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Basic computer fundamentals

  1. Basic Computer Fundamentals
  2. What Is a Computer?  A computer is a programmable machine with two principal characteristics: • Computer.. Latin word.. Compute • Calculation Machine • It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner. •It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).  A computer system includes a computer, peripheral devices, and software
  3. Introductions to Computer A computer has four (4) functions: a. accepts data Input b. processes data Processing c. produces output Output d. stores results Storage
  4.  Input (Data): is the raw information entered into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers, images etc.  Process: is the operation of data as per given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system.  Output: is the processed data given by computer after data processing. Output is also called as Result. We can save these results in the storage devices for the future use.  Storage: is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis. Four Functions:
  5. Elements of A Computer  People: They run and operate the computer.  Procedure: are normally written in manuals of hardware and software manufacturers.  Software: is to do process data into useful information for people.  Hardware: the physical equipment that you can feel and touch.
  6. Elements of A Computer  Data: include texts and numbers, sounds, images, and videos that you input into the computer for processing.  Connectivity: - a computer must be connected to other computers especially through the internet. - using the internet, people can share and access data from all over the world.
  7. Capabilities of Computers  Speed: computer operates on data and commands at incredibly fast speed.  Storage: computer can store enormous amount of data and information in its memory.  Reliability: computers made of modern technology rarely breakdown and when they do, they are easily repaired.  Consistent: if you input the same data into the computer using the same program, it will give you the same result all the time.  Communicate: people can connect with others by the use of computers.
  8. Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics  Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.  Thou shalt not interfere with other peoples computer work.  Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s files.  Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.  Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.  Thou shalt not use or copy software for which you have not paid.  Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorization.  Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual.  Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you write.  Thou shalt use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect.
  9. Disadvantages of using Computers  Safety and Security: people have to be careful in sharing photos and personal information on the computer and internet.  Health Risks: long and improper use of the computer can lead to injuries and hazards to the user.  Environment: old computers must be disposed off properly.
  10. Disadvantages of using Computers  Use of Power: computers need electricity to run. Computers only need a small amount of electric power but with many computers around, this results to high total requirement.  Privacy Violation: personal information when stored in a computer can be viewed and stolen.
  11. Software Software exists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance. - are sets of instructions that tell the computer what to do to fulfill its task.
  12. Kinds of Software  System Software: - are programs that the computer uses. - is a collection of programs which includes the operating system, utilities and drivers. o Operating System: is a program that is basically responsible for the coordination, management and sharing of hardware resources and tasks in the computer. o Utility Software: is a program that performs maintenance tasks for the computer resources, such as clean up and organizing files and programs so they would load and work faster.
  13. Kinds of Software o Device Driver: is a program that allows a particular hardware device to work and with the computer system.  Applications Software: are the programs that people use for their day to day tasks on the computer o Basic application software: includes word processor, spreadsheet, database and presentation software. oSpecialized application software: includes software for graphics, multimedia, audio, video, web designing and many other app. that focus on a certain discipline or profession.