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Moisture management

  1. 1. MOISTURE MANAGEMENT IN TEXTILES Presented by: Mona verma Ph.D Research scholar, I.C . College of Home Science, CCSHAU, hisar 125004
  2. 2. CONTENT – 1. Introduction 2. Definition Of Moisture Management 3. Role Of Moisture Management in textile 4. Function Of Moisture Management 5. Process Involved In Transmission Of Moisture From The Fabric 6. Mechanism Of Moisture Management 7. Different Concepts Of Moisture Management 8. Different types of Moisture management fabric 9. Tests are used to measure the moisture management of the fabric 10.Moisture management in fire fighters clothing 11.Moisture management property of different fibres and their blends 12.Application Of Moisture Management In Different Fields 13.Conclusion 14.Review of literature 15.References
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The moisture and sweat absorbing, and quick dissipating properties of the fabric ensure that the fabric user feels comfortable wearing garments made from it. The moisture managed fabric is ideal for usage in volatile and hazardous environments as it provides optimum static control against incendiary spark, protecting from electronic equipment damage and fire. The Indian atmosphere is generally very humid. In these conditions, our moisture managed fabric with their moisture absorbent properties will ensure that the person wearing garments made of such fabrics is very comfortable and feels very near to nature.
  4. 4. The market for moisture management fabrics is set to grow as apparel manufacturers shift their attention to the high-performance end of the sector and consumers place increasing importance on the performance of garments, according to the latest issue of performance apparel markets. Moisture management is one of the key performance criteria in today’s apparel industry. Contd…
  5. 5. The ability of a fabric to transport liquids is called Moisture Management. ( Easter E.,2006) Definition Of Moisture Management “The ability of a garment to transport moisture away from the skin to the garment’s outer surface.” (Joyce, A. (2005) Fabric liquid moisture transport properties in multidimensions, called Moisture Management properties, significantly influence human perceptions of moisture sensations. (Hu J.et.al, 2005) The Moisture Management is defined as the “controlled movement” of water vapour and liquid water (perspiration) from the surface of the skin to the atmosphere through the fabric.
  6. 6. Moisture management property is the important aspect of any fabric for apparel, which decides the clothing comfort. RELATION OF MOISTURE MANAGEMENT IN TEXTILES WITH BODY COMFORT The process of moisture transport through clothing under transient humidity conditions is an important factor which influences the dynamic comfort of the wearer in practical use.
  7. 7. Barker (2002) stated that comfort is not only a function of the physical properties of materials and clothing variables, but also must be interpreted within the entire context of human physiological and psychological responses. Personal expectation or stored modifiers that sort out or influence our judgment about comfort based on personal experiences must be also considered. Holcombe (1986) stated that comfort as wellbeing and fundamental to that wellbeing is the maintenance of the temperature of our vital organs within a few degrees of 37oC for them to function properly, otherwise the metabolic system can be extensively disrupted and sustained abnormal temperature will lead to death. Temperature control is achieved by changing skin temperature through changes to blood flow and by evaporation of water at the skin surface.
  8. 8. The term comfort is defined as "the absence of unpleasantness or discomfort" or "a neutral state compared to the more active state of pleasure". There is general agreement that the movement of heat and water vapour through a garment are probably the most important factors in clothing comfort. 1. Psychological Comfort 3. Thermal Comfort 2. Tactile Comfort The clothing comfort can be segregated further into three groups. By:Higgins and Anand (2003)
  9. 9. The clothing comfort can also be segregated further into two groups. Sensorial comfort Non-sensorial comfort. 37° C By:Higgins and Anand (2003)
  10. 10. FUNCTION OF MOISTURE MANGEMENT Regulation of body temperature – when the human body core temperature exceeds 37 oC, sweat is produced. Transporting the sweat away from the skin and evaporating it to the atmosphere, reduces body temperature. Control of cloth weight increase – absorbing the moist generated by the body increases cloth weight , making it uncomfortable and with a negative effect on performance. Moisture management avoids this effect. Moisture management has the following functions: Reducing Skin Damage By: Andersson ,1999
  11. 11. According To Ishtiaque (2001) the predominant requirements of most active sportswear are: • PROTECTION : from wind and adverse weather • INSULATION : protection from cold •VAPOUR PERMEABILITY: to ensure that body vapour passes outward through all layers of the clothing system • STRETCH: to provide the freedom of movement necessary in sports Sportswear is one of the 12 main application areas defined by Techtextile. (Anand & Horrocks 2000).
  12. 12. Processes Involved In Moisture Transmission Through Textiles Water Vapour Transmission Water vapour can pass through textile layers by the following mechanisms:  Diffusion of the water vapour through the layers.  Absorption, transmission and desorption of the water vapour by the fibres.  Adsorption and migration of the water vapour along the fibre surface.  Transmission of water vapour by forced convection. Moisture may transfer through textile materials in vapour and in liquid form. Liquid Water Transmission Liquid water can pass through textile layers by the following mechanisms:  Wetting  Wicking By:Brojeswari Das, 2007
  13. 13. Water vapour can diffuse through a textile structure in two ways: Water Vapour DIFFUSION  yarns and along the fibre itself simple diffusion through the air spaces between the fibres Factors affect diffusion process- 1. Fibre volume fraction 2. Fibre cross section 3. Fabric thickness 4. Air permeability By:Brojeswari Das, 2007
  14. 14. The Sorption-Desorption Process Sorption-desorption is an important process to maintain the microclimate during transient conditions. It is defined by two phenomenon.  Absorption  Adsorption Factors affect Sorption-Desorption Process:  Fibre Regain  Humidity Of Atmosphere  Effect of Heat By:Brojeswari Das, 2007
  15. 15. Yoe .E,barker K. (2005)Dynamic Convection Process Convection is a mode of moisture transfer that takes place while air is flowing over a moisture layer. The mass transfer in this process is controlled by the difference in moisture concentration between the surrounding atmosphere and the moisture source. Evaporation and condensation also have a noteworthy effect on moisture transmission. Evaporation and condensation depend on the temperature and moisture distribution in porous textiles at the time of moisture transfer . Yoe .E,barker K. (2005)
  16. 16. CONDUCTION • Heat transferred from one molecule to another (direct contact) • Conductors transfer heat well. • Insulators do not transfer heat well.
  17. 17. • Transfer of heat in the form of an invisible wave • Heat radiated to a nearby structure can ignite it. • Radiated heat passing through a window can ignite an object. RADIATION
  18. 18. Liquid Water Transmission Liquid transfer through a porous structure involves two sequential processes- 1.Wetting Factors affect wetting- Contact angle between the solid and liquid Surface tension between solid and liquid Temperature of liquid Liquid 'density and viscosity, surface tension Chemical nature of surface Holmer .P.(2007).
  19. 19. Wicking is the most effective process to maintain a feel of comfort. In the case of clothing with high wicking properties, moisture coming from the skin is spread throughout the fabric offering a dry feeling and the spreading of the liquid enables moisture to evaporate easily. Factors affect wicking process-  Capillary pressure  Cross sectional shape of fibre  Tortuosity of the pores  Twist of yarn  Texture of yarn 2.Wicking. Pores Holmer .P.(2007).
  20. 20. How The Moisture Management Fabric Works By:Fan, J. and Cheng, 2005).
  21. 21. DIFFERENT CONCEPTS OF MOISTURE MANAGEMENT: A. COMBINATIONS OF HYDROPHOBIC AND OUTER HYDROPHILIC LAYERS. EX.DRYLEX B. MICRO FIBRES- Micro fibres, by virtue of their extreme fineness, form especially small gaps and have a big surface area. This leads to high capillary effect for the transportation of humidity, and rapid evaporation. C. SPECIAL FIBRES-Special fibres are designed to increase the capillary force and the humidity transportation, by means of special profiles. The larger surface area of these fibres also serves to promote evaporation. D. WICKING WINDOWS By:Brojeswari Das, 2007
  22. 22. A. COMBINATIONS OF HYDROPHOBIC AND OUTER HYDROPHILIC LAYERS Water-Proof Fabric OUTER INNER Breathable Fabric water vapour Liquid water AIR water drop Hydrophilic Cotton (attractive surface) AIR water drop Hydrophobic Olefin (repulsive surface)
  23. 23. DRI-LEX® • Dri-Lex fabric is developed by Faytex Corp. • Dri-Lex is made from hydrophobic polyester and hydrophilic nylon. • This combination creates a push-pull effect that pulls perspiration off the skin and deploys it to the outer layer to rapidly dry. • It is breathable and quick-drying fabric. • Used in hats, shoes, socks, and polo shirts. Combination fabric www.defense-update.com/products/m/moisture_management_fabric.htm
  24. 24. • Microfibres refers to synthetic fibers that measure less than 1 dpf and more than 0.3 dpf. • Due to extreme fineness, form especially small gaps and gives a big surface area. • This leads to the fabric have high capillary effect for the transportation of humidity, and rapid evaporation. B. MICRO FIBRE www.ptec.com.hk/medical/moisture_mgmt_fabric.
