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Improving Historical Writing

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Presentation for Inspiring Reluctant Writers

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Improving Historical Writing

  1. 1. Improving Historical Writing: Inspiring Reluctant Writers Presented By: Ruth Luevanos and Scott Petri November 6, 2015
  2. 2. • Participants will learn ways to scaffold instruction to improve historical writing for reluctant writers including English Language Learners, Special Needs students and Gifted students. • Participants will learn ways to address needs of reluctant writers with various modalities of learning. Objectives
  3. 3. • Word Banks • Sentence Frames-Formulaic Writing • Chunking Assignments • Tableaus for kinesthetic learners • Modeling • Anchor Papers • Graphic Organizers Strategies
  4. 4. • Lack of access to vocabulary (ELL’s, Special Needs) • Fear of spelling, grammar and punctuation • Previous negative experiences with writing (“bloody” corrections) • Multiple step process of writing (Researching, planning, drafting) • No real relationship to writing • Not related to testing Why are students reluctant to write?
  5. 5. • Teacher created word bank • Collaborative word bank (with students) • Create Wordle or Word Cloud • USC-CALIS Four Worlds as Word Bank • https://dornsife.usc.edu/calis/four-worlds- of-history/ Word Banks=Ingredients
  6. 6. • Noun+ Subject = sentence • Ability to differentiate and scaffold instruction for ELL’s, Special Needs and GATE Sentence Frames=Recipe
  7. 7. • Make sure to model use of graphic organizers • Help transition students from graphic organizers to actual writing (Especially ELL and Special Needs) Graphic Organizers
  8. 8. Chunking Assignments •ELL , Special Needs and GATE student who are reluctant writers often feel overwhelmed by writing “an entire essay.” •Chunking the assignment into smaller portions helps scaffold and support instruction for these students. •Students may require more time for written assignments (IEP and resource support). •Checklist grading instead of rubric.
  9. 9. • Effective for kinesthetic/visual learners • Makes real connections to writing • Inspires more attention to details • Multiple perspectives • Use students’ reflections for Word Cloud as springboard Tableau’s to Increase Writing
  10. 10. • Ruth Luevanos • Pacoima Middle School • raluevanos@sbcglobal.net Contact Information
  11. 11. Self Regulated Strategy Development • SRSD is used with English Language Learners (ELLs) and in teaching students with writing deficits. Dr. Steve Graham, Arizona State U Dr. Karen R. Harris, Arizona State U
  12. 12. Steps in SRSD 1. Develop background knowledge 2. Discuss it 3. Model it 4. Memorize it 5. Support it 6. Independent Performance
  13. 13. Self-Regulation Methods • Self-regulating writers develop goal-setting strategies, task-analyzing objectives, and self- reinforcement.
  14. 14. Creating Positive Attitudes Toward Writing 1. establishing an exciting mood 2. encouraging students to take risks 3. Using high interest assignments 4. allowing students to select topics 5. having students arrange their own writing space 6. encouraging peer assistance
  15. 15. Use Writing to Improve Reading Comp (Graham & Hebert, 2010) Social Science researchers generally interpret effect sizes as: (small = .20; medium = .50; and large = .80)
  16. 16. Timeline Transitions • while • immediately • after • later • always • when • soon • whenever • meanwhile • sometimes • in the meantime • during • afterwards • next • following • once • then • at length • so far • this time
  17. 17. MEAL Paragraphs • M – Main Idea: Thesis/Topic Sentence • E – Evidence: Proof found in primary source/book/research • A – Analysis: How the evidence proves the main idea (explanation/rationale) • L – Link: How a paragraph fits in to what the paper is trying to prove.
  18. 18. MEAL PROMPT: Was Operation Overlord a triumph of planning or a lucky break?
  19. 19. MEAL or No MEAL? Main Idea Evidence
  20. 20. MEAL PROMPT: Should WWII island hopping be considered a success or failure?
  21. 21. MEAL Argument Paragraphs Main Idea Evidence Analysis Link
  22. 22. Turn & Talk • What types of short assignments can you create so that your students can practice writing MEAL paragraphs?
