What is MOOC?
“ A course of study made available over
the Internet without charge to a very
large number of people: anyone who
decides to take a MOOC simply logs on
to the website and signs up” Ryan Tracey 2013
It is the web based distance learning or online
learning , it does not have limitation in the term
In Massive Open Online Courses there is
creativity and openness and it allow
participants to share reading, videos and
What is MOOC?
A massive open online course (MOOC) is an online
course that has open access and interactive participation
by means of the Web.
MOOCs provide participants with course materials that
are normally used in a conventional education setting -
such as, lectures, videos, study materials.
MOOCs offer interactive user forums, which are
extremely useful in building a community for students,
and professors. Generally, MOOCs do not charge tuition
A MOOC and an online college course have many similarities, but they’re not exactly the same. MOOCs are
different from online college courses in the following ways:
MOOCs are offered online.
MOOCs are often taught by the same
professors that teach online college
. MOOC course materials are often
exactly the same as the course materials
provided to college students taking online
. MOOCs are sometimes offered in
partnership with colleges and universities.
A set of MOOCs can sometimes be
offered for academic credit.
However, in these instances, the student
will have to be officially enrolled in a
college or university and pay tuition to
receive academic credit for the MOOC.
MOOCs offer self-paced study, allowing
students to complete coursework and take
tests on their schedule.
MOOCs are free.
MOOCs have unlimited class size.
Anyone can enroll in a specific
MOOC, even if they’re not
“qualified” to take it.
Students can start and stop the course
at any time, without any formal
Upon completion of the course, a
student will not have a tangible or
formally recognized degree,
certificate or transcript of
Historically, the first MOOC was activated in 2008 by G.
Siemens and S. Downes and named it "connectivism and
Connective Knowledge"—better known under the name
The two trainers held classes for 25 students in Manitoba
University and opened an online course, which was
attended by 2200 participants.
The theme of the course, which from its name can be
concluded, was to connect people and their general and
specialized knowledge through their collaboration on the
BRIEF HISTORY CONT…
The term MOOC was used for the first
time in 2008 for a course offered by the
Extension Division of the University of
Manitoba in Canada. This non-credit
course, Connectivism and Connective
Knowledge (CK08) was designed by
George Siemens and Stephen Downes.
Enrolled 25 on-campus students
2,200 students enrolled in the free
In the three years following its launch in
2011, Coursera claims over 7.5 million
sign-ups with its largest course claiming
In 2013, the University of British
Columbia offered several MOOCs
through Coursera, with the numbers
initially signing up ranging from 25,000 to
190,000 per course (Engle, 2014).
There are no pre-requisites for
participants other than access to a
computer/mobile device and the Internet.
However, broadband access is
essential for xMOOCs that use video
streaming, and probably desirable even
for cMOOCs. It should also be noted that
many other kinds of online material are
also open and free over the Internet,
often in ways that are more accessible
for reuse than MOOC material.
MOOCs are offered online
Institutes provide learner support for
the MOOC materials
students used MOOC materials from
Udacity courses, including lectures,
readings and quizzes
instructors spent classroom time
on small-group activities, projects and
quizzes to check progress
One characteristic that distinguishes
MOOCs from most other open
educational resources is that they are
organized into a whole course.
However, what this actually means for
participants is not exactly clear.
Although many MOOCs offer
certificates or badges for successful
completion of a course.
NUMBER OF MOOCs
In 2014 there are approximately 1,000
MOOCs available from universities in
800 from European institutions.
Table on desktop
MOOCs are in several languages
Many other languages of the world
FEATURES OF MOOCs
specially designed platform software
a shared comment/discussion space
no or very light discussion
badges or certificates
MOOCs In Pakistan
MOOC providers in pakistan
6. Live Training Lab
8. Pakistan Institute Of Computer Sciences
9. MDi Pakistan Online Training
10. Harvard Online Courses
Open access, exposing top level professors at schools
that would otherwise be unavailable to much of the
Open courses for all interested, regardless of location,
resulting in a more diverse student base
Collecting data via computer programs helps closely
monitor the success and failure of each student.
Traditional classroom participation cannot offer this type
of precise information.
Some enthusiastic professors have found global
sharing of knowledge more appealing. Many
acknowledge that MOOCs help them reevaluate their
pedagogical methods, while improving knowledge
One drawback is the low course completion rate. Some
studies have shown that courses are completed by as
few as 10 percent of the huge volume of students that
join the MOOC.
