AFS 490 (INDUSTRIAL TRAINING)
B.Sc. (Food Technology)
Semester II, 2015-16
(ID NO. 43831)
Department of Food Science and Technology
GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology
Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand)
The internshipopportunity that I had withParle biscuits Pvt. Ltd. was a great
choice for learning and professional development. I consider myself as avery
lucky individual as I was providedwithan opportunity tobe a part of it. I am
also grateful for having a chance to meet so many wonderful people and
professionals wholedme through this internshipperiod.
I am using this opportunity toexpress my deepest gratitude tothe Executive
HR Sir – Mr. Jagdish Giri Goswami and ProductionManager Sir- Mr. Sanjay
Yadav along withothers, who inspite of being extraordinarily busy withtheir
duties, took time out to hear, guide and keep me on the correct pathand
allowedme to carry out my project at their esteemedorganization.
I perceive this opportunity as abig milestone inmy career development.
Hope to continue cooperationwithall of you in the future.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLES PAGE NO.
COMPANY PROFILE 4
PRODUCT PROFILE 7-8
BISCUIT PRODUCTION PROCESS 9-18
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM 19-20
IMPORTANT TIME & TEMPERATURES 21
WRAPPERQUALITY STANDARDS 22
GENERAL DATA 23
FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS 24
A long time ago, when the BritishruledIndia, a small factory was set up by
Mohanlal Dayal Chauhan in the suburbs of Mumbai city, to manufacture
sweets andtoffees. His dreamwas to make Parle a symbol of quality,
nutrition &great taste. The year was 1929 &the market was dominatedby
famous international brands that were importedfreely. Despite the odds &
unequal competition, Parle products survived&succeededby adhering to
high quality & improvising fromtime to time.
A decade later, in1939 Parle products beganmanufacturing biscuits, in
additionto sweets &toffees. Its 1st
brands include Parle Glucose &Parle
Monaco. Many of the Parle biscuits &confectionariesare market leaders in
their category &have won acclaim at the monde selection.
Apart from factories inMumbai and Bangalore, Parle alsohas factories in
Bahadurgarh, Haryana and Neemrana, Rajasthan. These are the largest
biscuit and confectionery plants inthe country. Additionally, Parle Products
also has 10 manufacturing units and 75 manufacturing units on contract.
As of 2012, it had a 35% dominant share of the Indian biscuit market. Parle G
is the first Indian FMCG brand to cross the 5000-crore mark inretail sales ina
year. Today Parle is a multimilliondollar company.
Latest product are Musst chips (Redchill achar, Classic salty, Sweet &spicy
chatni and Aloochatt) hence enjoys strong imagery andappeal amongst
In SIDCUL Pantnagar plant Parle-G, 20-20 butter cookies&Orange cream
biscuits are manufactured.
Parle biscuits are linkedwithfactors of power and wisdomproviding
nutritionand strength. Parle biscuits are indeedmuchmore than a tea-time
snack, they are consideredby many to be an important part of their daily
food. Parle can treat youwitha bucket of biscuits whichare not only
satisfying but are alsoof good and reliable quality. Parle biscuitscater toall
tastes fromkids to senior citizens. They have found their way into the Indian
heart and homes.
Over 76 years, Parle G has beena part of the lives of every Indian. Fromthe
snow cappedmountains inthe northto the sultry towns inthe south, from
busy cities tolaidback villages, Parle G has nourished, strengthenedand
It is highly nutritious easy todigest canbe preservedfor long time. By varying
the ingredients andflavors it is possible toproduce a variety of biscuits.
About 50% of the total biscuit productioninour country is of glucose biscuits.
It is a highly demandable product.
1). RAW MATERIAL TESTING
The different raw materials are procuratedfrom dealers,stored in a
well-equipped store and tested before their use. The different raw
materials usedare as follows:
SMP - Highly hygroscopic and reactive so it is placed separately from
PARLE FLAVOUR MIX - Maturationtime = 1 month
SUGAR - Receivedin crystalline form,it is groundand then storedin
storage tank for further use.
SALT - Highly acceptable for moisture uptake, so special precautions
are taken to prevent it from moisture uptake.
ETHYL VANILLIN - Storeddry in original unopened containers at
VANILLIN - Storeddry in original unopened containers at controlled
CITRIC ACID(MONOHYDRATE) -Kept away from heat and water.
MAIDA - Is storedin storage tankafter sieving.
FINAMUL-p - Acts as emulsifier.It helps in blending of RBDpalm oil
SODIUM BICARBONATE - Usedas a leavening agent. It requires care
during handling otherwise it may cause allergy in hands, gas
formationin stomachand burning in eyes.
AMMONIUM BICARBONATE - Helps sodain its working.It is also
dangerous because it enters in gas form along with it causes the
misbalancing of body, unconsciousness,headache, burning in eyes or
redness in eyes, skin allergy.To avoidthis same precautions are
requiredas in soda handling.
PROPYLENE GLYCOL - Receivedin liquidform.
