6. Increased need for Project Management
Growth of Human Knowledge & Privatization
Demand for more efficient operation
7. 1-1 Introduction
Project: Is a temporary endeavor with a begining and
end to creates a unique product, service, or result.
Term Means that a Project
temporary Has a beginning and end
endeavor Involves effort, work
to create Has an intention to produce something (project
unique One of a kind, rather than a collection of identical items
product Tangible objects, but could include things like computer
software, film or stage works
service Might include the establishment of a day-care center, for
instance, but not its daily operations.
8. Product results of a Project
Build a bridge
Develop drug to combat
9. Project vs. operation
Projects are temporary , unique deliverables
The main objective is to meet the objectives
Operations are ongoing, repetitive outputs
The main objective is to sustain the business
Contained in project charter
Objectives are determined in the initiating process
group and refined in the planning process group.
If the objectives cannot be met, the project must be
The reason for quality activities is to make sure the
project meets its objectives
specific Objectives should be stated in terms that include some quantitative
target for the end product.
measurable There should be some way of actually testing whether or not that stated
target has been met.
attainable The desired objective must be one that is actually possible to achieve
within the time and cost parameters provided.
relevant The desired objective should relate directly to the organization's
business needs and stated mission.
time-Bound The boundaries for completion date of the desired objective should be
either a specific date or time or an "offset" from the beginning of the
project. (For example, must be completed within five months of project
Writing SMART Objectives
No specific position for PM.
PM function are aligned to the project for a
The project is divided into partial tasks and
delegated to responsible departments.
The team members continue to report to their
line-directors and upper managers.
18. Functional organization
Reduced overhead, as no additional project team
members have to be hired.
Clearly marked career paths.
Easy post-project transition.
Reporting to only one manager.
19. Functional organization
Co-ordination of functional tasks is difficult as little
reward for co-operation with other departments.
Slow reaction time due to long communication lines
within the project.
No career path in project management.
PM (if there) has no authority.
No loyalty to the project.
21. The pure project organization
Team members are often co-located.
Most of the organization’s resources are involved in
project work .
PMs have a great deal of independence and authority.
Projectized organizations often have organizational
units called departments ( report directly to the PM or
provide support services to the various projects).
22. The pure project organization
Simple and fast.
Effective communication than functional.
A project team has high level of commitment.
PM has the total power.
23. The pure project organization
Can lead to a duplication of staff.
PMs tend to stockpile equipment and technical
assistance. (less efficient use of resources).
No home when the project is completed
24. The matrix organization
Strong , Weak, or Balanced matrix organization.
“Project” or “strong” matrix organizations
Most closely resemble the pure project organization.
PM decides work and personnel-progress.
Line manager provides resources.
26. Functional or weak matrix
Resembles the functional form.
PM only co-ordinates the contributions of the different dep.
The authority stays with the department head.
PM role may be:
Project expeditor: communication coordinator, staff
assistant, has no power in decision making
Project Coordinator: has some power to make decisions,
report to a higher level manager.
30. The matrix organization
Maximum utilization of scarce resources.
Effective horizontal and vertical dissemination
Improve PMs control over resources.
31. The matrix organization
Potential for conflict between functional vs. project
A conflict between line managers and PM over the
allocation of resources (different priorities).
33. Project Organization and Responsibilities
The project sponsor:
Manager within the organization
Not directly involved in the operational work of the
Oversee a project, delegate authority to Project
Can provide support as training or coaching to the
34. Project Organization and Responsibilities
A group of senior managers, recruited from the
Responsible for business issues affecting the
They usually have budget approval authority.
Make decisions about changes in goals and scope.
35. Project Organization and Responsibilities
A group of people that represents key project
stakeholders and provides advice to the project.
Recruited from senior management.
Provide technical advice and other relevant
36. Project Organization and Responsibilities
The key person within the project organization.
PM report to the steering committee.
Responsible for accomplishing the project objectives
within the agreed constraints.
PM must have knowledge, interpersonal skills.
