1. BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY TECHNOLOGY
1. Introduction – Status of Bakery industry in India (02 hrs)
2. Raw Materials for Bakery Products (05 hrs)
Flour, sugar, shortening, yeast, salt and leavening agents as raw material for bakery products, their
role and PFA specifications of these raw materials
3. Manufacturing of Bakery Products (15 hrs)
Different types of bread and preparation of bread using different methods, quality evaluation of
bread, staling of bread
Different types of biscuits and preparation of biscuits using different methods, quality evaluation of
Different types of cakes and pastries, preparation of cakes and pastries using different methods,
quality evaluation of cakes, different types of toppings
Preparation of other bakery products: rusks, crackers, buns, muffins, pizza and kulcha
Types of additives used in bakery products
4. Confectionery Products (05 hrs)
Introduction, classification of confectionery products, confectionery ingredients like starch, fats, colours,
flavours additives. Brief account of sweeteners like Gur, refined sugar, beet sugar, white sugar and liquid
sweeteners like Molasses, corn syrup, high fructose syrup, maple syrup. Reaction of sugar like
caramelization, hydrolysis sand crystallization, sugar boiled, chocolate and Indian confectionary
5. Layout, setting up of units and hygienic conditions required in bakery plant, operation and
maintenance of bakery equipment (05 hrs)
LIST OF PRACTICALS
1. Quality analysis of raw materials used in bakery and confectionery industry according to PFA
2. Preparation and evaluation of bakery and confectionery products:
f) Candy like ginger
3. Study and analysis of the production charts used for different products by bakery industries
4. Visits to bakery and confectionery industry
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Bakery products, due to high nutrient value and affordability, are an item of huge consumption. Due to the
rapid population rise, the rising foreign influence, the emergence of a female working population and the
fluctuating eating habits of people, they have gained popularity among people, contributing significantly to
the growth trajectory of the bakery industry. The Indian bakery industry is dominated by the small-scale
sector with an estimated 50,000 small and medium-size producers, along with 15 units in the organized
sector. Apart from the nature of the industry, which gravitates to the markets and caters to the local tastes,
the industry is widely dispersed also due to the reservation policies (relating to the small scale industries) of
Biscuits and bread which are considered to be the major bakery product and they account for 82% of all
bakery production. The unorganized sector accounts for about half of the total biscuit production estimated
at 1.5 million tonnes. The bakery segment in India can be classified into the three broad segments of bread,
biscuits and cakes. The bakery industry is one such industry in India, which is growing as never before.
With market size of Rs 1500 billion in 2014-2015, the industry is growing at CAGR of around 12-15 per
cent. Bakery industry is widely dominated by unorganized players which accounts for 90 percent of the
History of baking
The first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, and mixed
everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste. The paste was cooked by pouring it onto a
flat, hot rock, resulting in a bread-like substance.
Later, when humans mastered fire, the paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making
easier, as it could now be made any time fire was created.
The world's oldest oven was discovered in Croatia in 2014 dating back 6500 years ago.
The Ancient Egyptians baked bread using yeast.
Bread baking began in Ancient Greece around 600 BC, leading to the invention of enclosed ovens.
Beginning around 300 BC, the pastry cook became an occupation for Romans (known as the
pastillarium) and became a respected profession because pastries were considered decadent, and Romans
loved festivity and celebration. Thus, pastries were often cooked especially for large banquets, and any
pastry cook who could invent new types of tasty treats was highly prized.
The Romans baked bread in an oven with its own chimney, and had mills to grind grain into flour.
Bakery products are these types of products in which the baking is an essential unit operation during
its manufacturing. Bakery products are greatly influenced by the formula and quality of ingredients such as
water, flour, fat, sugars, salt, yeast, etc.
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Raw Materials for Bakery Products-Flour, sugar, shortening, yeast, salt and
leavening agents as raw material for bakery products, their role and PFA
specifications of these raw materials
WATER- Water plays remarkable role in fermented and non-fermented bakery products. Water is required for
gluten formation, cohesiveness of dough and it acts as medium for all types of interactions and biological
reactions that occur during processing of a dough into a bakery product.
Gluten as such does not exist in flour. Only when flour proteins are hydrated, gluten is formed. Water
controls the consistency and dough temperatures. It dissolves salts; suspends and distributes non-flour ingredients
uniformly and also makes possible enzyme activity.
Bread and other fermented baked products have high moisture contents i.e. in the range of 40 per cent.
FLOUR (Maida) - Flour used in bakeries, is obtained by milling wheat. Flour is the principal ingredients
for baked product, without which production of bakery products is impossible. Wheat grains should be stored
at moisture content below 14% for stability during storage. Wheat is a classified according to the hardness and
colour of the kernel. Two type of wheat flour is used in bakery products, strong wheat flour and weak wheat
flour. Gluten quality varies in different flours from being very extensible. The types of flours made for
baking are the following:-
Bread flour- Bread flour should from good gluten when mixed with water, and from bread
with a good volume when baked. Bread flours should have high protein content. They are
milled from blends of hard winter and spring wheat and then moisture content, protein
content, ash content, starch quality, protein quality and particle size are all controlled
Self-rising flour- This flour is used domestically for making puddings, cakes, pastries, etc.
this is made from milling weak of low protein content. Hard wheat up to 20% can also be
used. Sodium bicarbonate and acid calcium phosphate or some other acid ingredients are the
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All purpose flour- is made from hard wheat or a blend of hard and soft wheat and has
moderate protein content. It does not contain self-raising agents. It is suitable for use in yeast
and quick bread, biscuits, pastries and cakes.
Biscuit flour- This flour is made from weak wheat of low protein content. Depending on the
types of biscuit, special types of flours are made.
Cake flour- Cake flour is a medium-strength flour ground from soft low protein wheat of low
alpha-amylase activity and is very fine is structure. The purpose of flour in cakes is to allow
an aerated structure to be retained after the cake has been made.
Pastry flour- pastry flours similar to cake flour are made of soft wheat and are fairly low in
protein. They are finely ground and they are can be used for all baked products other than
PFA specification for wheat flour
1. Moisture – Not more than 14.0 per cent (when determined by heating at 130-133oC for 2
2. Total ash – Not more than 1.0 per cent (on dry weight basis).
3. Ash insoluble in dilute HCl – Not more than 0.1 percent (on dry weight basis).
4. Gluten (on dry weight basis).- Not less than 7.5 per cent
5. Alcoholic acidity (with 90 per cent alcohol) expressed as H2SO4 – Not more than 0.12 per cent
6. It shall be free from Rodent hair and excreta.
SWEETENERS-Sweeteners are regarded as the most important class of ingredients in bakery products. The
primary purpose of sweetening agent is to make product sweet. The quantity of sweetening agent
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added is usually such that it has significant effect on the texture and appearance of the product as
well as on flavour.
Sugar is act as a tenderizing agent in baked products. In fermented products sugar also act a
food of baker’s yeast. The sweetening agents used in bakery products and in particular cookie/biscuit
making has varied functions and may be divided into three categories:
1. Sucrose and invert sugar
2. Derivatives of cornstarch
3. Other sweeteners.
1. Sucrose and invert sugar - In bakery products formation the function of sucrose is not only as a nutritive
sweetener, but also as texturiser, colouring agent and as a means of controlling spread. Cookie/biscuit maker
prefers to use some amount of invert sugar in some cookie formulae, as it assists in retaining moisture and
promotes chewiness. Invert sugar also contributes to a richer, more appealing crust, colour, as it caramelizes
2. Derivatives of corn starch-Corn sugar are approximately two-third as sweet as sucrose; therefore, additional
quantities of corn sugar are necessary to
obtain comparable sweetness. Corn
sweeteners contain both dextrose and
fructose which readily participate in the
classic non-enzymatic browning.
3. Other sweeteners-Honey is natural syrup,
rich in fructose and mainly used in cookies
for development of specific flavor, crust
colour and additional softness. They also
increase the nutritional value of bakery
products. In most cookie applications use of
saccharin, a synthetic sweetener is to replace
sugar in dietetic formulations. Saccharin is
about 300 to 500 times sweeter than the table
PFA specification for Sugar
Moisture (% by mass) not more than 1.5%
Ash not more than 0.7%
Sucrose not more than 90.5%
PFA specification for Sugar
Grade Dextrose equivalent
Low conversion 28-37
Regular Conversion 38-47
Intermediate Conversion 48-57
High Conversion 58-67
Extra High 68-above
YEAST- Baker's yeast (Sacharomyces cerevisiae) is primarily used in the bakery industry because it is produced
commercially in large quantities and has ability to produce large volume of gas in dough system. Two
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types of baker's yeast are produced commercially, namely wet compressed yeast (WCY) and active dry
yeast (ADY). Some countries also produce another form of baker’s yeast called instant yeast (IDY).