  23. 23. RAFT Paragraphs • Role of the writer – helps the writer decide on point of view and voice. • Audience for the piece of writing – reminds the writer that he must communicate ideas to someone else and helps the writer determine content and style. • Format of the material – helps the writer organize ideas and employ the conventions of format, such as letters, interviews, and story problems. • Topic or subject of the piece of writing – helps the writer focus on main ideas.
  24. 24. Sample RAFT Prompts 1. You are a 1950’s Police Officer warning a white church group about the dangers of Juvenile Delinquency. 2. You are a Native American WWII veteran testifying before Congress. Describe how and why the US Gov. should make life better for Native Americans.
  25. 25. During my serving years as a police officer there was a 45 percent rise in crime rates. Why is that? It is due to the juvenile delinquency. (Random white lady) That is insane! Yes Ma’am, about 1 million young people would get into some kind of criminal trouble. You people should keep an eye out for the young ones! Also watch out for your cars! Car thefts have topped the list of juvenile crimes. Also all you people should be alarmed due to the behavior of these young-uns who belonged to gangs and committed muggings, rape, and who knows even murder. (All gasp). Parents listen up to this. Some cultural critics have claimed that young people were rebelling against the hypocrisy and conformity of their parents. Others blame it on the lack of discipline. If you have young ones make sure to keep control of them.
  26. 26. The war is over. I have fulfilled my duty. The government says they want to launch us into mainstream society. I believe the plan is called the termination policy. The word termination means an ending or final point of something. Our population is not going to end. We will not be terminated. Shipping us to Minneapolis, Minnesota will not make life any better for us. The living conditions are miserable. You know that when we come from reservations we go to stay with family that lives in just a two bedroom house with five or six people living in it already, but where else do we have to go. It has also been said that we only have been know to live for 37 years in Minneapolis.
  27. 27. Turn & Talk • How can you use RAFT writing in your class?
  28. 28. Theseare the robo-graders you’relooking for Would you want these two grading your students’ writing? No, of course not
  29. 29.  (http://www.PaperRater.com) Ritchie Per.1 10/18/15 Marie Antoinette Was Marie Antoinette a good or bad queen? To begin with, Marie Antoinette was actually a good queen. Reasons being because she cared about her people, she helped others in need, and also abolished segregated dining spaces in Versailles. Although Marie Antoinette was criticized a lot, she did a pretty good job being a queen;; even though she was only 14 at the start and had very little experience. Marie Antoinette was born on November 2, 1755 in the Hofburg palace. At age 14, Marie Antoinette became queen of France and after being queen, she started caring more about her people instead of just herself. For example, one day, she had her... (only first 800 chars shown) Analysis complete. Our feedback is listed below in printable form. Some of the items have been truncated or removed to provide better print compatibility. Spelling Spelling Suggestions Grammar
  30. 30. Style Usage of Transitional Phrases Transitional Words Score: 117 This score is based on quality of transitional phrases used within your paper. You did equal or better than 96% of the people in your education level. Great job! Your usage of transitional phrases is well above average! You may not need to read the info below, but you're such a meticulous writer that you probably will anyways. One sign of an excellent writer is the use of transitional phrases. Transitional words and phrases (e.g. therefore, consequently, furthermore) contribute to the cohesiveness of a text and allow the sentences to flow smoothly. Without transitional phrases, a text will often seem disorganized and will most likely be difficult to understand. When these special words are used, they provide organization within a text and lead to greater understanding and enjoyment on the part of the reader. These words and phrases fall under a few grammatical categories: •  Conjunctions: but, provided, and, although •  Prepositional phrases: in addition to, in conclusion
