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Advertising

  1. 1. AdvertisingAdvertising
  2. 2. Advertising is the nonpersonalAdvertising is the nonpersonal communication of informationcommunication of information usually paid for and usuallyusually paid for and usually persuasive in nature aboutpersuasive in nature about products, services or ideas byproducts, services or ideas by identified sponsors through theidentified sponsors through the various media.various media. Bovee/Arens, 1992Bovee/Arens, 1992
  3. 3. Advertising is theAdvertising is the nonpersonalnonpersonal communication of informationcommunication of information usually paid for and usuallyusually paid for and usually persuasive in nature aboutpersuasive in nature about products, services or ideas byproducts, services or ideas by identified sponsors throughidentified sponsors through the various media.the various media.
  4. 4. Two kinds of sellingTwo kinds of selling  PersonalPersonal  Plenty of time toPlenty of time to deliver the messagedeliver the message  Done face to faceDone face to face  Message can beMessage can be adjusted to fit howadjusted to fit how it’s getting acrossit’s getting across  Easy to findEasy to find customerscustomers  Expensive in bothExpensive in both time and moneytime and money  Labor-intensiveLabor-intensive  Time consumingTime consuming
  5. 5. Non-PersonalNon-Personal  Limited in time and/orLimited in time and/or spacespace  Don’t know who theDon’t know who the customer iscustomer is  Don’t know how theDon’t know how the customer is reactingcustomer is reacting  Can’t change theCan’t change the message in mid-streammessage in mid-stream  Message doesn’t have toMessage doesn’t have to be created on the spotbe created on the spot  Extensive researchExtensive research  Far cheaper thanFar cheaper than personal sellingpersonal selling
  6. 6. Advertising is the nonpersonalAdvertising is the nonpersonal communicationcommunication of informationof information usually paid for and usuallyusually paid for and usually persuasive in nature aboutpersuasive in nature about products, services or ideas byproducts, services or ideas by identified sponsors throughidentified sponsors through the various media.the various media.
  7. 7. The SensesThe Senses  SmellSmell  TouchTouch  TasteTaste  SoundSound  SightSight
  8. 8. Advertising is the nonpersonalAdvertising is the nonpersonal communicationcommunication of informationof information usually paid for and usuallyusually paid for and usually persuasive in nature aboutpersuasive in nature about products, services or ideas byproducts, services or ideas by identified sponsors throughidentified sponsors through the various media.the various media.
  9. 9. Affirmative disclosureAffirmative disclosure  "Sometimes the consumer is provided not with"Sometimes the consumer is provided not with information he wants but only with theinformation he wants but only with the information the seller wants him to have. Sellers,information the seller wants him to have. Sellers, for instance, are not inclined to advertisefor instance, are not inclined to advertise negative aspects of their products even thoughnegative aspects of their products even though those aspects may be of primary concern to thethose aspects may be of primary concern to the consumer, particularly if they involveconsumer, particularly if they involve considerations of health or safety . . . "considerations of health or safety . . . " Lewis A. Engman, FTC ChairLewis A. Engman, FTC Chair
  10. 10. PufferyPuffery  The legitimate exaggeration ofThe legitimate exaggeration of advertising claims to overcome naturaladvertising claims to overcome natural consumer skepticismconsumer skepticism
  11. 11. Advertising is the nonpersonalAdvertising is the nonpersonal communication of informationcommunication of information usually paid forusually paid for and usuallyand usually persuasive in nature aboutpersuasive in nature about products, services or ideas byproducts, services or ideas by identified sponsors throughidentified sponsors through the various media.the various media.
  12. 12. Advertising is the nonpersonalAdvertising is the nonpersonal communication of informationcommunication of information usually paid for andusually paid for and usuallyusually persuasive in naturepersuasive in nature aboutabout products, services or ideas byproducts, services or ideas by identified sponsors throughidentified sponsors through the various media.the various media.
  13. 13. Advertising is the nonpersonalAdvertising is the nonpersonal communication of informationcommunication of information usually paid for and usuallyusually paid for and usually persuasive in naturepersuasive in nature aboutabout products, services or ideasproducts, services or ideas byby identified sponsors throughidentified sponsors through the various media.the various media.