It is dry and porous and hence can be mixed with flour without any need for dispersion in water
as is required in the case of WCY and ADY. Generally about 1.0% of ADY or 4.0% WCY (flour basis) is
used while mixing dough for manufacture of bread. The functions of baker’s yeast are:
1. to produce required volume of gas
2. to impart desirable flavour and aroma and
3. to develop spongy texture of fermented products
The primary function of yeast is to leaven the dough to produce a porous product. The yeast
ferments sugar, producing carbon dioxide and ethanol. The gas-producing power of the yeast is
influenced by temperature, pH, and alcohol concentration, nature of carbohydrate supply, osmotic
pressure and yeast concentration. The optimum pH for gas production by the yeast is 5.5, but the
yeast is quite tolerant to changes in pH, and the gas production is 80% of the optimum value in the
pH ranges 3.7-8.0. Besides contribution to bread loaf volume by production of CO2
, the role of yeast
fermentation is to influence the texture of the dough, to contribute to flavor and aroma, and finally to
enhance the nutritional value of the bread
PFA specification for Yeast
WCY should have a creamy white colour and odour characteristic of good baker's yeast and a
fine even structure. It should not be slimy, moldy, no signs of deterioration and should be free from
starch adulteration and other extraneous matter. It should be free from starch and adulteration.
ADY should be in the form of granules, pellets or flakes. It should contain edible starch up to
10% of biomass may be added as per Indian standards.
SALT-Salt an essential ingredient for most baked foods performs functions in baking that cannot be
duplicated by any other ingredients. In bread baking the percentage of salt added that is considered normal,
ranges from 1.8% to 2.2% of the total amount of flour. Salt is a natural antioxidant and not only adds taste
but especially helps bring out the flavors and aromas present in the flour and other ingredients.
Next to its role in boosting the flavor of your bread, salt plays a role in tightening the gluten structure
and adding strength to your dough. It helps the loaf to hold on to the carbon dioxide gas that is formed
during fermentation, supporting good volume.
Salt slows down fermentation and enzyme activity in dough. The salt crystals draw water away form their
environment (salt is ‘hygroscopic’). When salt and yeast compete for water, salt wins and the yeast is
Because of its moisture maintaining properties, salt can prevent bread from getting stale but it can
also (this is especially true in humid environments) absorb moisture from the air and leave you with soft
crusts and soggy bread.
Salt also lowers caramelization temperature of cake batters and aids in obtaining crust colour. Salt
also aids in preventing the formation and growth of undesirable bacteria in Yeast-raised dough. Amount of
salt to be used depends on several factors but mainly upon the type of flour. Weak flour will take more salt,
because salt, gives strengthening effect to proteins. Table salt should have the following characteristics for
use in the bakery:
a) It should be completely soluble in water.
b) It should give a clear solution. Cloudy solution will indicate presence of certain impurities.
c) It should be free from lumps.
d) It should be as pure as possible.
e) It should be free from a bitter or biting taste.
PFA specification for Salt
It is a crystalline solid containing moisture mot more than 6 %. It should contain 0.5%
moisture and should pass 212 milstone
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FAT/SHORTENING- Any edible fat used in bakery products is known as shortening. Shortening is
essential components of most bakery products. The amount of shortening in the formula influences both the
machining response of the dough and the quality of the finished products. The saturated fatty acids are more
important than unsaturated fatty acids as shortening because the saturated fatty acids are chemically
complete and stable and therefore, do not undergo much bio-chemical when stored.
Functions of fat/shortenings
(a). Shortening reduces the toughness of dough.
(b). It improves dough for machining and sheeting by lubricating the gluten.
(c). Controls the flow of dough
(d). Gives shorter bite to the goods
(e). Enhances the product flavour and taste
The “off flavour” developed in bakery products during an extended shelf life is due to
rancidity developed in the shortenings. These are mainly due to:
(a). Breakdown of fatty acid chains by oxidation,
(b). Spoilage by micro-organisms,
(c). Fat splitting by enzymes, particularly lipase and
(d). Absorption of foreign odours.
Some of the commonly used shortenings are summarized below.
Lard: Lard is used in vast quantities in western countries
since it has a distinct and desirable natural flavor. But in
India its use is limited due to religious factors.
PFA specification for vanaspati
It should not contain any harmful substances
If any flavour is added, it should be disguising from
It should not have moisture exceeds 6-25%
Melting point should be between 31-37%
It should not PFA as only acids exceeds 0.20%
The products on melting shall be clear in appearance
or free from rancidity
It should contain refines oil not less than 0.5% by
Why does chapati swell up?- If you
noticed the process of making phulka,
dough sheets are first partially baked
from both the sides and then put directly
on flame and this causes swelling of
During partially baking of dough
sheet, there is surface denaturation of
protein (gluten) and removal of moisture
from surface. Thus hard cover is formed
from both the side, but the inside of sheet
is still full of moisture. When this sheet is
placed directly on flame, due to high
temperature, the moisture from within
the sheet vaporizes, and try to expand.
But as outer layer is harder, steam
doesn’t get space to escape out and thus
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No antioxidant is added
LEAVENING AGENTS- Leavening agents aerates a mixture and thereby lightens it. They also improve
the texture and appearance of baked products. Leavening action may be produced by mechanical,
chemical and biological means. In cookies leavening action is generally achieved by chemical and
mechanical means. In cookies biological method of leavening is not practiced because the higher
amount of sugars and shortening do not permit the efficient growth of yeast. Types of leavening:
The leavening of baked products may be brought about by four general methods:
1. By means of air (mechanical)
a. By creaming action- The old fashioned pound cake is a representative of the class of cake
raised by this process, where the air is ‗whipped‘ into the shortening and sugar during
creaming and expands when heated in the oven to cause the cake to rise.
b. By beaten eggs- We all know that when eggs are beaten they become fluffy and foamy
because of the whipped in air.
2. Liberating carbon dioxide gas in the dough by means of yeast action- An example of this
method is bread.
3. Water vapour – As the temperature of a cake batter or bread dough increases (in the oven)
water is changed into water vapour (and some eventually steam), thus exerting a greater
4. Producing leavening action by use of chemicals- Examples of such chemicals are:
a. Baking Soda
b. Baking Powder
c. Sodium bicarbonate
d. Ammonium bicarbonate
1. Ammonium Bicarbonate: Ammonium bicarbonate, often use in cookies, decomposes at
high temperature into ammonia, carbon dioxide, and stem. Its usage increases spread and
gives a large, more desirable “crack” in sugar cookies. But, it cannot be employed in moist,
large volume bakery products as ammonia retention producers an objectionable strong
pungent flavour and odour.
2. Sodium Bicarbonate: Sodium bicarbonates generate carbon dioxide and water in the oven
by reaction with acids in the flour, leaving the sodium carbonate as the residual salt. Sodium
carbonate has an unpleasant flavour and can react with fats to cause soapy tastes. Sodium
carbonate has marked softening action on gluten causing spread and also darkening the
3. Baking powder: Baking powder is the leavening agent produced by mixing an acid reacting
material and sodium bicarbonate with or without starch or flour as filler. Since all baking powder
must consist of baking soda the only way in which these can differ is in the type of acid
ingredient used. Banking powder is classified as slow acting and fast acting.
The fast-acting powders give off most of their gas volume during the first few minutes
of contact with product.
On the other hand, the slow-acting powders give up very little of their gas volume at
low temperatures-they require the heat of the oven to react completely. Since banking time of
cookie is short, therefore, it requires fast acting powder for better results. On the other hand
cake where baking time is more requires slow-acting baking powder Double acting Baking
Powder: This type of powder consists of two acid ingredients- one fast acting and one slow acting
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4 Baking soda: Baking Soda is known chemically as sodium bicarbonate and has the formula
NaHCO3. Baking Soda will liberate carbon dioxide, a leavening gas, when heated. It will also
liberate this same gas, when it is mixed with an acid, either hot or cold. When baking soda is
heated the products formed are carbon dioxide, water and sodium carbonate (washing soda). The
chemical action is as follows:
2NaHCO3 CO2+H 2O+Na 2CO3
From the above chemical action we can see that if soda alone is used as a leavening agent a
residue of washing soda will remain in the cake. This residue, when present in excess, gives the
cakes a dark colour and unpleasant taste. Level of banking soda recommended for cookies is
0.4% on flour weight basis.
PFA specification for Baking Powder
The products should be in form of free white powder and free from any odour
Co2 by mass=12%
MILK- While using milk in bakery products, it should be considered in two parts. These refer to 1) water 2)
total solid contents in. Milk contributes towards eating qualities. The water in milk combines with the other
ingredients. Flour require water to develop structure, sugar to be a tenderizer, moisture must be present.