  25. 25. • There are four types of synthetic microfibers are produced which include Acrylic Nylon  Polyester  Rayon • Micro-fibres can be : Blended with conventional denier man- made fibre blended with natural fibres (cotton, wool, silk)
  26. 26. Breakdown percentage of total fibre used globally in 2004 By: Wiah Wardiningsih (2009)
  27. 27. -Natural fibers such as cotton are hydrophilic , meaning that their surface has bonding sites for water molecules. -Therefore, water tends to be retained in the hydrophilic fibers, which have poor moisture transportation and release. - Synthetic fibers such as polyester are hydrophobic , meaning that their surface has few bonding sites for water molecules. - Hence, they tend to remain dry and have good moisture transportation and release. Moisture absorption and release properties do not coexist in common fibers. Use Of Natural And Synthetic Fibre In Moisture Management
  28. 28. MERYL MICRO FIBER: • It is a nylon micro fibre • It is made by Nylstar, an Italian company which is one of the largest manufacturers of Nylon. • It has a high capacity for moisture absorption and ensures a balance between the ambient humidity and the body. • Its application is in Sports wear mainly for Swimming, Sailing & Athletics. http://www.google.co.in/search?q=moisture+management+fabric&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=667& prmd=imvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=Q3CJUI_JcOGrAfKpoDwCw&ved=0CEIQs
  29. 29. TREVIRA FINESSE: • Polyester micro fiber for moisture management clothing. • Launched by the German company Hoechst High Chem in 1987. • Ideal water transmission and short drying time. • Used in sports wear and casual wear.
  30. 30. C. SPECIAL FIBRES • Designed to increase the capillary and the humidity transportation, by means of special profiles. • The larger surface area of these fibres serves to promote evaporation.
  31. 31. Hygra: • Hygra is launched by Unitika limited. • A sheath core type filament yarn composed of fibre made up of water absorbing polymer and nylon. • Water absorbing polymer absorbs 35 times its own weight of water and offer quick releasing property. • Nylon in the core gives tensile strength and dimensional stability. • Main application in athletic wear, skiwear, golf wear etc. www.unitika.co.jp/e/products/fbtx-bis/clothes.html
  32. 32. Killat N: • Killat N from Kanebo Ltd is a nylon hollow filament. • The hollow portion is about 33 per cent of the cross section of each filament. • The yarn is spun as bi-component filament yarn with polyester as the core portion and nylon as the skin portion. • It gives good water absorbency and warmth retentive property. • It is used in sports wear.
  33. 33. TRIACTOR: • Toyoba Co Ltd has developed Triactor. • A perspiration absorbing/quick drying polyester filament. • Cross- section is Y-shaped. • Its hydrophobic nature helps in quick drying. www.technica.net/NF/NF1/etriactor.htm
  34. 34. D.Wicking Windows • The WICKING WINDOWS™ is a moisture management technology for cotton that transfers moisture away from the body, reduces absorbent capacity for faster drying and reduces fabric cling. • Introduced by Cotton Incorporated, USA. • Discontinuous water repellent treatment on the surface of the cotton are applied on the side of the fabric that will worn next to the skin. • Fluropolymers , silicones, waxes etc are used. hanuo.gmc.globalmarket.com/.../wicking-windows-fabric-558829.ht...
  35. 35. Moisture Management Fabric
  36. 36. Cool Max Fabric CoolMax is a lightweight hydrophilic fabric made from four- or six channel polyester fibres, designed by DuPont company. www.alibaba.com/showroom/moisture-management-fabric.htm
  37. 37. Field sensor is a high-performance knitted polyester fabric with a multilayer structure. It is registered trademark of Toray Industries. Perspiration Quickly Evaporates Quickly Absorb Sweat Sweat Transported to outer Surface Sweat Outer Layer Inner Layer Skin 1 2 3 Field Sensor Fabric www.fibre2fashion.com/.../moisture-management-and-wicking1.asp
  38. 38. Thermolite is a lightweight polyester fabric made with hollow-core which combines insulation with moisture wicking properties. It is designed by DuPont Company. Thermolite Fabric www.cottoninc.com/product/.../Moisture Management/Technology
  39. 39. Polartec Power Dry fabrics are 100% polyester, highly breathable, and ideal when worn as the base layer for those playing sports. It is manufactured by Maden mills. Polartec Power Dry Fabrics www.aatcc.org/Technical/Test_Methods/scopes/tm195.cfm
  40. 40. Sportwool is a lightweight, composite fabric consisting of a layer of superfine Merino wool next to the skin and a layer of tough, easy-care polyester on the outside. It is a trade mark of Woolmark Company. SPORTWOOL FABRIC www.dibisport.co.uk/userfiles/Performance_Fabrics_Di-Bi.pdf
  41. 41. GORETEX It is made by gore manufacturer Fabric used in skiwear, hiking jackets etc. Performance characteristics of Goretex •Durably waterproof •Very breathable •Highly cold resistant •Extremely light •Resistant to flexing www.testingtextiles.com/news
  42. 42. Out Last Fabric Outlast technology, originally developed for NASA, utilizes phase change materials (PCM) that absorb, store and release heat for optimal thermal comfort. When we begin to get too warm, the Outlast technology will absorb and store excess heat radiating from the skin to reduce overheating and help prevent perspiration. When we begin to cool down, the stored heat is released, reducing chilling. By proactively managing heat, you regulate temperature so your customers feel not too hot, not too cold but "just right." It is developed by OEL Company in USA. www.wickem.com/portfolio-view/moisture-management
  43. 43. Brand Name Manufacturer Polartec Malden Mills Xalt Burlington Gore-Tex Gore Activent Gore DryLine Milliken Akwatek Comfort Technologies Akwadyne Comfort Technologies Thermastat DuPont Versatech Burlington Mills Therma F.I.T. Nike Windstopper Gore Pile & Pertex Buffalo
  44. 44. 46 FIREFIGHTING AND THERMAL COMFORT • Firefighting is an exhaustive physical task which generates body heat, also in addition extremely hot working environment results in substantial elevation of body core temperature. • To reduce that temperature to normal, the body perspires in liquid and vapour form. For better control of body temperature in keeping it a normal level the evaporation of perspiration is necessary. • Thermal comfort of human body is maintained by perspiring both in vapour and liquid form and moisture transmissionthrough clothing has a great influence on its thermal comfort. Troynikov et.al (2011)
  45. 45. Fabric code Fibre composition Construction SJ1 100% Merino wool Single Jersey SJ2 60% Merino Wool/ 40% Bamboo Single Jersey SJ3 100%Cotton Single Jersey SJ4 94% Merino wool/ 6% spandex Single Jersey IM1 100%Polyester Interlock based mock mesh IM2 52% Merino wool / 48% Biophyl Interlock based mock mesh •Wool blends are the most suitable fabric to be used next to skin to achieve thermal comfort. • The fibre content, fabric construction and fabric thickness influence thermal comfort significantly. •IM2 have better moisture management properties as compared to the other sample fabrics of the study. Troynikov et.al (2011) studied moisture management properties of wool/ polyester and wool/bamboo knitted in single jersey fabrics for the sportswear base layers and concluded that,Blending wool fibre with polyester fibre and, in particular, wool fibre with regenerated bamboo fibre, improved moisture management properties than fabrics in wool fibre or regenerated bamboo fibre without blending. Troynikov, O., et all, Wiah, W., (2011). "Moisture management properties of wool/polyester and wool/bamboo knitted fabrics for sportswear base layer." Textile Research Journal 0: 1-11.
