• Its abortion rate - 1.3 million, or 73 per 100 births in 2009 - is the worlds highest.
  53. 53. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA• In consultation with their physician, women have a constitutionally protected right to have an abortion in the early stages of pregnancy—that is, before viability upon request—free from government interference.• Abortion has been legal in the USA since 1973, but may be restricted by any of the 56 states to varying degrees.• Approximately 3700 abortions are conducted daily in the United States.
  54. 54. INDIAEnacted in 1971, India‘s abortion laws stipulated the followingconditions to execute an act of abortion:1. A pregnancy may be terminated by a registered medical practitioner where pregnancy does not exceed 12 consultation of two registered practitioners required weeks(between 12-20 weeks) under the belief that- (i) the continuance of pregnancy would involve risk to the life of the pregnant woman or grave injury to her physical or mental health ; or (ii) substantial risk exists that if the child were born, it would suffer from such physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped2. A pregnancy occurring as a result of rape3. Failure of contraceptive device used by a couple
  55. 55. ISRAELA 1977 law ensures a legal abortion to any woman who fills one of four criteria:• She is under 18 or over 40• She is carrying a fetus with a serious mental or physical defect• She claims that the fetus results from forbidden relations such as rape or incest or, in the case of a married woman, that the baby is not her husband‘s• She shows that by continuing the pregnancy, her physical or mental health would be damagedOf the 19,544 cases of abortion granted of the 20,900 submittedthat took place in Israel in 2007, data showed that 55% ofabortions were a result of incest, illegal relations or out-ofwedlock conception.
  56. 56. CHINA• China began trying to control its massive population growth in 1970 and introduced a one-child-per-family policy in 1980. As such has made abortion legal in order to maintain population control. Approximately 13 Million abortions are carried out each year in China.“ Illegal Births and Legal Abortion”• Illegal Birth-The birth of aChild outside the approval of the government.• Legal Abortion- The abortionof a child to comply with theone-child policy.
  57. 57. VENEZUELA In Venezuela abortion is only permitted to save the life of the woman in which case the woman, her husband or her legal representative must present her written consent. The law establishes up to 2 years prison for the woman who aborts while whoever practices the abortion faces up to 30 months prison.CUBA Cuba was the first country to sign and the second to ratify the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Abortion is legal in the country since 1965. The maximum period of time to file for legal abortion is 10 weeks of pregnancy, from then onwards abortion is only legal if the health of the woman is at risk. Abortions practiced outside the public health system are penalized.
  58. 58. RELIGION & ABORTIONCHRISTIANITYChristians believe that life begins at the instant ofconception. Therefore, abortion is murder and isprohibited by the Ten Commandments. (Exodus20:13)The Church today firmly holds that "the first rightof the human person is his life" and that life isassumed to begin at fertilization. The equality ofall human life is fundamental and complete, anydiscrimination is evil.
  59. 59. ISLAMA notable verse from the Qur‘an reads: ―Do not kill yourchildren for fear of poverty: we shall provide sustenancefor them as well as for you. Verily the killing of them isa great sin‖ (17:31).For a woman carrying an illegitimate child from extramarital sex or rape, the consensus is that she should givebirth, however, if the scar of rape is too heavy, then thedecision is hers.However, All schools of Muslim law accept that abortionis permitted only if continuing the pregnancy would putthe mothers life in real danger.
  60. 60. HINDUISMClassical Hindu texts strongly opposed abortion:one compares abortion to the killing of a priest,one considers abortion a greater sin than killingof one‘s parents and another says that a womanwho aborts her child will lose her caste.Unless a mothers health is at risk, traditionalHindu teachings and texts condemn abortionbecause it is thought to violate the religionsteachings of non-violence (Ahisma).
  61. 61. Many people are very, very concerned with thechildren in India, with the children in Africawhere quite a number die, maybe ofmalnutrition, of hunger and so on, but millionsare dying deliberately by the will of the mother.And this is what is the greatest destroyer of peacetoday. Because if a mother can kill her own child -what is left for me to kill you and you kill me --there is nothing between- MOTHERTERESA, Nobel Lecture, Dec 11, 1979
  62. 62. ReferencesAbortion. (2004). Retrieved from: http://www.pjmwh2pt1.lunarpages.com/PPT%20Presentations/NURS%205405%20St udent/4%20-%20Abortion/2004%20PPP%20Abortion.pdfAbortion. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=17774Abortion. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/abortion/article_em.htmAbortion. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.nrlc.org/abortion/facts/abortiontimeline.htmlAbortion. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.feminist.com/resources/ourbodies/abortion.htmlAbortion. (2012). Retrieved from: http://worldabortionlaws.com/about.htmlAbortion. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/unsafe_abortion/induced_abor tion_2012.pdfAbortion internationally. (2012). Retrieved from: http://worldabortionlaws.com/map/
  63. 63. Abortion laws in India. (2011). Retrieved from: lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/abortion-laws-in-india-240.htmlAbortion laws in Israel. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3642871,00.htmlAbortion laws in Israel. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Health/abort1.htmlAbortion laws in Russia. (2007). Retrieved from: http://www.iol.co.za/dailynews/lifestyle/russia-world-s-highest-rate-of-abortions- 1.1176756Abortion laws in Russia. (2007). Retrieved from: http://www.rferl.org/content/Abortion_Remains_Top_Birth_Control_Option_Russia/11 45849.htmlBoland, R. & Katzive, L., (2008) Developments in laws on induced abortion: 1998- 2007, 34(3) International Family Planning Perspectives. pp.110-113Boston Womens Health Book Collective, (1998) Our Bodies, Ourselves for the New CenturyComplete abortion. (2011). Retrieved from:http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/complete+abortionDefinition of abortion. (2012). Retrieved from: http://reference.yourdictionary.com/word- definitions/definition-of-abortion.html
  64. 64. Horrors of abortions. (2012). http://www.jesus-is- savior.com/Evils%20in%20America/Abortion%20is%20Murder/horror_of_abortion.htmMuldoon, M., (1991) The Abortion Debate in the United States and Canada: A Source BookProgramme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development , Cairo, Egypt, Sept. 5-13, 1994, para. 8.25, U.N. Doc A/CONF.171/13/Rev.1 (1995).Rahman, A. et al.,(1998) A Global Review of Laws on Induced Abortion from 1985-1997, 24(2) International Family Planning Perspectives 56, 60Riddle, J.M., (1994) Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the RenaissanceRubin, E.R.(1994). The Abortion Controversy: A Documentary History. Greenwood Press. pp. 3.Recurrent abortion. (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.uptodate.com/contents/definition-and- etiology-of-recurrent-pregnancy-lossSedgh, G. et al.,(2012) Induced Abortiom: incidence and trends worldwide from 1995- 2008, Lancet, (forthcoming).Spontaneous abortion. (2012). Retrieved from: http://miscarriage.about.com/od/pregnancylossbasics/g/threatenedmisc.htmThe Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright© (2004), Columbia University Press. Licensed from Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products N.V. All rights reserved.Theraputic abortion. (2012). Retrieved from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/therapeutic+abortion