Thus the moisture of the milk combined with other ingredients may contribute to both toughness and
tenderness in the products.
The milk solids have a binding effect on the flour protein, creating a toughening effect. They also
contain lactose which helps to regulate crust color. They improve the flavour and are important moisture
retaining agents. Advantages of using Milk solids in Bread Production:
There are several advantages that could be derived from adding milk solids in the bread dough. These are
1) Increased Absorption and Dough Strengthening
2) Increased Mixing Tolerance
3) Longer Fermentation
4) Better Crust Colour
5) Better Grain and Texture
6) Increased Loaf Volume
7) Better keeping Quality
8) Better Nutrition
PFA specification for Milk Powder
Flavour and odour good
Moisture (%by weight) 4%
Total milk solids 96%
Solubility index 15 ml for roller dry and 2 ml for spray dry
Total ash 7.3%
Titrable acidity 12%
Bacterial count 5000
Other than these ingredients are also used in bakery industries as minor ingredients like spices,
flavorings, food color, coca, and chocolate etc. These ingredients are mainly used to improve the
flaovour of the bakery products
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The spices are used in comparatively small quantities in the baked products. These are quite important
ingredients-even indispensable, as their presence, even though in small quantities does improve the eating
qualities of the products as well as the physical characteristics.
Flavour may be defined as the sensation of smell and taste mingled. Flavour is an important ingredient in a
sweet goods formula. Flavour is really the ingredient which helps the baker to add uniqueness to his product.
Appearance may be an eye-catching factor in the first sale of any baked product but flavour holds the key to
all subsequent sales. The general accepted components of taste are: ―Sweetness, sourness, saltiness and
The use of colour is important as the use of flavour. The eyes appeal of the product is enhanced by the use of
colour. The correct colour should be used to complement directly the flavour added in the product.
Cocoa and chocolate
Cocoa and chocolate are used vary widely in the production and finishing of cakes, pastries, pies and
cookies. They provide for variety of products and the characteristic flavour and colour in the product and
also supply body and bulk to the cake mix or icing.
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Manufacturing of Bakery Products- Different types of bread and preparation of
bread using different methods, quality evaluation of bread, staling of bread
The basic recipe for bread making should include wheat flour, yeast, salt and water. If any one of these basic
ingredients is missing, the acceptable product cannot be prepared. Other ingredients are known as optional,
for example, fat, sugar, milk and milk product, malt and malt product, oxidants (such as ascorbic acid and
potassium bromate), surfactants and anti-microbial agents. Each of these ingredients has specific role to play
in bread making.
Sr. No Ingredients Percentage
1. Flour 100
2. Yeast 2-4
3. Salt 2
4. Sugar 6
5. Fat 2
6. Water 60
BREAD MAKING PROCEDURE
The following steps are generally considered essential for the production of good quality bread.
1. SELECTION OF INGEDEINTS-The basic recipe for bread making should include wheat flour,
yeast, salt and water. If any one of these basic ingredients is missing, the acceptable product cannot
be prepared. Other ingredients are known as optional, for example, fat, sugar, milk and milk product,
malt and malt product, oxidants (such as ascorbic acid and potassium bromate), surfactants and anti-
2. WEIGHING-The next step is weighing of different ingredients as per formulation. Minor ingredients
have to be weighed more precisely. Salt, sugar, oxidizing agents and yeast are added in solution
form. Yeast is added as a suspension, which is mixed well each time before dispensing. Sequence of
addition of ingredients also affects the dough characteristics. Generally shortening and salt are added
after the clean up stage.
3. PREPARATION OF RAW MATERIAL-The flour is generally sieved before using in bread
primarily for following reasons:
a. To aerate the flour
b. To remove coarse particles and other impurities
c. To make flour more homogeneous.
4. MIXING-Mixing of flour and ingredients involves i.e. hydration & blending, dough development
and dough breakdown. The process of mixing begins with hydration of the formula ingredients.
During mixing dough developed in different stages. The mixing time varies with the type of flour,
type of mixer, speed of mixing arm, presence of salt or shortening, additive, particle size as well as
damaged starch content of flour. Various stages of mixing are explained below:
a. Initial hydration stage-At this stage ingredient is blended and homogenised. The dough
begins to wet and sticky.
b. Pick up stage-At this stage the hydration of ingredients is advanced and they are aggregated
into wet mass. The wet mass is uneven and wet. The gluten begins to develop in the dough
c. Clean up stage-Further mixing develops the gluten network in the dough. Dough becomes
extensible and elastic.
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d. Development stage-The dough becomes more viscoelastic in nature. It gives silky and shine
e. Optimum stage-This is the optimum mixing stage. Dough at this stage is elastic, silky and
smooth. Forms thin membrane of uniform thickness when stretched without breaking. It is
the right stage to process dough for bread making.
f. Break down stage-Beyond optimum stage the dough becomes increasingly soft, smooth and
highly extensive. Dough also becomes sticky and demonstrates poor machine ability. This is
generally referred to as the dough being ‘broken down’. Such dough will create problem in
dough handling and frequent break down in the plants and ultimately results into processing
5. FERMENTATION-Fermentation is achieved by yeast (Saccaromyces cerevisiae). The yeast in
dough breaks down the 1sugars to carbon dioxide and ethanol. The gas produced during fermentation
leavens the dough into foam. When fermented dough is baked, the foam structure gets converted into
sponge structure that is responsible for aerated structure of breadcrumb. The conditions under which
fermentation occurs affect the rate of carbon dioxide production and flavour development in the
The temperature and relative humidity conditions are particularly important for yeast activity
and gas production. In the temperature range of 20 to 40ºC, the yeast fermentation rate is doubled for
each 10ºC rise in temperature. Above 40ºC yeast cells are started to get killed. The yeast performs
well at 30-35ºC and relative humidity of 85 % and above. The optimum pH range for yeast is 4 to 6.
Below pH 4 the yeast activity begins to diminish and it is inactivated below pH 3. Osmotic pressure
also affects the activity of yeast.
6. KNOCK BACK-Punching of dough in between the fermentation periods increases gas retaining
capacity of the dough. The knock back has the objectives of equalizing dough temperature
throughout the mass, reducing the effect of excessive accumulation of carbon dioxide within the
dough mass and introduces atmospheric oxygen for the stimulation of yeast activity. The knock back
also aids in the mechanical development of gluten by the stretching and folding action. Usually
knock back is done when 2/3 of the normal fermentation time is over.
7. DOUGH MAKE-UP-The function of dough make-up is to transform the fermented bulk dough into
properly sealed and moulded dough piece, when baked after proofing it yields the desired finished
product. Dough make-up includes
i. Scaling or dividing: - The dough is divided into individual pieces of predetermined uniform weight
and size. The weight of the dough to be taken depends on the final weight of the bread required.
Dividing should be done within the shortest time in order to ensure the uniform weight.
ii. Rounding- When the dough piece leaves the divider, it is irregular in shape. The function of the
rounder is to impart a new continuous surface skin that will retain the gas as well as reduce the
stickiness. Rounder are of two types i.e. umbrella and bowl type.
iii. Intermediate proofing- When the dough piece leaves the rounder, it may be not properly degassed.
The dough may be less extensibility and tears easily. It is rubbery and will not mould easily. To
restore more flexible, pliable structure, it is necessary to let the dough piece rest while fermentation
proceeds. Average time at this stage ranges from 5 to 20 min.
iv. Moulding- Moulder receives pieces of dough from the inter-mediate proofer and shapes them into
cylinders ready to be placed in the pans.
Moulding involves three separate steps;
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WHY POPCORN POPS- Popcorn kernels contain oil and water
with starch,surrounded by a hard and strong outer coating.
When popcorn is heated, the water insidethe kernel tries to
expand into steam, but itcannot escapethrough the seed coat
(the popcorn hull or pericarp).
The hot oil and steam gelatinizes the starch insidethepopcorn
kernel, making itsofter and more pliable.When the popcorn
reaches a temperature of 180 C (356 F), the pressureinsidethe
kernel is around 135 psi (930 kPa),which is sufficientpressureto
rupture the popcorn hull,essentially turningthe kernel inside-
out. The pressureinsidethe kernel is released very quickly,
expanding the proteins and starch insidethepopcorn kernel
into a foam, which cools and sets into the familiar popcorn puff.
A popped piece of corn is about20 to 50 times larger than the
If popcorn is heated too slowly,itwon't pop becausesteam leaks
out of the tender tip of the kernel. If popcorn is heated too
quickly,itwill pop,but the center of each kernel will be hard
because the starch hasn'thad time to gelatinizeand form foam.
v. Panning-The moulded dough pieces
are immediately placed in the baking
pans. Panning should be carried out so
that the seam of the dough is placed on
the bottom of the pan. This will
prevent subsequent opening of the
seam during proofing and baking.