  46. 46. MOISTURE MANGEMENT PROPERTY OF DIFFERENT FIBRE AND THEIR BLENDS S. No. Name Of Fibre And Fibre Blends 1. Wool 2. Polyester 3. Wool + Polyester(50 : 50 ) 4. Finecool 5. Wool/Finecool (50 : 50 ) 6. Wool + Finecool (75 : 25 ) 7. Coolmax 8. Wool + Coolmax (50 + 50 ) 9. Wool + Coolmax (75 +25 ) RESULTS OF HORIZONTAL WICKING TEST Fangueiro R. And Goncalves P.(2009).Moisture Management Performance Of Functional Yarns Based On Wool Fibres. Indian Journal Of Fibre And Textile Research,vol(34),315-320. ˃ Wool ˃ Wool + Polyester (50 : 50 ) ˃Wool+ Finecool (50 : 50 ) ˃ Wool+ Finecool( 75 : 25 ) ˃ Wool +Coolmax (50 : 50) ˃ Wool + Coolmax (75 :25 ) ˃ Polyester ˃ Finecool Coolmax
  47. 47. ˃ Wool ˃ Wool + Polyester (50 : 50 ) ˃Wool+ Finecool (50 : 50 ) ˃ Wool + Coolmax (75 :25 ) ˃ Finecool ˃ Wool +Coolmax (50 : 50) ˃ Wool+finecool( 75 : 25 ) ˃ Polyester Coolmax Results Of Vertical Wicking Test
  48. 48. Results Of Drying Rate At Standard Condition ˃ Finecool ˃ Wool +Finecool (75 :25) ˃ Wool ˃ Coolmax ˃ Wool+finecool (50:50) Wool+ Polyester blend(50:50) ˃ Polyester ˃ Wool+ Coolmax (50:50) ˃ Coolmax ˃ Wool+Polyester(50:50) ˃ Wool Finecool Results Of Drying Rate At 330 C Temperature
  49. 49. Methods Used To Determine The Wet Ability Of A Textile Material TENSIOMETRY – It is used to measure the wet ability of the fabric by measuring the wetting force given by wilhelmy. GONIOMETRY – In this method the wet ability of A material is measured by measuring the contact angle between the liquid and the fabric by the image processing method. The development of AUTOMATED CONTACT ANGLE TESTER(ASTM D 5725- 99), HTHP contact angle tester and DROP ANALYZER TESTER are based on two processes are used, namely : The Static Wetting Angle Measurement The Dynamic Wetting Angle Measurement
  50. 50. • Drying time • Evaporation • Absorbency • Wicking test MOISTURE MANAGEMENT TEST
  51. 51. • A droplet of water is placed on flat fabric (face up). • The time taken for the droplet to completely penetrate into the fabric is recorded up to a maximum of 60 seconds. WATER DROPLET TM TEST METHOD Standard -ASTM D5530www.technotex.gov.in/Testining%20method
  52. 52. • Vertically suspend fabric samples so that bottom is just touching water surface. • Measure the distance travelled by the water during a set period of time. • Measure performance in both warp and weft direction. WICKING TM TEST METHOD Standard -ASTM D 1683 http://www.ihs.com/products/industry-standards/org/astm/textiles/index.aspx
  53. 53. • Very simple to carry out. • Apply 1 ml of water and measure the maximum diameter of spread after 1 minute. SPREADING TM TEST METHOD Standard-ASTM D7024www.aatcc.org/events/workshops/ITT.htm
  54. 54. • Circle of fabric 10 cm in diameter • Place on to the surface of water in a beaker for • 10 seconds then accurately weigh the pick up of water. ABSORPTION TM TEST METHOD Standard -ASTM D4632 http://www.chemicalfabricsandfilm.com/pdfs_researchSection/stan dards/stm2011.pdf
  55. 55. • Fabric samples are wet out completely, hydro-extracted and weighed accurately. • Samples then hung vertically and weighed every five minutes until a constant weight is reached this is the drying time. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Time (minutes) %WateronFabric Untreated Passerelle Drying time TM TEST METHOD Standard -ASTM C692www.aatcc.org/events/workshops/ITT.htm
  56. 56. Circle of fabric laid flat in the bottom of a petry dish. Weigh dish and sample before adding 1 ml of water, reweigh and record change in weight over 30 minutes. Calculate % water evaporated and actual weight of water evaporated to give graphic representation. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 %WaterEvaporated Time (minutes) EVAPORATION TM TEST METHOD Standard -ASTM D5800 www.astm.org/Standardshtm http://www.chemicalfabricsandfilm.com/pdfs_researchSection/stan dards/stm2011.pdf
  57. 57. 59 MOISTURE MANAGEMENT TESTER INDICES A series of indexes are defined and calculated to characterize liquid moisture management performance of the test sample by using moisture management tester, which are as follow; • Top wetting time WTt and bottom wetting time WTb • Top absorption rate (ARt) and bottom absorption rate (ARb) • Top max wetted radius (MWRt) and bottom max wetted radius (MWRb) • Top spreading speed (SSt) and bottom spreading speed (SSb) • Accumulative one-way transport index (AOTI) and overall moisture management capacity (OMMC)
  58. 58. 60 The OMMC is an index indicating the overall capacity of the fabric to manage the transport of liquid moisture, which includes three aspects 1. Average moisture absorption rate at the bottom surface 2. One-way liquid transport capacity 3. Maximum moisture spreading speed on the bottom surface The larger the OMMC is the higher the overall moisture management ability of the fabric is. According to AATCC Test Method 195–2009, the indices are graded and converted from value to grade based on a five grade scale (1–5). The five grades of indices represent: 1 – Poor 2 – Fair 3 – Good 4 – Very good 5 – Excellent MOISTURE MANAGEMENT TESTER INDICES
  59. 59. During testing, each fabric specimen, the size of 80 x 80 mm, was placed flat between the top and bottom sensors and a predetermined quantity (0.15 g) of the testing solution was pumped onto the upper surface of the fabric to simulate a drop of liquid sweat. The signal for electrical resistance of the fabric samples was processed by the MMT. All fabrics were tested under the same laboratory conditions. The upper surface of the fabric is considered the surface closest to the skin of the human body and the bottom surface of the fabric . PROCEDURE
  60. 60. Sketch of MMT sensors: (a) sensor structure; (b) measuring rings (Yao et al. 2006)
  61. 61. TABLE 1. GRADING OF MMT INDICES WTt (sec) WTb (sec) ARt (%/sec) ARb (%/sec) MWRt (mm) MWRb (mm) SSt (mm/sec) SSb (mm/sec) AOTI (%) OMMC
  62. 62. Unit Used For Measuring Absorption And Wicking Of Fabric  For Bulk Absorption:  Bulk material absorption (BMA)  Bulk absorption rate (BAR)  Bulk absorption (BAT)  For Bulk Adsorption:  Amount of water wicked (AWW)  Surface-water transport rate (SWTR)  Wicking time (WT)
  63. 63. Product Name Manufact- urer Characteristics End Use Gore-Tex W.L. Gore The original waterproof/ breathable laminated fabric with pores large enough for water to escape, small enough to block rain Gloves, Hat, Footwear, Outwear, Cycling and Running apparel Drylete Hind Combines hydrofoil nylon and hydrophobic polyester to push moisture from the body and then pull it through fabric for quick drying Skiwear, Running apparel Hydrofil Allied A new super-absorbent hydrophilic nylon that sucks moisture away from skin Linings, Long underwear, Cycling apparel Supplex DuPont A strong, quick drying nylon fabric, in smooth or textured weaves, that feels like cotton Out Running and wear, Skiwear, Cycling apparel Synera Amoco A strong, light weight PP fabric that transports moisture away from skin Long underwear, Jacket linings Thinsulate 3M Thin insulation made of polyester and polypropylene fibres Skiwear, Gloves, Footwear
  64. 64. Application of moisture management fabric Sportswear Active outer wear Fire fighter apparel Military apparel Industrial work wear
  65. 65. Moisture management property is an important aspect for any textile material which decides the comfort level of the fabric. Every human being sweats during different kinds of activities. The important factor is how it transports the water out of the body surface so as to make the wearer feel comfortable. Moisture management is the main prerequisite for active sports performance. This can be achieved in many ways like changing the fibre polymer chemistry and by fabric chemical treatments . The moisture management is a essential property for any textiles/apparels especially for sports wears. The normal sports wears can have low moisture transfer but the active sports wear must have high moisture transfer.
  66. 66. In hot conditions, trapped moisture may heat up and lead to fatigue or diminished performance or it may result in hyperthermia. In cold conditions, trapped moisture will drop in temperature and cause chilling and hypothermia. Excess moisture may also cause the garment to become heavy, as well as cause damage to the skin from chafing.
  67. 67. TEMPERATURE BALANCE THROUGH CLOTHING ENHANCE PERFORMANCE • Heats from high  low temp. until “thermal equilibrium” (body & surroundings temp. are same) is reached. • Body produces heat & sweat  emit up to 2 liters/hr when running. • Water conducts heat away from body 25 times faster than air (dangerous in cold temp). For winter wear • Fabric – maximize insulation  maintain warming properties with sweat or rain. • Synthetics  good to wick the moisture away. • Outer layers – keep out the wind & rain, but may affect ventilation. • Minimize layers  choose fabrics offer both wicking & warming properties.
  68. 68. The importance of heat management to running • 25% body energy goes moving muscle & 75% uses to regulate heat. • Body temp  appx 2C when running. • Body consume energy to cool things down when it is heated. • Garment delivers the benefit of sweating w/o you losing any fluid • Over heat / Cooler skin temp  have to spend extra energy during the race. USE OF MOISTURE MANGEMENT IN SPORTS WEAR The Moisture Management Is Mainly For Energy Balance Of Human Body When It Is Exposed To The Environment.