40. Centralizes the management of projects, provide PM for
PMO roles is to support PMs by:
Managing shared resources and interdependencies between
Developing & managing project procedures & templates
Coaching & training for PM
Be part of change control board
Help gather lesson learned and make them available
Individuals and organizations that are actively
involved in the project, or whose interest may be
positively or negatively affected as a result of project
execution or project completion.
Project Stakeholders examples:
Project advisory boards
Executive management “steering committee”
Project requestor (client)
Project manager and team
If a team member has a line manager, he or she is a key
stakeholder as well.
Responsible for managing one part of a project,
or a “subproject.”
This position only exists on large projects .
45. Choosing the Project Organization & Model
Deciding project organization structure:
Size of project
Integration requirements (departments involved)
Complexity (number of external interfaces)
Budget and time constraints
46. Choosing the Project Organizational & Model
Recent developments shows that companies tend more and
more to change the project organization during the project
The advantages of different project organizations are utilized by such an approach
49. 2-2 Project life cycle
A project life cycle is a collection of generally
sequential and sometimes overlapping project phases.
Depending on the industry you work in or the
Ex. IT : High level design, detailed design, coding,
testing, installation, operation.
Ex. IT services: service strategy , service design, service
transition , service operation. 49
51. Project Life Cycle Characteristics
The probability of successfully completing the
project is lowest at the start of the project.
The cost of changes and error correction generally
increases as the project continues.
53. 2-3 What is project management?
Is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and
techniques to meet project abjectives.
It integrate 47 processes contained into 5 process
groups & 10 knowledge areas.
54. Initiating processes,
Monitoring and controlling processes,
Project Management process groups
55. 2-4 Project Phases
Divisions within a project where extra control is needed.
Sequentially order , but can overlap in some project
When phases are sequential, the phase end represents a
natural point to reassess the effort underway (phase exits,
milestones, phase gates, decision gates, stage gates, or kill
Iterative relationship : where only one phase is
planned at any given time and planning of the next is
carried out as work progresses in the current phase.
This approach is useful in undefined, uncertain, or
rapidly changing environments.
60. Initiation : identify need, deliverables & assign priority
Planning (Developing the Plan): project specifics, such as
tasks, milestones, and associated costs
Implementation (Executing the Plan): applies project plan;
direct team in producing deliverables
Monitoring & Controlling Process: monitor the project’s
schedule and budget, making adjustments
Completion (Closing Out the Project): project assessment &
wrap-up report, lesson learned.
2-6 Process groups
62. Initiating process group
Input to this group:
Business case (why)
Historical WBS & estimates
People who may be good team members
Templates from past projects
63. Output of Initiating process group
Develop project charter
Project manager assinged
High level planning is done during this group
64. Output of Planning process group
Develop the project management plans
65. Execute process group
Complete work defined in project management plan.
Focus on managing people, following processes,
Manage stakeholder expectations
Perform quality assurance
66. Monitor and control process group
Measuring the performance of the project compared to
the project management plan and approving change
Control cost/ schedule/ scope
Perform integrated change control
Monitor and control risk
67. Closing process group
Close project or phase
Handoff to operation and maintenance
Measuring customer satisfaction
Final sign-off and formal acceptance
Final version of lesson learned
The basic project process or life cycle can be broken down into the five elements shown on this slide.
A project begins with the recognition of a need, the initiating / scoping phase. In this phase, your organization decides that a particular need is a priority that warrants the dedication of resources and people to fulfill it. The project proposal defines the project in terms of its support of the overall organization’s mission and goals and articulates the specific benefits that this project will bring to the organization.
The next stage is the planning process. The formal plan translated the project goals and objectives into specifics, such as tasks, milestones, and associated costs.
The implementation or execution phase is the project in action.
Throughout this phase, members of the project team monitor the project’s schedule and budget, making adjustments to the plans as necessary, which is the monitoring/controlling phase.
At its completion, the formal stages of the project come to an end, but most likely certain activities will be integrated into normal routines.
Let’s now look at these phases in a little more detail. This presentation will concentrate on the 1st two phases. If everyone concerned is clear on the goals, outcomes, potential risks, how the project will be conducted, monitored and communicated, you have constructed the building blocks for a successful project.