Optimum pan temperature is 90°F.
8. PROVING OR PROOFING
PROCESS- Proving or proofing refers
to the dough resting period during
fermentation after moulding has been
accomplished and moulded dough
pieces are placed in bread pans or tins.
During this resting period the
fermentation of dough continues. The
dough finally proofed or fermented in
baking pan for desired dough height. It is
generally carried out at 30-35ºC and at 85%
relative humidity. Proofing takes about 55-
65 minutes. The dough expands by a factor of 3-4 during proofing.
During proofing care has to be taken that the skin of dough remains wet and flexible so that it
does not tear as it expands. Temperature, humidity and time influence proofing. Proof temperature
depends on the variety of factors such as flour strength, dough formulation with respect to oxidants,
dough conditioners, type of shortening, degree of fermentation and type of product desired. During
proofing lower humidity gives rise to dry crust in the dough. Excessive humidity leads to
condensation of moisture. Dough is generally proved to a constant time or constant height.
9. THE BAKING PROCESS-After proofing the dough is subjected to heat in a baking oven. Baking
temperature generally varies depending up on oven and product type but it is generally kept in the
range of 220-250ºC. During baking the temperature of dough centre reaches to about 95ºC in order
to ensure that the product structure is fully set. When the dough is placed in the oven, heat is
transferred through dough by several mechanisms such as convection, radiation, conduction, and
condensation of steam and evaporation of water. The baking time of bread may range from 25 to 30
minutes depending up on size of bread loaf.
10. COOLING-Bread should be released from the mould immediately after baking, otherwise the
moisture trapped between the bread and surface of the mould will make the product soggy,
technically known as “Sweating”.
When the bread is come from the oven after baking the process of moisture evaporation
continues as long as it is warm. If the bread is wrapped during this stage the water vapours will be
absorbed by the bread itself and this free moisture will be conductive to fungus infection.
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Bread is cooled prior to packaging to facilitate slicing and to prevent condensation of
moisture in the wrapper. Desirable temperature of bread during slicing is 95-105°F.
11. PACKING-Bread is packed in order to preserve its freshness and to protect it from the hazards of
external contamination. The bread should allow to breath but not unduly exposed. Wax paper or
indented propylene material is good to use as a packing material for bread.
Flow diagram for Bread making
Selection of raw material
Preparation of raw material
Dough make up (Scaling, rounding, inter-mediator proof, moulding)
Proving or proofing
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DIFERENT METHODS OF BREAD MAKING PROCESSES
Several bread making processes are available around the world and great varieties of breads are produced
using these processes. Bread making processes have been modified to suit modern and fast processing of
wheat flour into bread. The earlier processes had requirements of long fermentation and large space
requirements. The recently developed processes are no time to minimum time processes, which are fast,
labour and space effective. However, all these processes have single aim to convert wheat flour and other
ingredients into palatable bread products. The bread making processes have following common processing
steps for converting wheat flour into bread.
1. Mixing of flour with other ingredients to develop a dough or gluten network. Each of bread making
method has a requirement of mixer for kneading the ingredients together to form cohesive
2. Fermentation to mature or ripen the dough.
3. Baking to transform aerated dough into baked product.
MAJOR BREAD MAKING PROCESSES
The processes used for commercial production of bread differ principally in achieving dough
development. These may be classified into three broad processing groups although there are numerous
variations and also elements of overlap between each of the individual groups.
12. LONG FERMENTATION PROCESSES:
13. RAPID PROCESS
14. MECHANICAL DOUGH DEVELOPMENT PROCESS:
15. MECHANICAL DOUGH DEVELOPMENT PROCESS:
Here a primary function of mixing is to impart significant quantities of energy to facilitate dough
development, and the dough moves without delay from mixer to divider. The dough is developed by high
level of energy imparted at the stage of mixing.
Advantages and limitations of Mechanical Dough Development & Chemical Dough Development
1. A drastic reduction in processing time.
2. Space savings from the elimination of long bulk fermentation.
3. Improved process control and reduced wastage in the event of plant breakdowns
4. More consistent product quality.
5. Financial savings from higher dough yield through the addition of extra water and retention of flour
solids that are normally fermented by yeast in long fermentation
1. Faster working of the dough is required because of the higher dough temperatures used.
2. A second mixing will be required for the incorporation of fruit into fruited breads and buns.
3. In some views, a reduction of bread crumbs flavour because of the shorter processing times.
4. Use of chemicals not considered wholesome by consumers.
Processes where length of bulk fermentation is kept longer give better flavour in the product. If
increased flavour is required in breadcrumb made by the CBP or no-time dough or chemically developed
dough, then the use of a sponge or a flour brew is recommended. Bulk fermentation after the completion of
dough mixing in these processes is not recommended because of the adverse changes that occur in the dough
and the loss of subsequent bread quality.
LONG FERMENTATION PROCESSES:
Straight dough bulk fermentation process and Sponge & dough process are example, which falls
under this group. In these processes resting periods (floortime) for the dough in bulk after mixing and before
dividing are longer. In the case of straight dough method all the ingredients are mixed in one step, whereas
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in sponge and dough process, a part of the dough formulation receives a prolonged fermentation
period before being added back to the remainder of the ingredients for further mixing to form the final
I. STRAIGHT DOUGH BULK FERMENTATION PROCESS
In this method all ingredients are mixed together and the dough is fermented for a predetermined time. The
fermentation time is depending on the strength of the flour. This is the most traditional and most 'natural' of
the bread making process. Essential features of bulk fermentation processes are summarized as follows:
1. Mixing of all the ingredients to form homogeneous dough.
2. Fermentation of the dough so formed in bulk for a prescribed time (floortime), depending on
flour quality, yeast level, dough temperature and the bread variety being produced.
3. Dough formation for bulk fermentation is usually achieved by low speed mixers or may be
carried out by hand.
In general, the stronger flour will require longer fermentation to achieve optimum dough
development. So higher protein flours require longer bulk fermentation times than lower protein flours. The
dough is normally required 2 to 3 hours to mature. The supplementation of flours with dried, vital wheat
gluten to increase the protein content of weaker base flours also performed but this is less successful in
bread making processes. During bulk fermentation the dough develops by enzymatic action. Since
enzymatic actions are time and temperature dependent, therefore, adjustment of added water levels will have
to be made to compensate for these changes. .
Weigh all ingredients
Develop dough by mixing & ferment (2½ hr)
Punching & ferment for 55 min
Dividing & intermediate proofing (25 min)
Moulding and putting in bread tins & final proofing (55 min)
Straight dough bulk fermentation bread process
II. SPONGE AND DOUGH BULK FERMENTATION
The strong flour takes too long time for conditioning and
should not be used for making bread by straight dough method.
Normally ratio of 60/40 or 70/30 of sponge and dough is used.
The primary role of the sponge is to modify the flavour and to
contribute to the development of the final dough through the
modification of its rheological properties. During the sponge
fermentation period, the pH decreases with increasing
fermentation time. As standing time increases, the condition of
the sponge quality wise decreases and called over fermented
dough. The sponge and dough process produces soft bread with
uniform crumb grain structure. The sponge and dough process
has tolerance to time and other conditions. The key features of
sponge and dough processes are:
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1. In this process a part flour (generally two-thirds), part of water and yeast are mixed just to form
loose batter or dough (sponge).
2. Sponge is allowed to ferment for up to 5hr.
3. Mixing of the sponge with the remainder of the ingredients to develop the dough optimally.
4. Immediate processing of the developed dough with a short period of bulk fermentation period
The advantages of straight dough and sponge & dough bulk fermentation processes are as follows:
1. These processes are traditional processes where fermentation time is longer and hence, flavour
development in such processes is considered better.
2. Taste of bread is superior.
3. Cell structure of breadcrumb is more preferred.
4. Lesser requirement of chemicals and yeast as time available is sufficient for dough ripening.
5. Less cost of plant & machinery as simpler & less sophisticated equipments such as low speed mixers
1. More space requirement for processing.
2. These processes take longer overall time to convert flour and other formula ingredients into bread.
3. More expenses on labour hiring.
4. Product quality may vary from batch to batch due to poor process control.
In these methods a very short or no period of bulk fermentation is given to the dough after mixing and
before dividing. No time dough, Dutch green dough process and activated dough development process
comes under type of method
In this process different combinations of active ingredients are used to develop the dough and to reduce
fermentation period. Each of these processes is discussed below:
16. ACTIVATED DOUGH DEVELOPMENT (ADD)
This process was developed in the USA during the early 1960s and became popular in smaller
bakeries in the USA and the UK thereafter. Its essential features are:
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1. The use of a reducing agent generally L-cysteine Hydrochloride, proteolytic anzymes and ascorbic
acid to reduce mixing time of flour.