  14. 14. The bundle of valuesThe bundle of values  Functional valueFunctional value  Social valueSocial value  Psychological valuePsychological value  Economic valueEconomic value  Whatever else the consumer thinks isWhatever else the consumer thinks is importantimportant
  15. 15. Three ways to differentiate productsThree ways to differentiate products  PerceptiblePerceptible  Actual differencesActual differences  Easily seenEasily seen  ImperceptibleImperceptible  Actual differencesActual differences  Can’t be seenCan’t be seen  InducedInduced  No actual differencesNo actual differences  Parity productsParity products
  16. 16. Advertising is the nonpersonalAdvertising is the nonpersonal communication of informationcommunication of information usually paid for and usuallyusually paid for and usually persuasive in nature aboutpersuasive in nature about products, services or ideasproducts, services or ideas byby identified sponsorsidentified sponsors throughthrough the various media.the various media.
  17. 17. Advertising is the nonpersonalAdvertising is the nonpersonal communication of information,communication of information, usually paid for and usuallyusually paid for and usually persuasive in nature aboutpersuasive in nature about products, services or ideas byproducts, services or ideas by identified sponsorsidentified sponsors through thethrough the various mediavarious media
  18. 18.  Has been around for aHas been around for a long timelong time  We still don’t know whatWe still don’t know what the Lascoux paintingsthe Lascoux paintings were forwere for
  19. 19. For the first few thousandFor the first few thousand years advertisingyears advertising promoted locations,promoted locations, services and “want ads”.services and “want ads”.
  20. 20. Ad written on a Roman tombAd written on a Roman tomb  Weather permitting, 30 pairs of gladiators,Weather permitting, 30 pairs of gladiators, furnished by A. Clodius Flaccus, together withfurnished by A. Clodius Flaccus, together with substitutes in case any get killed too quickly, willsubstitutes in case any get killed too quickly, will fight May 1fight May 1stst , 2, 2ndnd , and 3, and 3rdrd at the Circus Maximus.at the Circus Maximus. The fights will be followed by a big wild beastThe fights will be followed by a big wild beast hunt. The famous gladiator Paris will fight.hunt. The famous gladiator Paris will fight. Hurrah for Paris! Hurrah for the generousHurrah for Paris! Hurrah for the generous Flaccus, who is running for Duumvirate.Flaccus, who is running for Duumvirate.
  21. 21. Under the ad was written:Under the ad was written: Marcus wrote this sign by the light of the moon.Marcus wrote this sign by the light of the moon. If you hire Marcus, he’ll work day and night toIf you hire Marcus, he’ll work day and night to do a good job.do a good job. Daniel Mannix,Daniel Mannix, Those About to DieThose About to Die
  22. 22. LocationLocation
  23. 23. Handbills and fliers to promoteHandbills and fliers to promote events or to recruit for theevents or to recruit for the militarymilitary
  24. 24. Handbill recruitingHandbill recruiting sailors forsailors for USS ConstitutionUSS Constitution 17981798
  25. 25. Ad about runaway slave - 1770Ad about runaway slave - 1770
  26. 26. Since most products such asSince most products such as shoes and clothing were one-ofshoes and clothing were one-of and made to order you onlyand made to order you only needed to advertise where toneeded to advertise where to orderorder
  27. 27. ServiceService
  28. 28. Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution  Early 19Early 19thth CenturyCentury  Mass production of productsMass production of products  Led to three stages of marketing:Led to three stages of marketing:
  29. 29. Production-orientedProduction-oriented  Demand far outstripped supplyDemand far outstripped supply  Could just advertise the existence of the productCould just advertise the existence of the product and where to get itand where to get it  Whatever was made was soldWhatever was made was sold  Example: People wanted cars, so car companiesExample: People wanted cars, so car companies made whatever they wanted and the cars weremade whatever they wanted and the cars were sold before they were builtsold before they were built
  30. 30. Sales-orientedSales-oriented  Supply exceeded demandSupply exceeded demand  Companies tried to convince consumers to buyCompanies tried to convince consumers to buy their products rather than their competitors’their products rather than their competitors’  Companies still made whatever they wanted,Companies still made whatever they wanted, counting on their ability to peddle their productscounting on their ability to peddle their products  Example: supply of cars went up, so theExample: supply of cars went up, so the companies made whatever they wanted andcompanies made whatever they wanted and convinced people they wanted thatconvinced people they wanted that