One of the models of knowledge transfer
and improving the education, primarily in
nonformal systems of education, is
massive open online courses (MOOC)
The occurrence of MOOC (massive open
online courses massive courses on the
net with an open access) may indicate
the future direction of the education
Many thought that MOOC courses will
overcome all other learning systems. But
Software for Online Learning
1. Zoom – for synchronous video lessons
2. Google Classroom – for a fully-baked free LMS
3. Microsoft Teams – for a comprehensive digital learning hub
4. Blackboard – for top-of-the-range higher education LMS
5. Slack – for peer and organization communication
6. Floop – for work questions and support
7. SmartSurvey– for feedback on remote teaching
8. Edmondo – for centralized teacher-student communication
9. Timely – for managing time and staying visible
10. Dewo – for outsourcing meeting scheduling
11. Todoist – For organizing your tasks
12. Pocket - for curating useful web resources
13. Prezi – for professional digital presentations
14. Dropbox Paper – for document collaboration
15. WeTransfer – for sharing large files
16. Idroo – for virtual whiteboards and live annotation
17. Markup Hero – for quick image annotation
Allen, I. and Seaman, J. (2014) Grade Change: Tracking Online
Learning in the United States Wellesley MA: Babson
Christensen, C. (2010) Disrupting Class, Expanded Edition: How
Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns New
Engle, W. (2104) UBC MOOC Pilot: Design and
Delivery Vancouver BC: University of British Columbia
Friedland, T. (2013) Revolution hits the universities, New York
Times, January 26
U.S.Department of Education (2014) Web Tables: Enrollment in
Distance Education Courses, by State: Fall 2012Washington
DC: U.S.Department of Education National Center for Education
Notas do Editor
xMOOCs have the following common design features:
specially designed platform software: xMOOCs use specially designed platform software that allows for the registration of very large numbers of participants, provides facilities for the storing and streaming on demand of digital materials, and automates assessment procedures and student performance tracking.
video lectures: xMOOCs use the standard lecture mode, but delivered online by participants downloading on demand recorded video lectures. These video lectures are normally available on a weekly basis over a period of 10-13 weeks. Initially these were often 50 minute lectures, but as a result of experience some xMOOCs now are using shorter recordings (sometimes down to 15 minutes in length) and thus there may be more video segments. Over time, xMOOC courses, as well as the videos, are becoming shorter in length, some now lasting only five weeks. Various video production methods have been used, including lecture capture (recording face-to-face on-campus lectures, then storing them and streaming them on demand), full studio production, or desk-top recording by the instructor on their own.
computer-marked assignments: students complete an online test and receive immediate computerised feedback. These tests are usually offered throughout the course, and may be used just for participant feedback. Alternatively the tests may be used for determining the award of a certificate. Another option is for an end of course grade or certificate based solely on an end-of-course online test. Most xMOOC assignments are based on multiple-choice, computer-marked questions, but some MOOCs have also used text or formula boxes for participants to enter answers, such as coding in a computer science course, or mathematical formulae, and in one or two cases, short text answers, but in all cases these are computer-marked.
peer assessment: some xMOOCs have experimented with assigning students randomly to small groups for peer assessment, especially for more open-ended or more evaluative assignment questions. This has often proved problematic though because of wide variations in expertise between the different members of a group, and because of the different levels of involvement in the course of different participants.
supporting materials: sometimes copies of slides, supplementary audio files, urls to other resources, and online articles may be included for downloading by participants.
a shared comment/discussion space where participants can post questions, ask for help, or comment on the content of the course.
no or very light discussion moderation: the extent to which the discussion or comments are moderated varies probably more than any other feature in xMOOCs, but at its most, moderation is directed at all participants rather than to individuals. Because of the very large numbers participating and commenting, moderation of individual comments by the instructor(s) offering the MOOC is impossible. Some instructors offer no moderation whatsoever, so participants rely on other participants to respond to questions or comments. Some instructors ‘sample’ comments and questions, and post comments in response to these. Some instructors use teaching assistants to comb for or identify common areas of concern shared by a number of participants then the instructor or teaching assistants will respond. However, in most cases, participants moderate each other’s comments or questions.
badges or certificates: most xMOOCs award some kind of recognition for successful completion of a course, based on a final computer-marked assessment. However, at the time of writing, MOOC badges or certificates have not been recognised for credit or admission purposes even by the institutions offering a MOOC, or even when the lectures are the same as for on-campus students. No evidence exists to date about employer acceptance of MOOC qualifications.
learning analytics: Although to date there has not been a great deal of published information about the use of learning analytics in xMOOCs, the xMOOC platforms have the capacity to collect and analyse ‘big data’ about participants and their performance, enabling, at least in theory, for immediate feedback to instructors about areas where the content or design needs improving and possibly directing automated cues or hints for individuals.
xMOOCs therefore primarily use a teaching model focused on the transmission of information, with high quality content delivery, computer-marked assessment (mainly for student feedback purposes), and automation of all key transactions between participants and the learning platform. There is almost no direct interaction between an individual participant and the instructor responsible for the course.