2. The use of oxidizing agents other than added at the flourmill.
3. The use of a fat or an emulsifier.
4. Extra water in the dough to compensate for the lack of natural softening.
5. Extra yeast (1-2%) to maintain normal proving times.
There are number of changes seen in ADD process. In starting, potassium bromate was commonly used
together with ascorbic acid and L-cysteine hydrochloride. L-cysteine works very fast in the mixer and can
reduce the mixing requirement of flour as much as 50% or more. Proteolytic enzymes can also be used to
reduce the dough development time. They give only 15 to 20 per cent reductions in mixing time. But they
keep working after the dough is mixed. Sponges could be added to change bread flavour, if required. Final
dough temperatures are kept in the region of 25-27°C.
NO-TIME DOUGHS WITH SPIRAL MIXERS-No-time doughs process is also known as short-time
dough process. In smaller bakeries the spiral mixer has taken over as the main type of mixer being used.
Spiral mixers have a number of advantages for no time bread making processes. The advantages of this
method are the elimination of long fermentation time, savings in expensive equipment, labour and energy
cost. The process involves developing dough chemically or mechanically by employing improvers and
malts. The compositions of improvers, which are used, vary widely, although the most common ingredients
are ascorbic acid, enzyme-active materials and emulsifiers. Most no-time dough processes use flours of the
stronger type with protein contents of 12% or higher. Water additions will be higher in short dough
processes than in bulk fermentation. The mixer type also influences the amount of water level used, with
some doughs being softer and stickier when taken out of one machine compared with another.
THE DUTCH GREEN DOUGH PROCESS-This process was developed in the Netherlands. It is included
under this process group as the dough after mixing passes without delay to dividing, although some resting
of dough is involved in the total process. The essential features of the process are:
1. Mixing in a spiral-type mixer or extra mixing in a speeded-up conventional low-speed mixer.
2. Dividing of dough immediately after mixing.
3. The dough is then rounded and given a resting period of 35-40 min.
4. The dough is re-rounded and given a further resting period before final moulding.
The name 'green' dough refers to the fact that after mixing the dough is considered to be underdeveloped or
'green' in bakery units.
MECHANICAL DOUGH DEVELOPMENT-In such method, the dough development is achieved mainly
in the high speed mixing machine. The maturation or ripening is achieved through the addition of improvers,
extra water and a significant planned level of mechanical energy. The mechanical dough development was
first successfully developed in the 1950s. This process was given the name of ‘Do-maker’. The 'Do-maker'
method produces bread loaf with fine and uniform cell structure, which eventually proved to be unpopular
with majority of consumers, and today few installations remain in use. The 'Do-maker' used a continuous
mixer. In 1958 the British Baking Industries Research Association at Chorleywood, UK, which was later
merged with the Flour Milling and Baking Research Association FMBRA) and more recently unified with
the Campden & Chorleywood Food Research Association) investigated the mechanical development of
dough. The process developed by this organization is known as Chorleywood Bread making Process (CBP).
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CHORLEYWOOD BREAD PROCESS (CBP)-The principle involved in the production of fermented
foods by the CBP remain the same as those first published by the Chorleywood team in 1961, although the
practices have changed with changes in ingredients and mixing equipment. The essential features of the CBP
1. Mixing and dough development takes place in a single
operation lasting between 2 and 5 minute at a fixed energy
input of 11Wh/kg of dough.
2. A combination of fast and slow acting oxidizing agents such
as potassium bromate and potassium iodate.
3. Addition of a high melting point fat, emulsifier or fat and
4. Use of extra water to adjust dough consistency to be
comparable with that from bulk fermentation;
5. Use of extra yeast to maintain final proof times comparable
with those obtained with bulk fermentation;
6. Control of mixer headspace atmosphere to achieve given
bread cell structures.
The main difference between the CBP and bulk fermentation
processes lies in the rapid development of the dough in the mixer
rather than through a prolonged resting period. The aim of both
processes is to modify the protein network in the dough to improve
its ability to retain gas from yeast fermentation in the prover. In the
case of the CBP this is achieved within 5 min of starting the mixing
FROZEN DOUGH PROCESS-This process is generally used for
retail or household baking for fresh bread, rolls and Danish pastries.
The end product cost could be maintained at par with the method of
production by saving on labour and other overheads. The frozen
doughs require longer proof time due to decreased yeast cells during
freezing cycle. The doughs are made usually from strong flour or by
using additional vital dry gluten. The presence of emulsifiers and
oxidants overcome the deleterious effect during freezing.
MICROWAVE PROCESS-Microwave baking of bread though initiated in 1960s, it actually picked up
during 90s. In this process the heating begins immediately and it is very fast. The heating depends greatly on
moisture, mass, dielectric properties, geometry, etc. The processing cost could be reduced and capacity
increased by this process. The microwaves fall in the frequency range of 300 MH (106) to 300 GHz (109).
Heating is caused due to the ionic induction and dipole movement influenced by rapidly changing polarity of
electric field. The microwave heating is quite expensive in terms of equipment and operation cost.
5 fun facts about bread
1. Bakers used to be fined if
their loaves were underweight
so they added an extra loaf to
every dozen, hence the term
2. Scandinavian traditions
hold that if a boy and girl eat
from the same loaf, they are
bound to fall in love.
3. Superstition says it is bad
luck to turn a loaf of bread
upside down or cut an unbaked
4. Assuming a sandwich was
eaten for breakfast, lunch, and
dinner, it would take 168 days
to eat the amount of bread
produced from one bushel of
wheat. A family of four could live
10 years off the bread produced
by one acre of wheat.
5. The inner part of the bread
incased in the crust is called the
“crumb” hence why small bits of
this part of the bread are called
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DIFFERENT TYPES OF BREAD
1. MULTIGRAIN BREAD-Multigrain breads are made with wheat flour and cereal grains as well as
oil seeds. Many types of multigrain breads have been made to sustain consumer interest in number of
developed countries. The grains and vegetables that have been used include corn, flax, millet,
triticale, buckwheat, barley, oats, alfalfa, soy, potato, rye, rice and sauerkraut.
2. HIGH FIBER BREAD- The regular consumption of refined foods has resulted in number of diet
related diseases, such as obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer of colon, gastrointestinal
disease and cardiovascular disease. Due to this containing higher dietary fibre food is playing
important role. The sources of fibers include wheat bran, corn bran, rice bran, rye bran, barley bran,
triticale bran and oat bran. In preparation of these products bran could be used at levels up to 30%
with minimum adverse effect. Use of bran, increases the water absorption and reduces fermentation
time of dough. In addition to using bran, gums like guar, karaya, xanthan, CMC etc. could be used as
a source of dietary fiber
3. CRACKD WHEAT BREAD-Adding about 15% cracked wheat in the formulation makes this bread.
Even clear flours could be used. It is better to soak cracked wheat in water for 2-3 hr.
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Typical recipe (%)
Clear flour 72
White flour 14
Cracked wheat 14
4. MILK BREAD-Milk bread should contain at least 6.0% milk solids. Milk solids could be added as
skimmed or whole milk solids, or milk, which is sterilized, or condensed milk when preparing milk
powder, the following points is to be considered.
1. Fat content in the milk
2. Lactose unfermented by yeast. Hence, adds to colour and sweetness.
3. Protein of milk has a volume depressing effect due to the presence of free sulfhydryl
groups, which acts as reducing agents.
4. Milk improves the nutritional quality.
5. Incorporation of higher amounts of oxidants helps in overcoming the deleterious
effect of milk protein.
5. HIGH PROTEIN BREAD-Wheat flour has a good carrying capacity and hence it could be fortified
with respect to calories, protein, salt, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals required for special target
groups. There is a greater scope to produce high protein breads using protein rich oilseed meals.
Normal white pan bread contains only 6 to 10% proteins. Any of the defatted oilseed meals contain
protein ranging from 40-60%. High protein material increases the water absorption capacity and also
improves the keeping quality.
6. WHEAT GERM BREAD-Wheat germ bread must contain at least 10% of germ. Wheat germ, which
is a by-product of flour milling, is nutritionally many superiors to other protein sources. It contains as
high as 30% protein of quality similar to the protein of eggs or milk. It is also a rich source of
vitamins and minerals and richest known source of tocopherol. It has been found that toasting of
germ not only improves taste and colour but also the keeping quality
7. SUGAR FREE BREAD-In sugar free breads; sugar is replaced with enzyme active flour (2.0%).
Formulation of sugar free bread is given below:
Wheat flour 100
Yeast 2 g
Ascorbic acid 100 ppm
The taste of such breads will be bland. Hence, other natural sugars like sorbitol could be
used. Sorbitol has sweetness of 60% of sucrose. Hence, diabetic patients could use breads
made with sorbitol and the quality of bread compares well with normal bread.