  31. 31. Great job! Your usage of transitional phrases is well above average! You may not need to read the info below, but you're such a meticulous writer that you probably will anyways. One sign of an excellent writer is the use of transitional phrases. Transitional words and phrases (e.g. therefore, consequently, furthermore) contribute to the cohesiveness of a text and allow the sentences to flow smoothly. Without transitional phrases, a text will often seem disorganized and will most likely be difficult to understand. When these special words are used, they provide organization within a text and lead to greater understanding and enjoyment on the part of the reader. These words and phrases fall under a few grammatical categories: •  Conjunctions: but, provided, and, although •  Prepositional phrases: in addition to, in conclusion •  Adverbs: also, however, nevertheless   Transitional phrases may be used in various places in a text: •  between paragraphs •  between sentences •  between sentence parts •  within sentence parts   For example, you could write: Form and function are central themes in Biology. However, knowing the structure of something does not necessarily reveal its function. The word 'however' contributes to greater unity or cohesion between sentences. Style
  32. 32. Style Passive Voice Passive Voice Sentences: 33.3% Many writers feel that passive voice represents poor writing form, as it allows the object of an action to be the subject of a sentence. The following sentences were detected as having passive voice: Although Marie Antoinette was criticized a lot, she did a pretty good job ... Marie Antoinette was born on November 2, 1755 in the Hofburg ... She then insisted that the injured man be carried on a stretcher and followed him to ... ... came across a peasant winemaker who was stabbed by a stag during a royal hunt she ... ... peasant child named Armand after he was hit by her carriage. She was dressed and treated the same way her own ... ... children who was an orphan when she was taken in by Marie Antoinette. ... adopted was a young boy who was brought back from Senegal by the Chevalier ... ... Antoinette and King Louis XVI would be executed and History would brand them as ... Helpful Resources: Active vs Passive Voice (http://blog.paperrater.com/2015/05/passive-­voice-­vs-­active-­voice.html)
  33. 33. Style Sentence Beginnings Simple Sentence Starts: 22% Variety is the hallmark of a good writer and this is especially true in regards to sentence starts. Creatively arranging sentence beginnings breaks up the monotony and choppy style associated with a simple noun phrase followed by a verb. This does NOT mean that all sentences should begin with prepositional phrases, transitions, or adverbial phrases, but it does mean that you should be certain to pay attention to sentence starts and deliberately edit for variety if necessary. Here are some simple sentence starts that we found in your text: Reasons being because... Marie Antoinette was born... She gave money... She was dressed... Zoé was also... She lived with... Starts by Part of Speech: Adjective: 0% Adverb: 22% Article: 0% Conjunction: 0% Noun: 11% Preposition: 22% Pronoun: 19% Verb: 7% Marie Antoinette was born... She gave money... She was dressed... Zoé was also... She lived with... Starts by Part of Speech: Adjective: 0% Adverb: 22% Article: 0% Conjunction: 0% Noun: 11% Preposition: 22% Pronoun: 19% Verb: 7% Other: 15% Helpful Resources: Sentence Beginnings -­ your sentences' first impression (http://blog.paperrater.com/2015/06/sentence-­beginnings.html)
  34. 34. Vocabulary Words Usage of Academic Vocabulary Vocabulary Score: 33 This score is based on the quantity and quality of scholarly vocab words found in the text. You did equal or better than 67% of the people in your education level. Vocabulary Word Count: 4 Percentage of Vocab Words: 1.03% Vocab Words in this Paper (a subset): abolished, civil, executed, brand Not bad! Your usage of sophisticated words is above average! Nevertheless, you may still wish to use our Vocab Builder (http://www.PaperRater.com/vocab_builder/index) to take your writing to the next level. Tips
  35. 35. Grade Auto Grader Grade: 85 B NOTE: Our grading algorithm changed on 9/23/2015. More info (http://blog.paperrater.com/2015/09/automated-­essay-­scoring-­updates.html) ...  The grade above is NOT complete! We do not actually use a crystal ball to generate your grade. Instead, this grade takes into account spelling, grammar, word choice, style, vocabulary, and more;; but it does NOT examine the meaning of your words, how your ideas are structured, or how well your arguments are supported. We should also mention that our automated grader doesn't always get things right. So, please consider this grade to be one facet of your paper's overall grade.
  36. 36. Paper Rater Data (N=116) Originality Bad Phrase Transitions Sentences Avg Lngth Apprx Wrds Vocab Words Score 88.88 54.59 45.30 32.96 17.86 568.10 55.16 80.83 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 Originality Bad Phrase Transitions Sentences Avg Lngth Vocab Words Score
  37. 37. Contact: scottmpetri@gmail.com Twitter @scottmpetri www.HistoryRewriter.com Thank You

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