ORANGE OIL CONCENTRATES -Usedin cream biscuits as flavoring
SOYA LECITHIN - Usedas emulsifier.
SUNSETYELLOW COLOR - Usedas coloring agent in kreams orange
CONDENSEDMILK FLAVOR - Usedas flavouring essence
SODIUM METABISULFITE - used as preservative
RBD palm oil - (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized)
PACKINGMATERIAL- LDPE, HDPE, Poly olefinshrink film,poly bags,
BOPP tapes and coupons.
INVERTSUGAR SYRUP -Pale coloredsweetener preparedby the acid
hydrolysis / enzymatic hydrolysis ofa solutionof white refined sugar.
Invert syrup contains equal proportions ofthe invert sugars - glucose
The term inverted is derived from the methodof measuring the
concentrationof sugar syrupusing a polarimeter.Plane polarized
light, when passed througha sample pure sucrose solution,is rotated
to the right.As the solutionis convertedto mix. Of sucrose,fructose &
glucose,the amount ofrotationis reduceduntil the directionof
rotationhas changed from right to left.
C12H22O11 + H2O
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
Hydrolysis is achemical reactionin which a molecule breaks down by
the addition of water.
All invertedsugar syrups are created from hydrolyzing sucrose to
glucose and fructose by heating a sucrose solution,then relying on
time alone, with the catalytic properties ofan acidor enzymes used to
speed the reaction.Commercially preparedacidcatalyzedsolutions
are neutralizedwhen the desired level of inversionis reached.
Invert sugar has a lower water activity than that of sucrose,so it
provides more powerful preserving qualities to product that use it.
The shelf life of partial inverts is approximately 6 months,depending
on storage and climatic conditions.
Advantage over sucrose - It has great ability to retain moisture and it
can stay liquid for longer duration.
Other functional properties are -
Keeps food products soft and fresh
Does not crystallize onstorage.
Excellent food preservative
Provides body cohesiveness
Along with all these it provides taste, shine, color to the biscuit, helps
in crust formationand also helps to reduce overall cost,as fructose is
sweeter than sucrose.
Table salt is refined salt,which contains about 97% to 99% sodium
chloride.It usually contains substances that make it free –flowing
such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate.
Table salt has a particle density of2.165 g/cm,and a bulk density of
about 1.154 g / cm3. It improves flavor of the product.
Preserves fooddue to its water binding ability. Also causes food
dehydration by drawing out water from tissues cells.
It is made from skimmedmilk. The powder form is easy in handling.
The compositionis -
MILK FAT (MAX) 1%
MILK PROTEIN 35%
CALORIFIC VALUE - 350 kcal/100gm
It is the main source ofprotein in biscuits.It also provides flavor,
color and nutritionto the product. It has binding action. It is
especially useful for diet preparations or for use by people on low
calorie and high protein diet.
RBD is refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil. It is a light yellow
liquid and semi – solid at room temperature, melting to a clear yellow
liquid on slight heating.
It is used to a short or crumbly texture. It is now known that
shortenings work by inhibiting the formation of long protein strands
in wheat–based dough. This also provides smoothness and tenderness
to the biscuit.
2). MIXING (preparation OF
Process for making dough for Parle G
Finamul-p, water, sugar syrup, salt,ammonium bicarbonate and
sodaare mixed. This is then combined with sugar and flour.
SMP and reworkis also added.
This mixture is then fed into Stefan mixer.
After mixing,dough is ready whose temperature is at 30-33◦
for cream biscuit and 28-32◦
C for Parle -G glucose biscuit.
During mixing in rotator -16◦
C brine solutionis circulatedin to
prevent the blister formationinthe biscuits.
3). Moulding section
After mixing,when the dough has been prepared, its consistency can
be controlledin 3 ways:
1. By addition of water
2. Controlling rotationofrotator
3. Controlling temperature
Prepareddough is fed into the hopper by dough trolley from where it
passes to the dough cushion which pushes the dough to the shutter.
With the help of the dough cutter it is cut into small pieces.It passes
throughthe metal detector to avoid any ferrous and non ferrous
NOTE: Critical limit ofmetal detector:
Non-ferrous (Sulphur): 2.5mm
If any metal is present, then the conveyor belt stops and that amount
of dough passes througha separate metal detector and if no metal is
present, it passes easily on the doughconveyor belt.
All the air present in dough is removedby forcing roll which prevents
the cracking of biscuits.
Nowdough passes to die roll that provides shape to the unbaked
With the help of rubber roll, mouldedunbaked biscuit are transferred
to rotary belt.
The rotationof rubber roll affects the dimension of biscuits.
Nowthe biscuits move to the oven for baking.
It has mainly 3 zones:
The length of puffing zone is around30%, baking zone is 45% and
that of coloring zone is around25% of the lengthof oven.
The oven is divided into 10 zones:
Starting zones i.e. 1-3 are the puffing zone in this the moisture content
of biscuit is reduced.
Baking zones i.e. 4-8 are also known as CCP zone (critical control
point ). In these zone biscuit get baked and enlargeddue to leavening
of CO2 and ammonia. After baking process the moisture content is
reduced to 2-4 %.