8. LOW CALORIE BREAD-Low calorie breads are made using cereal brans and fat substitutes.
Sucrose esters have been found to be a good substitute for fat. The demand for low fat/low
calorie/light foods is increasing considerably in other parts of the world. Using proper surfactant
maltodextrin or sucrose ester makes low or no fat bakery products. The other ingredients that could
replace fat are modified starches, dextrins, fibers, enzymes and emulsifiers.
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9. GLUTEN FREE BREAD-A small segment of population suffers from dietary wheat intolerance,
which includes disturbances known as celiac disease. The symptoms may include cramps, diarrhea
etc. and the responsible factor has been found to be gliadin. Using wheat starch or any other non-
wheat flours and gluten substitutes consisting of pre gelatinized starch, guar gum and carboxyl
methylcellulose could make gluten free breads. Use of emulsifiers like, mono and di-glycerides and
sodium stearoyl lactylate have been found to be beneficial in improving the quality of bread.
ASSESSMENT OF BREAD QUALITY
An expert panel generally assesses quality of bread, which is a subjective judgment. Objective methods have
also been evolved to judge the quality of bread. The techniques for assessing bread quality usually fall into
three broad categories: external, internal and texture/eating quality.
External quality attributes of bread
2. Symmetry of shape
4. Crust color
5. Evenness of bake
6. Oven break
The external quality attributes include product dimensions, volume, appearance, colour and crust
characteristics. The critical dimensions for most bread are their length and height, with breadth being of
lesser importance. Devices for measuring product dimensions off-line can be simple and include graduated
rulers and tapes. It is possible to measure product height and shape on-line using image analysis techniques.
Measurement of height will often be used together with width as a basis for an estimation of volume where
the product shape makes such estimates meaningful, for example with rectangular pan breads.
The most common method of assessing whole bread volume is by using a seed displacement method.
The apparatus comprises a container of known volume, which has previously been calibrated with a suitable
seed, usually rapeseed or pearl barley, into which the product is introduced. The seed is reintroduced and the
product displaces a volume of seed equivalent to its own volume. It is important to keep such apparatus
regularly calibrated with suitable ‘dummy’ products of known volume since the bulk density of seeds may
change with time. The external appearance of the product quite often is a major factor, which attracts the
consumer. The consumers prefer golden brown crust color all around. The presence of undesirable surface
blemishes reduces the loaf quality score.
Internal quality attributes of bread
4. Flavour and aroma
7. Crumb clarity and elasticity
Internal quality attributes of bread are usually refers to size, number and distribution of cells in the crumb,
the crumb colour and any major quality defects, such as unwanted holes of dense patches, visible in a cross-
section of the product.
Texture/eating quality of flavour
Texture and eating quality are important properties of bread products and are different from one another.
Crumb softness or firmness is the texture property, which has attracted most attention in bread assessment
because of its close association with human perception of freshness. The bread internal quality may be
judged by squeezing the loaf. A fresh loaf will be softer and spring back as the squeezing is withdrawn.
Texture analyzer can also judge freshness of crumb also.
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Bread staling, broadly, includes all changes, except
microbial that occur in bread after baking. Changes occur in both
crumb and crust of the bread, however, crumb firmness is more
correlated with bread staling. The moisture migration, change in
the structure of starch and retrogradation due to various physical
factor, are the major causes of the staling. A 60-100ºC, it is
possible to reverse most of the stale character of bread due to the
heat reversible character of starch retrogradation. Staling is more
rapid in white bread than in whole wheat and rye bread. This is
probably due to the fact that the whole wheat and rye breads are
generally higher in protein and pentosans content than normal
Bread stored at -22°C remained acceptable even after
40days; however, the bread stored for longer period or at
temperatures above -220C developed an off dour. Refrigerated
storage accelerates the rate of staling and after prolonged storage
(after 5 days) both conditions (refrigerated and room conditions)
produce the same degree of staling. The only advantage of
refrigerated bread would be that, the bread stored at room
temperature become moldy whereas that stored at refrigerated
temperature did not have any mold growth after 7 days of storage.
The crust of fresh bread is crisp, brittle and somewhat dry.
On staling it becomes soft, tough and leathery. This is caused due
to migration of moisture from the moist center crumb to the crust.
The hygroscopic crust readily absorbs moisture which diffuses
outwards and becomes soft and leathery. The excess humidity,
above 80% R.H.in the bread store is also undesirable. Preventing
the evaporation of water from crust to the atmosphere can inhibit
the staling rate of crust. The bread if packed in the moisture proof
wax coated paper or film, which does not permit the moisture
from interior of the loaf to pass through crust into the atmosphere,
stays fresh for longer time.
When starch is heated with sufficient quantity of water, at
a particular temperature the starch granules swell and the whole
mass becomes a thick paste called gel. The process is known as’
gelatinization’. At this stage starch can hold about 6 times water
of its own weigh. Because at this stage the starch present in
swallow state but when starch cool down it shrink and loose the
moisture. The result of this migration of moisture from the starch
to the gluten is claimed to be largely responsible for the
development of staleness in bread. The starch cells absorb more water when bread is fresh and have alpha-
pattern which on lowering of temperature, changes slowly to the beta pattern, which holds less water. As the
crumb of bread stales it becomes drier, less elastic, crumbly and harsh textured. It also looses the fresh
flavour and aroma.
5 fun facts about bread
1. The ancient Greeks were
already producing more than 80
types of bread in 2500 B.C.
2. Bread was so important to
the Egyptian way of life that it
was used as a type of currency.
They revered it so much they
would often place it in the tombs
of their dead.
3. Bakers were powerful credit
brokers during the middle Ages
in France. They often loaned out
bread as currency and as a form
of credit. King Louis IV said, “He
who controls a nation’s bread is
a greater ruler than he who
controls their souls.”
4. Napoleon gave common
bread its name when he
demanded a loaf of dark rye
bread for his horse during the
Prussian campaign. “Pain pour
Nicole,” he ordered, which
meant “Bread for Nicole,” his
horse. To Germanic ears, the
request sounded like
“Pumpernickel,” which is the
term we use today for this
5. in Britain, the ceremony of
First Footing is traditionally
observed in the early hours of
New Year’s Day. A piece of bread
is left outside a door, with a
piece of coal and a silver coin,
and is supposed to bring you
food, warmth and riches in the
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The following characteristic changes take place during the staling of bread.
10. Change in taste and aroma
11. Increased hardness of crumb
12. Increased opacity of crumb
13. Increased crumbliness of crumb
14. Increased starch crystallization of crumb
15. Decreased absorptive capacity of crumb
16. Decreased susceptibility of crumb to amylases
Bread faults and remedies
Good bread should be judged by its volume, bloom, shape, color, texture, sheen, moistness and flavor. In
general, one should examine the external area and the internal (crumb) area of the bread. Bread faults can
arise from many causes. Flour varies in grade,
in gluten content and quality. Color also varies
and so does the maltose content. When
examining the faults in the loaf of bread, the
temperature and timings, methods of
manipulation, addition of materials, errors in
setting and timing of machinery, all must be
taken into account.
Proper volume of bread is the outcome of adequat e conditioning of gluten and sufficient gassing power of
the dough at the time of baking.
ve yeast content.
2. Excessive volume
If there is over fermentation, the volume may be small because the gluten will be mellowed and will
not be in position to support the structure.
3. Crust color
It is controlled by the amount of sugar
present in the dough at the time of baking. If
for any reason, there is more activity of yeast,
more sugar will be consumed by yeast and
bread will have a light brown colour.
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4. Wild break or flying tops or shell
If the gluten is not adequately
conditioned during fermentation, the
top crust instead of rising gradually
will burst open under the pressure of
expanding gas. This is called wild
break or flying tops or shell tops.
5. Blind appearance
If the dough is over fermented,
the gluten will lose its resistance power. In such conditions no break shreds will be produced, this is known
Blind appearance. Some other reasons for the absence of break shreds are.
6. Holes and tunnels in bread
are not mixed properly in the dough.
structure on the lower surface of the bread, while the inner part will; rise as the heat penetrates in the bread
creating holes in the bread.
back is not done properly.
7. Cores and seams
When the cut surface of crumb is gently pressed
with finger tips, it is likely that entire surface may not be
evenly soft and presence of occasional hard spots may be felt. These hard spots are known as Cores.
d mixed dough.
The expansion of the dough (during baking) is restrained by the side walls or the cover of the bread mould.