  69. 69. Review Of Literature • Review Of Literature Is Covered Under The Various Sub Headings : • Comfort Related Properties Of Fabric • Thermoregulatory Functions Of Clothing • Natural Fibres • Regenerated Fibres • Synthetic Fibre • Modified Polyester • Micro Fibre • Fibre Blend • Functionality Requirements For Active Sportswear • Moisture Management Testing
  70. 70. The wettability characteristics of different cotton, polyester and multilayered cotton /polyester fabrics have been studied to manage human perspiration well. The vertical capillary action behavior of these fabrics has been compared by measuring the capillary height as a function of time. Wicking coefficient in multilayered fabrics are found to be much better than in other fabrics of 100% cotton. The yarn and the bonding weave between the two layers are very important for the capillary rise( T. Sharabaty et.al.,2008).
  71. 71. Blends of wool and moisture management fibres such as coolmax and finecool have been prepared to produce innovative yarns with specific functionalities .these yarns have been used to produce knitted fabrics and their performance is evaluated, including the vertical and horizontal wicking . The drying capabilitity of the fabrics has been assessed by drying rate testing under two different conditions, namely standared conditions (20±2oc and 65±3%rh) and, in an oven temperature at 33±2oc to simulate the body skin temperature .the influence of wool fibre proportion on the performances of each blend is analyzed. It was observed that the coolmax based fabrics showed the best capillarity performance and the wool based fabrics show low water absorption performance but good drying rate.(Fangueiro,R.And Gonclaves,P.,2009).
  72. 72. Cotton fabrics generally wick well and typically absorb much more moisture than synthetic fibers. It is this characteristic that has limited cotton’s ability to perform well in activewear and performance apparel end uses. Through new advances in technology, cotton can be engineered to transfer moisture away from the skin to the outside of the fabric, keeping the wearer dryer and more comfortable. Fabrics treated with the WICKING WINDOWS technology are less absorbent so they not only cling to the body less, they also dry much faster during and after exercise. (by Rachel Crumbley).
  73. 73. Micro fibre fabrics allow large quantities of water through the outer surface of the material within seconds due to the presence of micro capillaries. Blending small proportion of hydrophobic fibre like micro polyester with hydrophilic fiber enhances the wickability and drying characteristics of the fabric resulting in excellent moisture handling capability and easy care. Hence Micro polyester fiber is selected to blend with micro lyocell fiber to produce yarns with varying blend proportions and the fabrics produced were investigated for their moisture management property. From the experimental result, it has been found that water vapor permeability, liquid water permeability and moisture spreading of the material increases with the increase in number of hydrophilic group in the material, but the dry ability of the material increases with the increase in the micro polyester proportion.( Kandhavadivu,P.And Ramachandran,T.,2011)
  74. 74. Heat and moisture vapour transmission characteristics of different types of multilayered fabrics are studied two sets of multilayered fabrics have been prepared. In the first set, two types of carded web produced from acrylic and polyester fibres with five different areal densities in each fibre type have been used as a middle layer. In second set, different types of fabrics namely woven, knitted, felt, single –sided fleeced and double sided fleeced fabrics made from wool fibres have been used as a middle layer. in both the sets of ,two types of inner and outer layer fabrics have been used. Silk and polyester woven fabrics have been as inner layer and plain woven nylon coated and PTFE coated fabrics have been used as outer layer. . in both the sets ,silk inner layer fabric ensembles show higher thermal resistance and less water vapour permeability than polyester fabric ensembles .in the first set of multilayered fabrics ,irrespective of the type of fibres, the increase in areal density of the fabrics increases the thermal resistance and reduces moisture vapour transmission of the fabrics, in second set of multilayered fabrics,woven,felt and knitted fabrics ensembles show lesser thermal resistance and moisture vapour transmission than the fleeced ensembles (Das, A. And Biswas, B.,2011)
  75. 75. The lyocell fabrics both pile and twill structure proves to be an excellent combination for bed sores prevention in all aspects like air permeability ,thermal conductivity ,moisture vapour management.lyocell pile, cotton/polyester knitted fleece and cotton /polypropylene plaited knitted fabrics can be used for cold climate conditions . the thermal conductivity for lyocell fabrics of pile and twill combination have noticed higher followed by micro polyester and fleece fabrics (Mallikarjunan,K.2011).
  76. 76. The liquid and water vapour permeability of a material plays an important role in determining clothing performance and in maintaining human body comfort. The evaluation method is of the utmost importance in determining the material properties accurately. The experimental apparatus and the testing methods should simulate the wear conditions very closely. Many methods are available to measure the ability of a fabric to transmit moisture through textiles; but the results obtained by the different methods cannot be compared directly due to the different testing conditions, the parameters measured and the units used. The moisture transmission behavior of fibrous assemblies may be mathematically modeled to predict the clothing behavior in actual wear conditions( Brojeswari D., And Kothari V.K.,2007).
  77. 77. Nomex III A is a moisture barrier fabric that has a 100 water repellency rating,exceeding baseline requirements. There was no sticking or wetting of the upper surface of the fabric. The fabric, being of medium weight, will tear; however, this fabric would be the third layer of a composite so there should be no penetration of objects or punctures that would affect this layer. Flame resistance is excellent . Fabric does exhibit some stiffness, but it does exceed baseline requirements, giving mobility to the wearer.Nomex III A can be used as a moisture barrier within the firefighter uniform. (A thesis submitted to University of Arkansas on the topis Cotton as an Innovative Fabric
  78. 78. These results of the study show study that the evaporation rate per surface area was independent of the initial amount of moisture supplied to the clothing assembly, but depended on the localisation of the moisture. Moisture evaporated faster from the outer layers of the assembly than from the inner ones. Moisture is known to influence the heat transfer through clothing assemblies by changing their thermal properties (thermal conductivity and heat capacity). This study suggests that an additional (moisture-assisted) heat flux takes place by evaporation of moisture in the outer layers and recondensation near the body. The intensity and duration of this additional heat flux depends on the evaporation rate and the amount of moisture stored in the layers (Keiser, C.,2010)
  79. 79. Conductive fabrics combine the breathing/ moisture managing finishes with high metallic content in textiles. With the addition of nickel, copper and silver coatings of varying thickness, these fibers provide a versatile combination of physical and electrical properties for a variety of applications. For example, the thermal conductivity of fabric is increased a thousand-fold after the fibers are metallized. Clothing constructed with conventional polymers have minimal thermal insulation.Another type of conductive fiber is carbon. ECT (Electric Conductive Textile) is a carbonized glass fiber textile, each filament of which is coated with a few nanometers of carbon. The textile can be woven, braided or knitted with any kind of glass fiber and any kind of yarn. The carbon creates the electrical conductivity and therefore electrical resistance. This electrical resistance presents the opportunity to use the textile as an electric heating medium. (By Dr. Sanjay Gupta)
  80. 80. Finishing with Sarasoil X, Coolcot Dry and Geotex HPA imparts a quality whereby moistureis quickly transported from the fabric and is allowed to evaporate, thereby giving a cooling effect and comfort to the wearer. In addition, fabric finished with above products showed improved antisoil and antistatic properties. These finishes are durable to repeated home laundering conditions. Thus, fabric finished with Sarasoil X, Coolcot Dry and Geotex HPA make synthetic textiles universally applicable, especially in sportswear, underwear, uniforms and workwear, as well as in medical and technical textiles. An article on Hydrophilising Agents to Impart Comfort Propertiesto Synthetic Fabrics By Dr Naresh M. Saraf, Dr Geeta N. Sheth and Dr A.G. Sabale,of Sarex Overseas, India
  81. 81. A quantitative study of various comfort related properties (thermal and moisture management properties) carried out on different knitted fabric structures containing Outlast® and Coolmax® yarns, and aiming at the selection the most adequate fabric for sportswear applications.the results obtained from this showed that the thermal and moisture management performance of the studied fabrics is greatly affected by raw material properties, which significantly increased or decreased the values of the different comfort related properties evaluated. Moreover, the properties of Outlast® and Coolmax® fabrics are significantly influenced by fabric characteristics and structure, particularly in what concerns thermal properties, diffusion ability, air and water vapor permeability. Wicking ability is mainly determined by fabric structure and the drying ability by raw material properties. Outlast® fabrics are considered preferred candidates for warmer climate sportswear, particularly due to their lower thermal resistance, higher thermal conductivity and absorptivity and higher water vapor permeability. As regards Coolmax® fabrics, the results pointed to a preferential use on sportswear applications for colder ambient conditions, particularly due to their high thermal resistance together with high wicking and diffusion ability. Onofrei, E., Rocha A.M., Catarino A. (1983).