  31. 31. Marketing-orientedMarketing-oriented  Supply of products far exceeded demandSupply of products far exceeded demand  More choices than any promotion could overcomeMore choices than any promotion could overcome  Resistance to “hard-sell”Resistance to “hard-sell”  Companies tried to discover what productsCompanies tried to discover what products consumers wantedconsumers wanted beforebefore making them, thenmaking them, then advertise they had itadvertise they had it  Non-American companies (e.g., VW) found outNon-American companies (e.g., VW) found out what people wanted, then built cars that had itwhat people wanted, then built cars that had it (e.g., a gas gauge)(e.g., a gas gauge)
  32. 32. Let’s take a exampleLet’s take a example The American autoThe American auto industryindustry
  33. 33. Production-orientedProduction-oriented
  34. 34. Sales-orientedSales-oriented
  35. 35. Marketing-orientedMarketing-oriented
  36. 36.  Early sales-oriented ads were basically “caveatEarly sales-oriented ads were basically “caveat emptor” (let the buyer beware)emptor” (let the buyer beware)  Producers said whatever they wanted and thoughtProducers said whatever they wanted and thought they could get away withthey could get away with  For example, the “Health Jolting Chair”For example, the “Health Jolting Chair”
  37. 37.  Led to consumer and competitor angerLed to consumer and competitor anger  1938 – Federal Trade Commission given power1938 – Federal Trade Commission given power to regulate deceptive and unfair advertisingto regulate deceptive and unfair advertising  Advertising could no longer lie, so newAdvertising could no longer lie, so new approaches were triedapproaches were tried
  38. 38. 40s and 50s40s and 50s  Era of the hard-sellEra of the hard-sell  Rosser Reeves “irritation school of advertising”Rosser Reeves “irritation school of advertising”  Relied on brain-numbing repetition and treating theRelied on brain-numbing repetition and treating the consumer as an idiotconsumer as an idiot  The USP – Unique Selling PropositionThe USP – Unique Selling Proposition  It was jack-hammered into consumers’ skullsIt was jack-hammered into consumers’ skulls
  39. 39. A Reeves adA Reeves ad
  40. 40. 60s60s  The positioning eraThe positioning era  Shift to the soft-sellShift to the soft-sell  Compare yourCompare your product to yourproduct to your competitors’competitors’  Treat consumers asTreat consumers as intelligentintelligent  Appeal to emotionAppeal to emotion more than intellectmore than intellect
  41. 41. General comments on adsGeneral comments on ads  Advertising is limited in time and/or spaceAdvertising is limited in time and/or space  Breaks the rules of grammar and syntaxBreaks the rules of grammar and syntax  Ads contain two elementsAds contain two elements  CopyCopy  illustrationsillustrations
  42. 42. Two basic ways of presenting aTwo basic ways of presenting a sales messagesales message  IntellectuallyIntellectually  Usually about the product’s functionUsually about the product’s function  Usually copy heavy and line drawingsUsually copy heavy and line drawings  EmotionallyEmotionally  Usually not about the product’s functionUsually not about the product’s function  Usually copy is light with high connotative contentUsually copy is light with high connotative content  Uses photographs or videoUses photographs or video
  43. 43.  Advertising aims at consumers’Advertising aims at consumers’ subconscious minds much more thansubconscious minds much more than their conscious mindstheir conscious minds  It’s all about getting the consumer toIt’s all about getting the consumer to react on a basic, instinctive level, andreact on a basic, instinctive level, and not think at allnot think at all  It’s about “act now” on your basicIt’s about “act now” on your basic desires – think only of yourselfdesires – think only of yourself  It’s usually selfish and anti-socialIt’s usually selfish and anti-social
  44. 44. Psychological AppealsPsychological Appeals  Self-preservationSelf-preservation  SexSex  GreedGreed  Self-esteemSelf-esteem  PersonalPersonal enjoymentenjoyment  ConstructivenessConstructiveness  DestructivenessDestructiveness  CuriosityCuriosity  ImitationImitation  AltruismAltruism
  45. 45. Self-preservationSelf-preservation  ““Listen to me, I’llListen to me, I’ll keep you alive”keep you alive”  Because humansBecause humans are so social, weare so social, we extend the appeal toextend the appeal to others, like family,others, like family, friends, and socialfriends, and social groupgroup