Due to the pressure from the expanding gas, the outer structure of bread is formed into dense layers. If the
surface of bread is observed, it is noticed that the central part has an open soft structure while the outer
periphery has very close and compact structure. These dense layers are known as Seams.
in the oven before structure is set.
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8. Condensation marks
the water vapors will deposit
in the crumb structure causing dark colour patches known as Condensation marks.
9. Close crumb
used in the formula without compensating with
enhanced quantity of yeast, water and fat, the bread will develop a very close crumb.
crumb structure making it close
10.Irregularity of shape.
by hand, an even pressure should be applied so that a moulded piece of
dough has an even appearance. Expansion during proving of such piece of dough will be even and resultant
bread will have regularity of shape.
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1. Water absorption capacity of flour: Wheat flour absorbs certain amount of water to form
dough suitable for processing into a bakery product. This amount of water absorption by flour
is referred to be water absorption capacity of flour. It depends upon the protein, pentosnase,
damage starch and enzyme contents of flour.
2. Shortening: Any edible fat used in bakery products is known as shortening.
3. Baker's yeast: The yeast Sacharomyces cerevisiae is known as baker’s yeast as it is primarily
used in the bakery industry because it is produced commercially in large quantities and has
ability to produce large volume of gas in dough system.
4. Damaged starch: It is the starch that has been physically damaged during the wheat milling
process. The starch granule gets physically altered during milling and it is referred to as
5. Rapid processes: In this bread making methods a very short or no period of bulk fermentation
is given to the dough after mixing and before dividing.
6. Mechanical dough development process: In this process of bread making primary function
of mixing is to impart significant quantities of energy to facilitate dough development, and the
dough moves without delay from mixer to divider. The dough is developed by high level of
energy imparted at the stage of mixing.
7. Straight dough bulk fermentation process: The dough is fermented in bulk. This is the most
traditional and most 'natural' of the bread making process.
8. Chorleywood bread process (CBP): Mixing and dough development takes place in a single
operation lasting between 2 and 5 minute at a fixed energy input of 11Wh/kg of dough.
9. Bakery-A bakery (a.k.a. baker'sshop or bake shop) is an establishment that produces and sells flour-
basedfood bakedinan ovensuchas bread,cookies,cakes,pastriesandpies.Some retailbakeriesare
also cafés, serving coffee and tea to customers who wish to consume the baked goods on the
10. Baking- Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in
an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but
many other types of foods are baked. An oven is generally used to bake food but there are a
few other methods to bake food without an oven.
Some typical equipment required in baking are −
Ovens − They are used as a heating chambers for baking. Direct heat large kilns and modern electric
ovens are used in food preparation units. The electric ovens provide high degree of precise
temperature control and uniform heat.
Mixing Machine − It is used to mix all bread or cake ingredients together into soft dough or batter.
Tins − There are tins with various shapes and sizes used in baking. They create the resulting baked
product in attractive shapes.
Icing Bag with Nozzles − The icing bags hold the icing. They are used in decorating cakes in a
large variety of ways using nozzles of catchy shapes and widths. They provide a great way of filling
small glasses and molds in a sophisticated manner.
Baking Parchment − It is a cellulose-based paper used as a non-stick surface. It is often thin and
Knives − Bakery knives are used for cutting loafs, cakes, and handling pieces of cakes.
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Cake Stands − They are required to keep cakes of multiple tiers. Some of them are rotary. They
provide circular motion that makes the process of cake decoration easy.
Spatula − They are flat tip spoons, used to fold the batter and fill the icing bag. Spatulas often have
Different Products related to cereals
Dalia − Coarsely broken wheat. It is used to prepare a porridge-like snack.
Semolina (Suji) − Finely broken wheat. It is used to prepare Halwa or Upma.
Beaten Rice (Poha) − Dry, flat, flaky rice used in preparing various snacks.
Puffed Rice (Murmura) − It is roasted rice in special kiln to make it puffed. It is used to make a
spicy snack called Chiwda.
Jaggery (Gud) − thick boiled and solidified pulp of sugarcane juice. It is added in lentils and veg
dishes to balance hot and sour taste.
Vermicelli (Semiyan) Long and thin spaghetti made of wheat flour. They are used for cooking a
dessert named kheer and a snack named Upma.
Basic Terms Used in Bakery Industry
Beating (Vigorously mixing foods to incorporate air and develop gluten. Use Paddle attachment)
Blending (Mixing two or more ingredients to evenly distribute. Use Paddle attachment)
Creaming (Combining softened fat and sugar while incorporating air. Use Paddle attachment,
Cutting (Incorporating solid fat into dry ingredients until lumps of desired size occur. Use pastry
cutter or fingers, Paddle attachment)
Folding (Very gently incorporating ingredients such as whipped cream or eggs with dry ingredients
or batter. Use Spatula)
Kneading (Working a dough to produce gluten by repeatedly folding the dough onto itself. Use
hands or Dough Hook)
Stirring (Gently mixing ingredients by hand until blended. Use whisk, spoon or spatula)
Sifting (Using a fine mesh to pass dry ingredients though to remove lumps and aerate. Use sifter)
Whipping (Beating vigorously to incorporate air. Use whisk or Whisk attachment)
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Different types of biscuits and preparation of biscuits using
different methods, quality evaluation of biscuits
Biscuits and biscuit like products have been consumed by humans for hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years.
Although in existence for a very long time, the difference, the difference between a biscuit, cookie and a
cracker is still often less than clear. This is due to a recognized overlap between the boundaries used to
define each of the categories.
Biscuit are small baked products made principally from flour, sugar and fat. They have a moisture
content less than 4% and packed in a moisture proof container have a long life, perhaps 6 months or
HISTORY- The term ‘biscuit’ is derived from the Latin ‘bis coctus’ or the Old French ‘bescoit’, meaning
twice cooked. It is thought that biscuits have been baked for thousands of years and were originally baked in
a hot oven and then cooled in a cool oven, although this process would not be found in modern processing
factories. The raw materials used for biscuit manufacture is flour, sweeteners, shortening, milk, leavening
agents and other miscellaneous products.
Cookies were at one time referred to as small cakes or sweet biscuits. The Dutch have provided bakers and
confectioners with the word kocke which means small cake. The Americans began to use the word cookie,
whereas the English continue to use the word biscuit for the same product. There are more varieties of
cookies than any other baked product because there are so many different shapes, sizes, textures and flavors
that are possible.
What is meant by the terms biscuits, cookies and crackers?
The name ‘biscuit’ is regarded differently based upon geographic location. In the USA the term
‘biscuit’ describes a chemically leavened product which has no true parallel. In contrast, those products
recognized in the UK as ‘biscuit’ would be termed ‘cookies’ or ‘crackers’ in the USA.
Particularly in the USA, the term cookie is a sweet or hardly sweet thin to small chunky product, again
baked to low moisture content and with long shelf life. In other countries, like the UK, a cookie is usually a
more irregularly shaped biscuit formed, for example, by wire cutting the dough.
There is generally more agreement on the meaning of the term cracker. This is a flaky or open textured thin,
dry product which is not sweet but may taste of cheese or some other salty flavour.
CLASSIFICATION OF BISCUITS
There are basically two type of biscuit dough, hard and soft dough. The difference is determined by the
amount of water required to make dough.
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Biscuits may be classified in various ways.
1. Based on the texture and hardness.
2. Based on the method of forming dough and dough pieces e.g. fermented, develop laminated, cut,
moulded extruded, deposited, wire cut, co extruded etc
3. The enrichment of recipe based on fat and sugar.
In the UK, biscuits are separated into those made from:
HARD DOUGH BISCUITS
Hard dough has high water and relative low fat and sugar contents. In hard doughs the gluten is partially
developed. The dough is tough and extensible (it can be pulled out without immediate breaking).The biscuit
are either crackers or in a group known as semi-sweet and hard sweet. In this category the biscuits that can
be included are:
1) Water biscuits have a simple recipe mostly of flour, fat, salt and water in the ratio of
100:6.5:1:29. The dough is under developed and crumbly or in balls after mixing. Mostly Jewish
community prepares water biscuits. No flavor is added in biscuits.
2) Gluco biscuits-In India gluco biscuits are manufactured in the largest quantities and because of
lower cost it is most popular among children. A typical recipe of these biscuits is given below.
Wheat flour 100 parts
Sugar 33 kg
Invert syrup 15 kg
Water 10 liter
1) Wheat flour is passed through a sifter removes all the dirt, stones etc.