  82. 82. The study suggest that it is possible to drain moisture in arbitrary downward directions or even horizontally using a drainage system .surplus water can be collected and let out of the clothing or for example into water reservoir .using a two layer drainage system, surplus sweat can be drained away from the skin to an outer layer and then along the drainage out of the clothing .this would allow managing all sweat directly in the under wear. Moisture accumulation in the fire fighter jacket or trousers could be avoided using such a drainage system. The best effect can be achieved with a hydrophobic inner layer in combination with a hydrophilic outer layer (Keiser,C., 2007).
  83. 83. This study is the first in a series of reports on understanding the performance of fire fighter clothing, in protecting skin from thermal injury that results from exposure to high intensity thermal radiation. A detailed mathematical model is constructed to study transient heat and moisture transfer through multi-layered fabric assemblies with or without air gaps. The model accounts for changes in thermodynamic and transport properties of the fabric due to the presence of moisture. Numerical simulations are performed to study heat and mass transport through wet thermal liners (used in fire fighter protective clothing) when subjected to a radiative heat flux from a gas fired radiant panel. Results were found to compare well with experimental measurements. The numerical solutions are further analyzed to provide a detailed physical understanding of the governing processes. Moisture in the cloth tends to vaporise upon heating and part of it recondenses in the interior of the cloth. It was observed that the temperature of the fabric layers and total heat flux to the skin is significantly influenced by the amount of moisture and the distribution of moisture in the protective clothing. (By Prasad K. , Twilley W., Lawson J. R.,2002)
  84. 84. Suprelle™´s outstanding micro fibre technology has been designed to match the unique characteristics of real down. It offers an excellent thermal insulation in duvets and soft, supportive comfort in pillows, with its ability to return to its original shape. The unique softness of Suprelle™ comes from its ultra fine and short fibres and allows a perfect balance between comfort and technical performance. The brand is also available in an anti-microbial version:Suprelle™ Ultra with built-in resistance to bacteria, fungi and dust-mites. Suprelle™ Fresh in a blend with TENCEL provides excellent moisture management and enhanced microclimate. (www.advansa.com)
  85. 85. Climarelle™ is a high-tech brand bringing thermo- regulation to the complete range of bedding, sleeping bags and insulated apparel. The Phase Change Material (mPCM) microcapsules integrated within the Climarelle™ become fluid with a cooling effect when temperature is higher than ideal. When body temperature falls again, the microcapsules change phase from liquid to solid, releasing heat energy to the body and helping it to keep warm despite lower temperatures. Thus, thermo-regulating microcapsules store warmth actively and release it only when necessary, providing a balanced sleeping temperature all night long. (www.advansa.com)
  86. 86. The result of the study showed that 100% wool or wool blend with bamboo is preferable choice to use next to skin garments in extreme hot environments. Single jersey is the better fabric structure as compared to mock mesh being thinner and lighter weight as compared to double jersey mock mesh. The presence of moisture significantly affects the thermal properties of the synthetics when compared to wool or wool blends with natural fibres. ( by Nazia Nawaz)
  87. 87. The sports industry has driven much research within the textile industry to help improve athletic performance, personal comfort, and protection from the elements. Synthetics that were once thought to be inferior to natural fabrics now boast highperformance characteristics. Numerous products designed to improve the comfort of the wearer are commercially available; for instance, there are breathable waterproof fabrics such as Gore-Tex® and moisture-management textiles that wick moisture away from the skin such as Coolmax®. Gore-Tex® fabric uses a membrane of expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) that has pores of less than 1 mm in diameter, allowing water vapor to penetrate the material, but preventing the passage of liquid. To maintain the wearer’s comfort, it is important that sweat is allowed to evaporate, maintaining the body’s natural thermoregulatory function. High-performance moisture-wicking fabrics worn next to the skin transport perspiration away from the body to the outside of the garment where it can more quickly evaporate. This is achieved using synthetic microfibers that, unlike natural fibers, do not absorb moisture, but rather pass it through by a wicking effect that makes them more comfortable to wear. It is even possible to maintain constant body temperature using phase-change technology such as Outlast Adaptive Comfort®. Phasechanging materials (PCMs) absorb, store, and release heat as the material changes phase from solid to liquid and back to solid. Coyle S., Wu Y., Lau K.U., Rossi D.D., Wallace G.,And Diamond D. (2007)
  88. 88. Kanebo Spinning Corp. of Japan has produced a polyester yarn with thirty times the ability of normal polyester to absorb moisture. The yarn, suitable for use in undergarments, has twenty layers for containing moisture and oil content. The layers have a total thickness of fifty nanometres.Toray Industries, Inc. of Japan has developed a fabric containing bundles of ultra fine nanometre nylon threads that allow superior moisture absorption properties. ( http://www.observatorynano.eu/).
  89. 89. Several moisture management finishes have been used to increase moisture absorbency; the fabric is durable to repeated home laundering and improves wetting and wicking action. For example, Resil HJHP is used particularly for increasing moisture absorbency of polyester fabrics and when combined with resil Nanocelle G6, can improve the wicking properties of fabrics of all types . (Manickam 2006)
  90. 90. A new hydrophilic finish, Sandoperm RPU Liquid is a new thermo-reactive polyurethane for dry fast, very full and extremely soft handle on cellulosic and polyamide fibres. Applied with silicone softeners, Sandoperm RPU Liquid produces a hydrophilic finish, improving the elasticity/shape recovery of knitted goods. The Nano-Dry finish from Nano- Tex LLC is a durable, hydrophilic finish for nylon and polyester. In the latter fibre polyethylene glycol and amino silicone in nano-form are claimed to be applied to sportswear and underwear requiring perspiration absorbency. (Holme 2007)
  91. 91. The study was done to explore the effect of textile properties on the microclimate inside the cap and subjective wearing sensation in various environmental conditions ,with and without radiation or air current .heat and moisture transfer properties of cap fabrics were measured and their relationships with the microclimate inside caps and with the subjective wearing sensation in the three different environmental conditions were analyzed. The most important fabric properties affecting the microclimate in a hot environment was found to be those related to liquid moisture transport and emission.properties related to vapour transport and air permeability did not affect the microclimate much in hot environment without radiation and air current .however ,in the radiation environment ,fabric with high thermal retention generated a microclimate with low temperature and humidity ,thereby giving good thermal comfort .in the environment with air current ,air permeability and its related properties were the most critical fabric properties influencing the microclimate and subjective thermal comfort. (Jun,Y.,Park,C.H.,2010)
  92. 92. There are specific physical textile properties that may be measured in an effort to predict the comfort performance of fabric. Basically a textile material should be evaluated in terms of the most general functional properties: thickness, weight, thermal insulation, resistance to evaporation and air penetration. There are three clothing factors that relate directly to thermal comfort. First is the overall thickness of the materials and air spaces between the skin and environment. Second is the extent to which air can penetrate the clothing by wind or wearer motion. Third is the requirement that fabric does not restrict the evaporation of perspiration (Andersson 1999). COMFORT RELATED PROPERTIES OF FABRIC
  93. 93. Wear comfort is a complex phenomenon but in general it can be divided into four main aspects (Bartels 2005). • THERMOPHYSIOLOGICAL WEAR COMFORT- This comprises heat and moisture transport processes through the clothing and directly influences a person’s thermoregulation. • SKIN SENSORIAL WEAR COMFORT-This deals with the mechanical sensations caused by textiles as it is in direct contact with the skin. Pleasant and unpleasant perceptions such as smoothness or softness, scratchiness, stiffness, or clinging to sweat-wetted skin may be created by textiles. • ERGONOMIC WEAR COMFORT- This is characterized by the fit of the clothing and the freedom of movement it allows. The garment's construction and the elasticity of the materials are the main aspect of ergonomic wear comfort. • PSYCHOLOGICAL WEAR COMFORT- This is of importance as well. It is affected by fashion, personal preferences and ideology. contd..
  94. 94. Nielsen (1991) viewed comfort in a physical sense as the body being in a heat balance with the environment (thermal comfort), that the body is not being subject to pressure from narrow or badly designed clothing (movement comfort) and that skin irritation does not occur from unpleasant contact with clothing (sensorial comfort). Ishtiaque (2001) stated that clothing comfort is governed by the interplay of three components: body, climate and clothing. The human body, its microclimate and its clothing form a mutually interactive system. The body and its microclimate are invariable; the clothing system is the only variable. contd..