  46. 46. Sex AppealSex Appeal  ““Listen to me, I’ll get you laid”Listen to me, I’ll get you laid”  Gender linked because of different goals:Gender linked because of different goals:  For men it’s sex with ease and no complicationsFor men it’s sex with ease and no complications  In other words, attract more women that want toIn other words, attract more women that want to have sex with youhave sex with you  For women it’s attract more men from which toFor women it’s attract more men from which to choosechoose  Select the best among the possible choices, and theSelect the best among the possible choices, and the greater the selection, the better the choicegreater the selection, the better the choice
  47. 47. Sex AppealSex Appeal  Male and female animals have different sexualMale and female animals have different sexual strategies based on the cost of sexstrategies based on the cost of sex  Males are promiscuous because the cost is veryMales are promiscuous because the cost is very lowlow  A little time, a little energy, then move onA little time, a little energy, then move on  Criteria are simple – she has to be there, breathing,Criteria are simple – she has to be there, breathing, and impregnableand impregnable  Females are picky because the cost is so highFemales are picky because the cost is so high  Lots of time, lots of energyLots of time, lots of energy  Must select the best possible male, not the nearestMust select the best possible male, not the nearest  Criteria can be complexCriteria can be complex
  48. 48.  Non-humans are concerned with geneticsNon-humans are concerned with genetics  Males want, on an instinctive level, to have asMales want, on an instinctive level, to have as many offspring as possible to ensure geneticmany offspring as possible to ensure genetic successsuccess  Females, because of the cost of reproduction, onFemales, because of the cost of reproduction, on an instinctive level want the best genes in theiran instinctive level want the best genes in their malemale  Males compete with other males, usuallyMales compete with other males, usually physically, to demonstrate they’re the bestphysically, to demonstrate they’re the best choicechoice  Females select the winner because he’s shownFemales select the winner because he’s shown he’s better than the other maleshe’s better than the other males
  49. 49.  For most animals, it is the female that deals withFor most animals, it is the female that deals with raising offspring (a major part of the cost of sex)raising offspring (a major part of the cost of sex)  The male has no place in rearing offspring (she’llThe male has no place in rearing offspring (she’ll even drive him away)even drive him away)  The major exception is birdsThe major exception is birds  Even there, the female will often select one maleEven there, the female will often select one male as the father, and another male to help her raiseas the father, and another male to help her raise the chicksthe chicks
  50. 50. Sex appeal in humansSex appeal in humans  Humans have the most complex social life onHumans have the most complex social life on EarthEarth  Instinctive criteria for men are the same as forInstinctive criteria for men are the same as for any other male animal – she’s thereany other male animal – she’s there  Criteria for women is far more complex:Criteria for women is far more complex:  Not just genetically, but socially:Not just genetically, but socially:  Be a good father – help with raising childrenBe a good father – help with raising children  be a good provider – have money, social connections,be a good provider – have money, social connections, etc.etc.
  51. 51. Sex appeal for menSex appeal for men  Buy the product, getBuy the product, get the womanthe woman  Think of all those AxeThink of all those Axe commercialscommercials
  52. 52. Sex appeal for womenSex appeal for women For most female animals,For most female animals, genetic quality is thegenetic quality is the most importantmost important  For women, it’s a goodFor women, it’s a good providerprovider  The ad shows he hasThe ad shows he has money, cares about hermoney, cares about her as an individual, andas an individual, and will stick aroundwill stick around  It’s called “romance”It’s called “romance”
  53. 53. The use of sex appeal inThe use of sex appeal in advertising may appear sexist.advertising may appear sexist. That’s because it is – on a socialThat’s because it is – on a social level. But sex in advertising aimslevel. But sex in advertising aims at instinct, and society isat instinct, and society is conscious, not subconscious.conscious, not subconscious.
