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NON – MEDICATED / FLAVORED SYRUPS4. Raspberry Syrup – used to disguise salty or sour taste of drugs5. Syrup, NF or Syrup, USP - with 85% w/v concentration
CLASSIFICATION of SYRUPSII. NON - MEDICINAL CLASSIFICATIONA. SUGAR-BASED SYRUP Contains Sucrose / Cane Sugar Imparts a characteristic “body” to the preparation Glycogenetic Sorbitol or Glycerin may be added to prevent crystallization of sucrose
SYRUP, NF (SIMPLE SYRUP) A concentrated or nearly saturated aqueous solution of sugar (85% w/v, 65% w/w) Specific gravity = 1.313 Have low solvent capacity for water-soluble drugs
SYRUP, NF (SIMPLE SYRUP) Self-preserving, however diluted syrups are prone to microbial contamination thus require additional preservative (i.e. parabens) Saturated solutions tend to undergo crystallization (Syrup, USP – minimal tendency to undergo crystallization)
B. NON SUGAR-BASED SYRUPS (NONNUTRITIVE SYRUPS) Formulated with; 1. artificial sweeteners 2. viscosity builders Non glycogenetic
COM ONE S OF SYRUP P NT S1. Sugars, or sugar substitutes2. Antimicrobial preservatives3. Flavorants4. Colorants5. Special solvents, stabilizers, solubilizing agents and thickeners
METHODS OF PREPARATION of SYRUPSI. SOLUTION WITH THE AID OF HEAT Excessive heating tends to cause inversion / caramelization of sucroseII. SOLUTION BY AGITATION WITHOUT THE AID OF HEATIII. ADDITION OF SUCROSE TO A MEDICATED LIQUID OR TO A FLAVORED LIQUID
METHODS OF PREPARING SYRUPSI. PERCOLATION An extraction method utilizing a glass percolator. May be used to prepare; Simple Syrup Ipecac syrup (Cephael i s i pec ac uanha)
ELIXIRSAre clear, sweetened, hydroalcoholicsolutions intended for oral use, and areusually flavored for palatability.Its Alcohol Content mayvary from as low as 5% toas high as 40%.
2 TYPES OF ELIXIRS1. HIGH ALCOHOLIC ELIXIR (HAE) – 75% to 78% alcohol2. LOW ALCOHOLIC ELIXIR (LAE) – 8% to 10 % alcoholNOTE: Elixirs containing at least 10% to 12% alcohol are already “self-preserving”
COMPONENTS OF ELIXIR FORMULATION Alcohol and Water – primary solvents Glycerin and Propylene Glycol- adjuncts (viscosity builders and stabilizers) Sweeteners Flavorants and Colorants Medicinal substances
Advantages and Disadvantages of Syrups as Dosage Form Maintain both Less effective in water-soluble and masking the taste alcohol-soluble of drugs because components in elixirs are less solution sweet and less Stable viscous Not recommended Easy to prepare (by for children due to simple solution their alcohol method) content
CLASSES OF ELIXIRSI. NON- MEDICATED ELIXIRS Employed as vehicles Examples: Aromatic Elixir, NF Isoalcoholic Elixir
Preparation of Elixirs By simple solution method By admixture of two or more liquids
STORAGE and PRESERVATION of ELIXIRSStored in a tightly closed, light-resistant containersProtected from excessive heat (do not store above 400C)
SPIRITS / ESSENCES Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances. Usual alcohol content is 60%. When mixed with water, the volatile material separates and forms a milky solution.
Uses of SpiritsA. MEDICINAL SPIRITS AROMATIC SPIRIT OF AMMONIA – reflex / respiratory stimulant ( by inhalation)B. FLAVORING SPIRITS - Compound Orange Spirit - Compound Cardamom Spirit
ROUTES of ADMINISTRATION of SPIRITS Taken orally Brandy and Whisky Mixed with a portion of water to reduce pungency of the spirit Applied externally Used by inhalation Aromatic spirit of ammonia
METHODS of PREPARATION of SPIRITS Distillation Brandy (48 % – 54 % alcohol) Distilled from red grapes Whisky (47 % – 53% alcohol) Distilled from hops, barley and other grains
Solution with Maceration – Peppermint Spirit (maceration of peppermint leaves) Solution by Chemical Reaction – Ethyl Nitrite Spirit Simple Solution – Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia (Spirit of Sal Volatile)