  95. 95. Thermophysiological wear comfort concerns the heat and moisture transport properties of clothing and the way that clothing helps to maintain the heat balance of the body during various levels of activity (Saville 2004). Sensorial comfort is mainly determined by fabric surface structure and to some extent by moisture transport and buffering capacity. It is associated with skin contact sensation and is often expressed as a feeling of softness, smoothness, clamminess, clinginess, prickliness and the like. These descriptors can be related to specific, measurable fabric mechanical and surface properties including the number of surface fibres and contact points, wet cling to a surface, absorptive, bending stiffness, resistance to shear and tensile forces, and coolness to the touch. These properties are mainly determined by fibre characteristics, yarn and fabric construction and fabric finish, but it is necessary to recognise that the extent of their relationship to comfort perception in clothing is also influenced by garment construction and properties (Yoo & Barker 2005).
  96. 96. Thermophysiological wear comfort concerns the heat and moisture transport properties of clothing and the way that clothing helps to maintain the heat balance of the body during various levels of activity (Saville 2004). Thermophysiological comfort has two distinct phases. During normal wear, insensible perspiration is continuously generated by the body. Steady state heat and moisture vapour fluxes are thus created and must gradually dissipate to maintain thermoregulation and a feeling of thermal comfort. In this case the clothing becomes a part of the steady state thermoregulatory system. In transient wear conditions, characterised by an intermittent pulse of moderate or heavy sweating caused by strenuous activity or climatic conditions, sensible perspiration and liquid sweat occur and must be rapidly managed by the clothing. This property is important in terms of the sensorial and thermoregulatory comfort of the wearer. Therefore, heat and moisture transfer properties under both steady and transient conditions must be considered to predict wearer comfort (Yoo & Barker 2005; Barker 2002). contd..
  97. 97. Sensorial comfort does not directly involve any temperature balance but is related to the way the person feels when clothing is worn next to the skin. Feeling wet and wet clinging can be a major source of sensorial discomfort in situations of profuse sweating (Kothari & Sanyal 2003). Sensorial comfort is mainly determined by fabric surface structure and to some extent by moisture transport and buffering capacity. It is associated with skin contact sensation and is often expressed as a feeling of softness, smoothness, clamminess, clinginess, prickliness and the like. These descriptors can be related to specific, measurable fabric mechanical and surface properties including the number of surface fibres and contact points, wet cling to a surface, absorptivity, bending stiffness, resistance to shear and tensile forces, and coolness to the touch. These properties are mainly determined by fibre characteristics, yarn and fabric construction and fabric finish, but it is necessary to recognise that the extent of their relationship to comfort perception in clothing is also influenced by garment construction and properties (Yoo & Barker 2005b). contd..
  98. 98. In general the principal thermoregulatory challenge during exercise in the cold is the dissipation of metabolic heat which can be alleviated by removing layers of clothing as the body warms. Thus the ideal winter clothing in dry, cold conditions blocks air movement but allows for water vapour to escape through the clothing if sweating occurs (Crow & Osczevski 1998; Gavin 2003). Moisture-handling properties of textiles during intense physical activities have been regarded as major factor in comfort performance. The comfort perceptions of clothing are influenced by wetness or drying of the fabric and thermal sensations resulting from the interactions of fabric moisture and heat transfer-related properties. The garment worn next to the skin should have good sweat absorption and sweat- releasing property to the atmosphere and fast-drying property for more tactile comfort (Kothari & Sanyal2003). THERMOREGULARITY FUNCTIONSOFCLOTHING There are two principal thermal properties that determine clothing effects on heat exchanges by convection, radiation and evaporation: thermal insulation and evaporative resistance (Holmer 2005).
  99. 99. Higgins and Anand (2003) Summarised the important textile properties for comfort: • INTRINSIC THERMAL INSULATION The intrinsic thermal insulation of a fabric can be determined by measuring its resistance to the heat transmission of heat by conduction. Intrinsic thermal insulation is proportional to the thickness of fabrics. It does not include the layer of air next to the fabric during use. • THERMAL INSULATION Thermal insulation is the resistance of a fabric and the layer of air next to it during use to dry or conductive heat loss. Unlike intrinsic thermal insulation, thermal insulation varies with the ambient wind speed. As the speed increases, the thermal insulation provided by the layer of air decreases. • RESISTANCE TO EVAPORATIVE HEAT LOSS Resistance to evaporative heat loss measures the ability of a fabric, together with the layer of air next to the fabric during use, to prevent cooling of the body by evaporation of heat generated during activity. Resistance to evaporative heat loss can be measured on either dry or damp fabrics. contd..
  100. 100. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY The thermal conductivity of a fabric is determined by the rate of transmission of heat through fabric. It is reciprocal of thermal insulation or thermal resistance. • Moisture vapour permeability Moisture vapour permeability represents the resistance of a fabric to the transfer of water vapour, also known as insensible perspiration, released by body. Relative moisture vapour permeability is the percentage of water vapour transmitted through the fabric sample compared with the percentage of water vapour transmitted through an equivalent thickness of air. Low moisture permeability hinders the passage of perspiration through the fabric, leading to the accumulation of sweat in the clothing. The rate of water vapour transmission through the fabric is also usually reduced by increasing the fabric thickness. • Water absorption Water absorption is the capacity of a fabric to absorb the sweat generated by the body and the rate at which it is able to do so. To prevent wet clinging, the fabric’s absorption should be low at the surface of the fabric which makes contact with the skin. CONTD..
  101. 101. • Wicking Wicking is the capacity of a fabric to transport absorbed sweat away from the point of absorption, usually the skin and the rate at which it does so. • Air permeability Air permeability is a measure of how well air is able to flow through a fabric. It can bemeasured on either dry or damp fabrics. A fabric which has good air permeability,however, does not necessarily have good moisture vapour permeability.Air permeability is likely to be lower in fabrics where the absorption of water leads to swelling of the fibre and the yarn. • Rate of drying The rate of drying is the rate at which water is evaporated from the outer surface of a fabric. The rate of drying must be sufficient to achieve continuous wicking and to prevent the fabric from becoming saturated with sweat. CONTD..
  102. 102. •Wind proofing Wind proofing is a mechanism for reducing the heat loss from a garment by convection, thus improving the overall thermal insulation of clothing system. • Surface coefficient of friction The surface coefficient of friction of a fabric contributes to its sensory comfort. The coefficient of friction usually increases significantly when a fabric has become wet, leading to rubbing or chafing of the skin. A low coefficient of friction is also essential when one layer of fabric is required to move freely against another layer. contd..