Lastly zones i.e. 9-10 impart color to the biscuit.
The temperature profile of oven play important role in the
appearance of biscuit.To avoid the sticking ofbiscuit the wire bound
is preheated. The temperature oftop burners is 10 °C higher than
bottom burners.The temperature of initial zones is kept lowto
prevent hardening and for easy release of ammoniavapors.
Oven has 333 burners. The source of heat used is LPG, it is injected
along with air under high pressure to produce heat. The combustion
process is sparkignition process.The heat producedin this process
transfers to biscuit through all 3 modes of heat transfer: conduction,
convectionand radiation. The temperature of oven is control
according to die RPM.
NOTE: The critical limit temperature ofoven
Critical limit:220 °C - 330 °C
Action limit:230 °C – 320° C
Target limit:240 °C - 310 °C
Exhausts are set which control the heat generationofdifferent zones
of the oven. Exhaust clamps has 0-9 positions.At 1st positionsmall
heat is transferredand at 10th positionwhole heat is releasedfrom
MOISTURE (LCGC Moisture meter)
Target limit:1.6 – 1.8%
5). COOLING SECTION
Natural air cooling is preferredfor the product to avoidthe cracking
of biscuit.Approx 350m long conveyor is used for the cooling purpose,
the temperature ofthe biscuit when it comes out from the oven is
near about 90 °C – 100 °C, which is reduced to 45 °C.
If rapid cooling is allowed,it removes moisture only from the crust;
crumpstill has moisture that may cause rancidity.
Cooling conveyor belt is divided into 3 tiers according to their length:
First tier - 270m
Secondtier - 150m
Third tier - 30m
The conveyor belt is PVC coated cottonbelt. Its width is 60 inches and
thickness is 1.5mm. Tensioning rollers helpin straightening of the
belt. If belt is loose,biscuits are drawn in sides and hopper. The
proper speed of conveyor is essential for the proper cooling ofthe
NOTE: The cooling time shouldbe more than double the baking time.
6). PACKAGING SECTION
When biscuits are properly cooledthey are transferredto the dribble
table after passing to a metal detector.Then, biscuit is transferredon
a woolenconveyor which is usedto avoid breaking of biscuits and to
make proper gripping with biscuit.
Then they pass throughwire brush which separates them and passes
them as single biscuit on the stacker table. The gap betweenwire
brush and stacker table is according to the thickness of baked biscuit.
Various multi pack package machine are available withstacker table.
The length of stacker table is according to the target.Stacker lines are
distributedaccording to the availability ofthe machines.
Stacker lines move to auto feeder, from where they come in in-liner.
Biscuits now move to the wrapping section, where horizontal feeding
and auto wrapping machine helps in covering ofwrapping roll on the
stackvia moving over former box.There are 2 gripping balls and 2
long seal heaters which provide long seal to the packet. Long seal
packets are cross sealedand cut into individual packs by cutter.Now a
complete packet is obtained with proper long seal, cross seal and
gathering. This process is controlledautomatically.
Cream biscuit directly enters in filling sectionfrom the stacker table.
Cream is filledin between 2 biscuits and forms a sandwichmachine.
Then it goes for packing. Cream biscuits wrapping has vertical feeding
auto wrapping machine. Plant consists offully automatic sealing
machine, taping machine and multi pack machine. BOPP is mainly
used as primary packaging material and cardboardused as secondary
Process Flow Diagram
ADDITION OF RAWMATERIALS
The main base component maida, along withother
materials are addedwhich provide various properties.
Raw material is added in fixedquantity.
It brings the temperature of biscuit upto45 °C
Protects the product
SEALING AND TAPING
It is done automatically.
NOTE - AT EVERY STEP THERE AREDIFFERENTPARAMETERS TO CHECK
THAT THE PRODUCT AFTER EACH STEP IS IN RIGHTSHAPE, TEXTURE, SIZE AS
IT IS MENTIONED OR REQUIRED AS PER PARLESTANDARDS.
Die has 384 cups
Ovenhas 333 burners
Unbaked biscuit (16 biscuit) - 91.2 gm
Weight of unbaked biscuit - 5.7gm
Weight of baked biscuit - 4.7gm
Length of biscuit - 55 mm
Widthof biscuit (Parle –G) - 34mm
Widthof biscuit (cream) - 32mm
Height of 16 biscuit (Parle- G) - 114mm
Height of 16 biscuit (cream) - 90mm
FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS
Low product price
Sizeable market share
Variety of products
Deepand effective coverage
Better understanding of consumer needs
Depends on Parle G
Replacement of damaged stock
Packing of biscuits
Fake brands like Parel G and Parle Jee extracting market share.
- Withincreasing cost of raw materials, the price of Parle’s flagship
product should remainthe same incoming future while increasing the
prices of other high endvariants like Hide & Seek, Milanoand
- Highend products can absorb the increasedproductioncost. This will
helpto cater existing market price withoutprice change.
- Dealing withthe weaknesses mentionedabove inan impactful