  54. 54. Advertising often appeals to oneAdvertising often appeals to one gender at the social expense ofgender at the social expense of the other.the other.
  55. 55. GreedGreed  ““Listen to me, I’llListen to me, I’ll make you rich”make you rich”  Human social lifeHuman social life requires havingrequires having resources, usuallyresources, usually represented by moneyrepresented by money  Instinctively, “greed isInstinctively, “greed is good”good”
  56. 56. Self-esteemSelf-esteem  Requires a social groupRequires a social group  Requires the individual to be able to make aRequires the individual to be able to make a comparison with other individuals in the groupcomparison with other individuals in the group  Thus, requires a sense of self as a separate entityThus, requires a sense of self as a separate entity from othersfrom others
  57. 57. Self-esteemSelf-esteem  Again, there’s an instinctive gender linkAgain, there’s an instinctive gender link  For men, it’s competitiveFor men, it’s competitive  Demonstrate he’s the best male aroundDemonstrate he’s the best male around  Self-esteem comes from a sense of superioritySelf-esteem comes from a sense of superiority  For women, it’s cooperativeFor women, it’s cooperative  Make and maintain as many connections as possibleMake and maintain as many connections as possible  Self-esteem comes from a sense of connectionSelf-esteem comes from a sense of connection
  58. 58. Self-esteem for menSelf-esteem for men  Demonstration ofDemonstration of superioritysuperiority  Buy the product, beBuy the product, be the superior manthe superior man  Often shows a “loser”Often shows a “loser” beating a “winner”beating a “winner” because the loser buysbecause the loser buys the productthe product
  59. 59. Self-esteem for womenSelf-esteem for women  The product increasesThe product increases the number andthe number and quality of connectionsquality of connections with otherswith others
  60. 60. Personal EnjoymentPersonal Enjoyment  ““Listen to me, you’llListen to me, you’ll have more fun”have more fun”  Humans, because ofHumans, because of their intelligence, aretheir intelligence, are often easily bored byoften easily bored by routineroutine  The ad promotes gettingThe ad promotes getting out of the routineout of the routine  In other words, have funIn other words, have fun
  61. 61. ConstructivenessConstructiveness  ““Listen to me, I’ll helpListen to me, I’ll help you improve things”you improve things”  A desire to build andA desire to build and improve on whateverimprove on whatever you haveyou have
  62. 62. DestructivenessDestructiveness  ““Listen to me, I’ll tell youListen to me, I’ll tell you how to destroy things”how to destroy things”  We all have a desire toWe all have a desire to occasionally blow thingsoccasionally blow things upup  Just watch “TheJust watch “The Mythbusters”Mythbusters”  There does seem to be aThere does seem to be a gender link – men seem togender link – men seem to like it more than womenlike it more than women
  63. 63. CuriosityCuriosity  ““Listen to me, I’ll answerListen to me, I’ll answer your questions”your questions”  We all want answers toWe all want answers to things – it’s a survivalthings – it’s a survival characteristiccharacteristic  The problem is raisingThe problem is raising that curiosity – if thethat curiosity – if the person doesn’t careperson doesn’t care about the answer, it’s aabout the answer, it’s a useless appealuseless appeal
  64. 64. ImitationImitation  ““Listen to me, I’ll makeListen to me, I’ll make you just like someoneyou just like someone else”else”  Requires the person toRequires the person to wantwant to be like theto be like the modelmodel  Almost always linked toAlmost always linked to one or the top fiveone or the top five appealsappeals
  65. 65. AltruismAltruism  ““Listen to me, you’ll giveListen to me, you’ll give of yourself with no hopeof yourself with no hope or expectation of return”or expectation of return”  Doesn’t exist as an idealDoesn’t exist as an ideal  Reciprocal altruism doesReciprocal altruism does existexist  I’ll do for you now, youI’ll do for you now, you do for me laterdo for me later  Linked to top fiveLinked to top five
  66. 66. Tricks of the TradeTricks of the Trade  Advertising often uses logical fallacies ratherAdvertising often uses logical fallacies rather than giving logical reasons to buy the productthan giving logical reasons to buy the product advertised.advertised.  You think the ad is saying one thing when it factYou think the ad is saying one thing when it fact it’s saying something else, or saying nothing atit’s saying something else, or saying nothing at allall
  67. 67. Black/WhiteBlack/White  ““You want it [whatever itYou want it [whatever it is], you can only get itis], you can only get it from us.”from us.”  It leaves out any otherIt leaves out any other options, e.g., “love it oroptions, e.g., “love it or leave it.”leave it.”