  103. 103. Cotton Cotton is a natural vegetable fibre composed mainly of cellulose and cultivated from a seed-pod-forming plant. Cotton is hydrophilic fibre, 8.5% moisture regain. It has poor elasticity, 3–10% elongation at breaking point. It has 74% recovery at 2% elongation; 45% at 5%. The wrinkle recovery is poor, and wrinkles in use. Cotton does not build up static electricity. The strength is good, with tenacity of 3–5 grams and increases 10% when wet (Gioello 1982). NATURAL FIBRES
  104. 104. Wool is a natural animal fibre composed mainly of protein that is formed by the covering or fleece of the sheep. Wool is hydrophilic fibre, with 13% moisture regain. Wool has good elasticity, with 20– 40% elongation at breaking point. The wool recovery is high, 99% recovery at 2% elongation, 65% at 20%. Wool has fair static electricity, is easily charged by friction on dry, cold days with low humidity. Wool strength is fair, losing 20% strength when wet (Gioello 1982). Wool has good wicking ability and is a good insulator even when wet. Wool fibres have the highest moisture regain of all fibre at a given temperature and relative humidity. Hence wool is able to absorb more moisture than cotton before becoming saturated. Also wool has a natural degree of water repellence in gentle or misty rain, which adds to both thermophysiological and sensory comfort. However, wool is slow to dry and has ahigh wet surface coefficient of friction. As a result, there is a risk of skin abrasion when using wool. (Higgins & Anand 2003). WOOL
  105. 105. Silk is a natural animal fibre composed mainly of protein derived from the cocoon of cultivated or uncultivated silkworms. Silk is hydrophilic fibre, with 11% moisture regain. Silk has good elasticity: 20% elongation at breaking point. Silk has poor recovery if stretched beyond 2% elongation. It has little static electricity. Silk has good strength in a dry state, but weakens and loses 15% of strength when wet (Gioello 1982). Silk is a soft, strong natural fibre and has luxurious handle. It has good wicking ability.Silk also has high thermal conductivity and therefore feels cool to the touch. Silk is not, however, an easy fibre to care for, which is a disadvantage in sportswear that is worn frequently (Higgins & Anand 2003). SILK
  106. 106. Viscose rayon is a manufactured fibre composed of regenerated cellulose coagulated from a solution of cellulose xanthate. Viscose rayon has good absorbency. It is hydrophilic fibre with 13% moisture regain. It has good elasticity with 15– 30% elongation at breaking point. Viscose rayon has 82% recovery at 2% elongation and 30% recovery at 20% elongation. It does not build up electric static. It has fair to good strength, good tensile strength when dry, and loses 30–40% of strength when wet (Gioello 1982). Like cotton, viscose is 100% cellulose but it contains a higher proportion of amorphous material. This makes it more absorbent than cotton. In addition, the slightly irregular surface of viscose fibres contributes to comfort against the skin when worn. Fabrics composed of viscose fibres, however, are difficult to launder. This limits their value for exercise and sports clothing (Higgins & Anand 2003). VISCOSE RAYON Regenerated fibre
  107. 107. Lyocell is a 100% cellulosic fibre derived from wood-pulp produced from sustainable managed forests. The wood- pulp is dissolved in a solution of hot N-methyl morpholine oxide (NMMO or amine oxide). The solution is then extruded (spun) into fibres and the solvent extracted as the fibres pass through a washing process. The manufacturing process is designed to recover >99% of the solvent, helping minimise the effluent. The solvent itself is non-toxic and all the effluent produced is non-hazardous. The direct dissolution of the cellulose in an organic solvent without the formation of an intermediate compound differentiates the newgeneration of cellulosic fibres. (Mbe2001). Lyocell fibres have a uniform circular cross section and a smooth surface. Fabric derived from lyocell fibres have the comfort associated with other cellulosic fibres, but have the added advantage of higher tensile and tearing strength. Lyocell fibre is available commercially as Lenzing Lyocell and Tencel (Higgins & Anand 2003). LYOCELL Regenerated fibre
  108. 108. Regenerated bamboo fibre is obtained from the bamboo plant, which is an abundant and cheap natural resource. Bamboo is widespread in Asian countries, and the bamboo fibre used in textile applications is obtained from Phyllostachys heterocycla pubescens, a species known as Moso bamboo (Erdumlu & Ozipek 2008). Because of the distinctive characteristics of regenerated bamboo fibre, such as its natural antibacterial and biodegradable properties, high moisture absorption capacity, softness, brightness as well as UV protective characteristics, bamboo textile products have started to edge into the textile market. With its high moisture absorption capacity (moisture regain 13%) and fast-drying behaviour due to its unique microstructure (there are several voids in the cross section of bamboo), bamboo fibre ensures comfort in various applications. Since chemical additives are not needed to obtain anti-bacterial characteristics, such products are not believed to cause skin allergies (Erdumlu & Ozipek 2008). BANBOO FIBRE Regenerated fibre
  109. 109. Polyester has poor absorbency with 0.4–0.8% moisture regain. It has good elasticity, 19–23%. It has very good recovery: 97% recovery at 2% elongation, 80% recovery at 8% elongation. Polyester has high strength, and no loss of strength when wet (Gioello 1982). Polyester is the single most popular and common fibre used for technical textiles.It is also the most used in active wear and sportswear. In its unfinished state, polyester fibre is hydrophobic and has a much lower water absorption capacity than cotton. Its wicking rate, although slow compared with other synthetic fibres, is faster than that of cotton. Polyester fibre is also cheap to manufacture, easy to care for and has excellent washing and wearing properties (Higgins & Anand 2003). POLYESTER
  110. 110. Polyamide has fair to poor absorbency with 4–4.5% moisture regain. It has good elasticity: 26–40% elongation at breaking point. It has 100% recovery at 8% elongation. It has high strength and exceptionally strong fibre (Gioello 1982). Polyamide fibres such as nylon 6 and nylon 6.6 have higher moisture absorption rates and better wicking ability than polyesters but dry more slowly. They are more expensive than polyester fibres and the use tends to be limited to swimwear and cycling clothing or as reinforcing fibre in blends used for sports socks. A number of variants of polyamide fibres are available, for example, anti- microbial, high-wicking and extra soft grades (Higgins & Anand 2003). POLYAMIDE
  111. 111. Polypropylene fibres are used increasingly in sportswear although their percentage share of the market is still quite small. The fibres have very low moisture absorbency but excellent wicking ability. As polypropylene does not wet out, its thermal insulation is retained during and after strenuous activity. Also polypropylene is a very lightweight fibre. Fabric made from polypropylene may shrink if washed at high temperature. This fibre is also relatively more difficult to finish (Higgins & Anand 2003). Polypropylene fibre is made by melt-spinning polypropylene. Polypropylene is obtained by the polymerisation of propylene monomer. Polypropylene fibre has the small specific gravity of 0.91 and is lightest among synthetic fibres. It possesses high tensile strength, and its material (propylene) costs are lowest. Polypropylene drawbacks are being unable to be dyed and being less heat-resistant, in addition to an insufficient resistance to light. Polypropylene fibre is relatively environmentally friendly. Polypropylene fibre hardly generates harmful substances when burnt because it consistsof only carbon and hydrogen. Recycling is very easy because its molecular structure is simple. Polypropylene uses less energy to manufacture than many other synthetic.
  112. 112. Acrylic is manufactured fibre in which the fibre- forming substance is any long-chainsynthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile units. Acrylic is a hydrophobic fibre with 1–2% moisture regain. It has good elasticity: 25–46% elongation at breaking point. It has 92–99% recovery at 2% elongation. It has fair strength and is 20% weaker when wet (Gioello 1982). Acrylic fibres are generally used in sportswear and active wear in the form of high pile fleece fabrics. In this application they are crimped, creating bulky fabrics with good thermal insulation. They have low water absorbency but can effectively wick liquid sweat. They are also light in weight. Their disadvantages are that they are prone to static build-up and have a tendency to pill during wear (Higgins & Anand 2003). ACRYLIC
  113. 113. Synthetic fibre can be modified during manufacture to improve its thermophysiological and sensory properties. A number of different techniques are available for producing such fibres, including the following: • Block copolymers can be added to the base polymer before extrusion. • Fibres can be extruded with different cross sections. • Fibres can be coated after treatment (Higgins & Anand 2003). One of the most common modifications made in order to provide improved comfort is the use of superfine fibres or microfibres with the filaments having a linear density wellbelow 1 decitex. The use of these fibres enables very dense fabrics to be created in which the fibre surface is significantly increased and the space between the fibre is reduced. This leads to the increase of capillary action for better thermal regulation (Higgins & Anand 2003).
  114. 114. Specialised polyester fibres have been developed in order to produce a more natural handle, to increase absorbency, to provide better thermal resistance and to reduce static (Higgins & Anand 2003). Another technique employed is the introduction of voids into the core of the fibre. These help to improve wicking and thermal resistance. One example of such a fibre,which has been designed specially for sportswear, is Welkey, produced by Teijin Ltd in Japan. The fibre has a hollow core and a proliferation of smaller holes throughout the body of the fibre. These help to increase capillary action and the wicking of sweat away from the skin. The increased number of air spaces inside the fibres also increases its thermal resistance (Higgins & Anand 2003). MODIFIED POLYESTER
  115. 115. DuPont offers a modified polyester fibre called CoolMax. This is a four-channel fibre with a cross- section that resembles a double scallop. CoolMax has been developed specifically for sportswear. It offers improved wicking capability and moisture vapour permeability. DuPont claims that CoolMax dries significantly more quickly than many other fabrics used in sportswear (Higgins & Anand 2003). DuPont has also developed Thermolite for use under cold weather conditions. Thermolite fibres are offered in several variants. One of these is Thermolite Base, which is particularly suitable for use next to the skin Novelproperties of Thermolite is a lightweight, hollow fibre offering more warmth and bettermoisture control than any other fibre of the same thickness (Higgins & Anand 2003). CONTD.. COOLMAX. THERMOLITE
  116. 116. Polyester microfibres are now widely used in sportswear. They are used in both underwear and outerwear. If treated with a fluorocarbon finish, fabrics made from polyester microfibres have a high resistance to water penetration while still remaining permeable to moisture vapour. Fabrics made from polyester microfibres also combine improved handle with strength and durability (Higgins & Anand 2003). POLYESTER MICROFIBRES
  117. 117. Two or more fibres may be blended into a single yarn to improve the thermophysiology and other properties of the individual components. Knitted fabric made from polyester/wool blends or polypropylene/wool blends, for example, can improve wicking and insulation properties of single fibre in single layer fabrics (Higgins & Anand 2003). FIBRE BLENDS
  118. 118. Knitted fabric is the most common fabric structure for the base layer, as it possesses high stretch and recovery, providing greater freedom of movement, shape retention and tailored fit. Knitted fabrics also have relatively uneven surfaces, which make them feel more comfortable than smooth-surfaced woven fabrics of similar fibre compositions. This effect results from the fact that fabric that has uneven surfaces has less direct contact with the skin (Higgins & Anand, 2003). Knitted fabric can be structured as multi-layer knitted fabric. Multi-layered fabrics, produced by either warp or weft knitting, have been developed for use in sportswear and active wear. It is possible to knit a simple two-layer construction, which facilitates relatively fast removal of sweat from the skin and in which evaporation remains unhindered by multiple layers of fabric. Such a fabric might have a structure in which the inner layer is produced from a textured synthetic filament yarn which is hydrophobic and has good capillary action while the outer layer is made hydrophilic yarn that absorbs the wicked moisture and then allows it to evaporate (Higgins & Anand 2003). KNITTED FABRIC
  119. 119. Research into the design of knitted fabric showed that the double layer fabrics are an ideal structure. For the doubled layer fabric, it is recommended that the inner layer, which touches the skin, is made from synthetic materials that have good moisture transfer properties such as polyester, acrylic, nylon or polypropylene. For the outer layer, materials that have good moisture absorption properties such as cotton, wool, viscose or their blends are recommended. The perspiration built up on the surface of the skin will be transferred to the outer layer of the fabric by way of the inner surface and consequently it will be absorbed by the outer surface. When absorptive material is used as inner layer, skin will have continuous contact with a wet layer and this feeling of feeling will irritate the wearer (Ceken 2004). Doubled Layer Fabric
  120. 120. FUNCTIONALITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTIVE SPORTSWEAR The human body has an operating temperature of 37oC, which it attempts to maintain under varying circumstances. The body temperature rises during physical activity and can generate heat that ranges between 100 watts at rest and 1000 watts during periods of intense physical activity. Thus, it is necessary to transport heat from the body to the environment so as to maintain the body temperature at 37oC. The heat transport to the environment is achieved through a dry flux (conduction, convection and radiation) and a latent flux produced by perspiration. The body perspiration vapour and liquid sweat 24 must have the opportunity to pass immediately away from the skin and possibly to the outer surface of the clothing (Kothari & Sanyal 2003).
  121. 121. According To Ishtiaque (2001) the predominant requirements of most active sportswear are: • PROTECTION : from wind and adverse weather • INSULATION : protection from cold •VAPOUR PERMEABILITY: to ensure that body vapour passes outward through all layers of the clothing system • STRETCH: to provide the freedom of movement necessary in sports Sportswear is one of the 12 main application areas defined by Techtextile, the leading international trade exhibition for technical textiles (Anand & Horrocks 2000). CONTD..
  122. 122. One interesting example of sportswear designed for a specific application is the development of Sportwool™ materials. These have been used successfully in a number of sports and sports clothing applications, including football shirts for Manchester United Football Club. The fabric used in the Manchester United football shirt is a two-layered double jersey fabric. The inner layer, worn next to skin, is made from extra fine Merino wool fibres (less than 20 micron). The wool fibre is comfortable, has a good water vapour permeability and transfers heat and moisture from skin to the outer surface which is made from 100% polyester filament yarn. Heat is able to escape and moisture is allowed to evaporate, assisted by wind and body movement.
  123. 123. Sportswear is a highly innovative field investing heavily in research and development, pioneering new technologies and concepts, and furthering performance and comfort. Sportswear design changes at a faster speed than other clothing categories. Sportswear designs are influenced by textile innovation, where from a technical point of view, new textiles allow enhanced performance regarding protection as well as athletic achievement and at an aesthetic stage (Bramel 2005).
  124. 124. Moisture management treatment promotes rapid wicking and evaporation and provides high added value to sportswear and casual wear, significantly enhancing the perceived comfort level of the wearer (Holmer 2007). Several moisture management finishes have been used to increase moisture absorbency; the fabric is durable to repeated home laundering and improves wetting and wicking action. For example, Resil HJHP is used particularly for increasing moisture absorbency of polyester fabrics and when combined with resil Nanocelle G6, can improve the wicking properties of fabrics of all types (Manickam 2006). Moisture Management Finishes
  125. 125. Moisture management finishes are used not only to impart hydrophilicity but also to enhance handle of fabric. A novel moisture management agent, Ultraphil HCT, is based on a silicone microemulsion. Ultraphil HCT imparts hydrophilicity and a very soft handle to cotton, while the quaternary chemical nature of the structure results in very high durability to washing (Holmer 2007). A new hydrophilic finish, Sandoperm RPU Liquid is a new thermo-reactive polyurethane for dry fast, very full and extremely soft handle on cellulosic and polyamide fibres. Applied with silicone softeners, Sandoperm RPU Liquid produces a hydrophilic finish, improving the elasticity/shape recovery of knitted goods. The Nano-Dry finish from Nano-Tex LLC is a durable, hydrophilic finish for nylon and polyester. In the latter fibre polyethylene glycol and amino silicone in nano-form are claimed to be applied to sportswear and underwear requiring perspiration absorbency (Holmer 2007).
  126. 126. Microencapsulation technology was utilised in the early 1980s by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the aim of managing the thermal barrier properties of garments, in particular for use in space suits. They encapsulated phase-change materials (PCMs), for example, nonadecane, with the hope of reducing the impact of extreme variations in temperature encountered by astronauts during their missions in space. Ultimately the technology was not taken up within the space program. However, the potential was recognised and after further development the work was licensed by the inventor, the Triangle Research and Development Co, to Outlast Technologies, in Boulder, Colorado. Outlast has exploited the technology in textile fibres and fabric coatings and PCM capsules are now applied to all manner of materials particularly outdoor wear (parkas, vests, thermals, snowsuits and trousers) and in the house in blankets, doonah, mattresses and pillowcases. As well as being designed to combat cold, textiles containing PCMs also help to combat overheating, so overall the effect can be described as thermoregulation (Nelson 2002). PHASE-CHANGE MATERIALS
  127. 127. Determination of thermophysiological comfort properties of the fabric Liquid moisture transport The Moisture Management Tester instrument was used to test the liquid solution transfer and distribution in knitted fabric samples. The principle utilised by the MMT (Li & Wong 2006) is based on the fact that when moisture travels through a fabric, the contact of electrical resistance of the fabric will change. The fabric is in contact with the sensor rings, which determine the liquid content and the liquid moisture transfer behaviour on the top and bottom surfaces of the fabric. On the basis of the measured voltage charges, the variation of water content with time on the fabric’s top and bottom can be quantitatively measured.
  128. 128. Sketch of MMT sensors: (a) sensor structure; (b) measuring rings (Yao et al. 2006)
  129. 129. During testing, each fabric specimen, the size of 80 x 80 mm, was placed flat between the top and bottom sensors and a predetermined quantity (0.15 g) of the testing solution was pumped onto the upper surface of the fabric to simulate a drop of liquid sweat. The signal for electrical resistance of the fabric samples was processed by the MMT. All fabrics were tested under the same laboratory conditions. The upper surface of the fabric is considered the surface closest to the skin of the human body and the bottom surface of the fabric is the closest to the neighbouring environment. The parameters (indices) measured were: Wetting Time, WTt (top surface) and WTb (bottom surface), is the time in which top and bottom surfaces of the fabric just start to get wet respectively after the test commences. Absorption Rate, ARt (top surface) and ARb (bottom surface), is the average moisture absorption ability of the fabric’s top and bottom surface during the rise of water content, respectively.
  130. 130. Overall Moisture Management Capability, (OMMC) indicates the overall capability of the fabric to manage the transport of liquid moisture. The larger the OMMC is, the higher the overall moisture management capability of the fabric. Maximum Wetted Radius, MWRt (top surface) and MWRb (bottom surface), is defined as maximum wetted ring radius at the top and bottom surfaces. Spreading Speed, SSt (top surface) and SSb (bottom surface), is the accumulative spreading speed from the centre of the fabric sample to the maximum wetted radius. Accumulative One-Way Transport Index, (AOTI) represents the difference of the accumulative moisture content between the two surfaces of the fabric and determines to a large extend whether the fabric has good moisture management properties. In terms of comfort, it means that the higher the one- way transport capacity, the quicker and easier the liquid sweat can be transferred from next to the skin to the outer surface of the fabric, thus keeping the skin dry.
  131. 131. POROSITY Porosity was determined by measuring the total volume of a fabric and calculating the total volume of fibre in the sample. The difference between these two values is considered as air space and when calculated as a percentage of the total volume, it gives the porosity (Skinkle 1940). Porosity was calculated based on the following formula: P= 100(AT - W/D)/AT Where; P = porosity, % A = area of the sample, m2 W = weight of the sample, g T = thickness of the sample, cm D = density of fiber, g/cm3
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  136. 136. FIBRE BRAND FIBRE MANUFACTURER COUNTRY Terital Zero Polyester micro fibre Montefibre Italy Myoliss Acrylic micro fibre Montefibre Italy Clarino Polyester micro fibre Kuraray Japan Tactel Nylon 6.6 micro fibre DuPont US Belima -X Polyester micro fibre Kanebo Japan

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