  68. 68. Buzz WordsBuzz Words  Words that seem to sayWords that seem to say something, but what?something, but what?  ““Crisp”Crisp”  ““Natural”Natural”  ““Organic”Organic”
  69. 69. Weasel WordsWeasel Words  Words tossed into a sentence that changes theWords tossed into a sentence that changes the meaning while leaving an impression that’smeaning while leaving an impression that’s differentdifferent  Examples:Examples:
  70. 70. ““Our [canned] corn is as good asOur [canned] corn is as good as fresh cooked corn.”fresh cooked corn.” Libby’s VegetablesLibby’s Vegetables  Note it doesn’t say it’s as good as fresh corn, butNote it doesn’t say it’s as good as fresh corn, but as good as freshas good as fresh cookedcooked corn.corn.  Cooked corn has had vitamins and mineralsCooked corn has had vitamins and minerals boiled out in the cooking process.boiled out in the cooking process.  And now you have to heat the corn again, whichAnd now you have to heat the corn again, which takes out even more nutrients.takes out even more nutrients.  The weasel is “cooked”The weasel is “cooked”
  71. 71. ““Our dog food contains as muchOur dog food contains as much meat protein as 10 pounds of sirloinmeat protein as 10 pounds of sirloin steak.steak. Alpo dog foodAlpo dog food  Targets people who love their dogsTargets people who love their dogs  Doesn’t contain sirloin steak, only as much meatDoesn’t contain sirloin steak, only as much meat protein as sirloin steakprotein as sirloin steak  That could be any kind of meat – it’s sure not sirloin,That could be any kind of meat – it’s sure not sirloin, and may not even come from a cowand may not even come from a cow
  72. 72. Three out of four doctorsThree out of four doctors recommend the major ingredientrecommend the major ingredient in Excedrin.in Excedrin.
  73. 73.  ““Some studies seem to suggest thatSome studies seem to suggest that eating the major ingredient in oureating the major ingredient in our cereal may have an effect on certaincereal may have an effect on certain kinds of cancer.”kinds of cancer.”
  74. 74. ““If . . .”If . . .” The ultimate weasel wordThe ultimate weasel word
  75. 75. Begging the QuestionBegging the Question  The question contains a statement that has notThe question contains a statement that has not been and is never proven, basically saying thatbeen and is never proven, basically saying that something is simply because it is.something is simply because it is.  Example:Example:  ““Henry Miller’s filthy books should be banned.”Henry Miller’s filthy books should be banned.”  Contains the unsupported premise that the booksContains the unsupported premise that the books are filthy.are filthy.
  76. 76. Dangling ComparativeDangling Comparative  There appears to be aThere appears to be a comparison, butcomparison, but compared to what?compared to what?  It relies on the consumerIt relies on the consumer filling in the blankfilling in the blank
  77. 77. Complaints about advertisingComplaints about advertising  It perpetuates stereotypesIt perpetuates stereotypes  Absolutely trueAbsolutely true  It has toIt has to  Makes people buy things they don’t needMakes people buy things they don’t need  Not trueNot true  Advertising can’t make anybody do anythingAdvertising can’t make anybody do anything

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