2) Sugar is ground and fat is incorporated in molten form
3) Mixing: Ammonium bicarbonate, sugar syrup and water are mixed thoroughly in a high-speed mixer
for a couple of minutes. Shortening and flavour are creamed for a few minutes. In dry mixing, maida,
salt, sugar, SMS paste, SMP and vitamins premix are mixed. The mixing time is about 3-5 minutes
4) Shaping and conveying to oven. The Rotary molder is used for shaping operation. This operation
involved feed roll rubber roll and die roll and extraction belt and panning table belt.
5) Baking: The biscuits baked in an oven that has different temperature zone e.g. 1200C, 3500C and
6) Cooling: In cooling, two cooling conveyors are used. The cooling time is around 4 minutes.
7) Packing: The biscuits are packed in BOPP or any other moisture proof packaging materials.
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SOFT DOUGH BISCUITS
Short doughs, which are soft enough to be just pourable, are called as soft doughs. It contains much less
water and relatively high level of fat and sugar. The dough is short (breaks when it is pulled out). The
biscuits are of the soft eating types which are often refereed as cookies. Pieces are formed by extrusion or by
same machine as wire cut. The dough is pressed out either continuously or intermittently on the oven band
that may be raised up and then dropped if discrete deposits are requires. Jams and Jelly can be added on the
top of dough deposit.
1. Sponge batter drops biscuits.
2. Fermented soft dough biscuits
In the US, biscuits are classified based on their method of processing, especially they way in which they
are shaped, with four main categories:
1. Sheeting or cutting (also called cutting machine dough) – This method is used for hard dough,
where it is passed through a series of rollers to obtain the desired thickness. The biscuit shapes are
cut out of the sheets using a die which may be plastic or metal. The dough needs to be strong and
elastic so that the biscuits hold their shape when the scrap is removed from around the cut biscuits.
2. Rotary moulding – This method is used for short dough and requires a dough with a relatively stiff
consistency that is not sticky. The dough is compressed into dies mounted on the surface of a roller,
with excess dough scrapped off. The moulded dough piece maintains it shape as it is pushed out of
the die onto the baking sheet.
3. Wire cutting – Short dough is extruded through a die and sliced with a tight wire at appropriate
intervals. The pressure placed on the dough in the extruder and the thickness of the wire vary
dependent on the dough properties.
4. Depositing – Soft dough is shaped by depositing due to its semi fluid consistency and lack of
cohesiveness. The dough is extruded through a nozzle and dropped onto a baking sheet. To achieve
uniformity in the size and shape of biscuits, the flow of dough is cut off at regular intervals.
CLASSIFICATION OF COOKIES (TYPES OF COOKIES)
Cookies are chemically leavened baked
products with top surface broken by fairly
wide cracks somewhat evenly spaced to give
uniformly sized islands. They have richer
crust colour and a moisture content ranging
from 1 to 4 percent. Cookies differ from
biscuits in respect to their crispness, bite,
taste, texture and level of ingredients used.
Cookies are generally crisper and contain
larger amount of sugars and shortenings than
biscuits. Cookies can be classified into four
major groups depending upon the kind of
equipment used to form the individual
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A. Deposit Cookies
B. Rotary-moulded cookies
C. Wire-cut cookies and
D. Cutting machine cookies
This category of cookies is made from very soft dough deposited directly onto the oven band by a forming
machine. Deposit cookies contain about 35 to 45 percent sugar, 60 to 70 percent shortening and unbleached
soft wheat flour with 8 to 8.5 percent proteins and 0.35 to 0.40 percent ash.
Rotary-moulded cookies are made from crumbly dough pressed into a form on a rotation cylinder, later
removed and deposited onto the oven belt. Rotary moulded dough is often high in sugar and fat but low in
water content. For rotary moulded cookies, the dough consistency must be such that it will feed uniformly
and readily fill all of the crevices of the die cavity under the pressures existing in the feeding hopper. During
baking, dough spread is minimum. Lecithin at about 0.4 per cent level is added to improve mach inability.
Wire-cut cookies are extruded products of slightly stiff dough extruded through a die and cut by an
oscillating wire. It is necessary to have the wire cut dough sufficiently cohesive to hold together as it is
extruded through an orifice, and yet it must be relatively non-sticky and short enough, so that it separates
cleanly as it is cut by the wire. Advantages of the Wire-cut cookies over rotary moulded cookies are more
open grain and softer texture, and, as compared to deposit cookies, a more uniformly shaped cookie.
Disadvantages over the rotary moulded piece are the lack of potential for making a surface design and
somewhat less uniformity of size and shape.
Cutting cookies are those cut into appropriate shapes from a sheeted cookie-dough. For cutting cookies, the
dough must be properly developed to provide tensile strength and extensibility for sheeting. Dough with
slightly less fat and sugar but more water is used than rotary moulded dough.
PROCESS FOR COOKIE MAKING
Typical cookie making process can be described as follows.
A. Preparation of Ingredients
B. Mixing of Dough
C. Cutting and shaping the Dough
PREPARATION OF INGREDIENTS
Soft wheat flour with particles less than 38μ gives the most desirable cookies. Therefore, flour fraction with
38μ particle size should be used. All the ingredients should be weighed separately according to the recipe.
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Water requirement depends upon the recipe and it is never constant. It also depends on the flour quality as
water retention capacity of flours varies due to varying degree of starch damage.
MIXING OF DOUGH
The mixing requirements vary for different products and also depend upon the raw material. Cookie dough
are usually mixed in upright horizontal mixers, low speed and short time cycles are used for mixing cookie
dough, because gluten strength is neither necessary nor desirable for sweet dough.
Generally, two methods are followed for mixing of cookie dough.
1. Creaming method
2. All-in-one method.
1. Creaming method
In this method, fat and sugar are blended to form a smooth homogeneous cream. The creaming helps to
develop uniform mixing of ingredients. This adds air to the product. To cream aerating agents like beaten
egg is added to enrich the dough. In this, mixing is continued till the dough develops.
2. “All in one” method
It involves the mixing of all the ingredients in a single step. This method is simple and easy in operation. All
in one mixing facilitates better dissolution of sugars in the dough.
CUTTING AND SHAPING THE DOUGH
There are three general methods of forming of shaping cookie dough.
1. Pressing the dough into a die cavity and extracting it onto a moving belt
2. Extruding the dough or batter, which may be formed in fancy shapes by moving the orifice, and
which may either be cut off by an oscillating wire or deposited on the moving oven belt without
3. Cutting shapes from sheets of dough. If the dough is to be formed into a sheet to maintain its
continuity and uniform thickness so that it does not tear.
BAKING-Cookies are generally baked in traveling belt oven. The recommended temperature for most
cookies is a 165 to 195 degree C.
COOLING-Hot cookies must be cooled uniformly before they are packed or sent for any secondary
treatment. The cooling is achieved by transferring the cookies in a single layer to a canvas conveyor and
allowing them to travel on the belt for double the baking time.
Biscuits can be classified based upon their formulation, their method of manufacture, their dough rheology
and/ or finished product texture or their name.
Hard dough is that possessing a continuous, three dimensional gluten network formed during mixing and
processing. Such dough is usually elastic with some degree of extensibility.
All cookies are classified as ‘short dough’. Short dough is distinct from hard dough in that the former are
neither elastic nor extensible. There are two major types of crackers:-
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The term ‘soda’ or ‘saltine’ describes a very particular type of cracker. The soda cracker is an
unsweetened, long fermented and laminated dough product. A typical soda cracker is a square biscuit
approximately 50Χ50 mm with a thickness of 4mm. The cracker usually weighs 3-3.5 g and has a moisture
content of 2.5%. The cracker is usually bland in flavour but with a unique crisp texture. An additional
feature of the product is the nine docker holes arranged in three rows of three which serve to tie the layers of
dough together at those points. The internal structure of the product consists of a series of layers between
each docking hole generated by lamination during the manufacturing process
Soda crackers are made from dough that is lean relative to the other products of this category. A typical
formulation has 8-10% shortening in the dough, up to 0-5% yeast, plus salt, and optionally, malt or malt
syrup. The crackers are produced in a sponge and dough process with a lengthy sponge fermentation
followed by neutralization with soda before sponge mixing and fermentation. The pH of the product does
not drop appreciably during the dough fermentation, resulting in a slightly alkaline product; hence, the name
1) Mixing-Soda biscuits are prepared by fermented slurry and then it is mixed with rest of the batch for
dough mixing. Slurry is fermented for 2-3 hrs only.
2) Fermentation- After preparation of the slurry, batch ingredients are added in the slurry and mixed for 6-
7 minutes using vertical mixer. The dough is ready for further processing.
3) Sheeting and laminating- There is a cluttering roll and rubber roll on the lower side for putting up the
pressure. A laminating machine helps to make 8-10 layers. This imports good puffing and crispness to
4) Shaping and cutting-Now sheet passes through the cutting roller.
5) Baking-After cutting the biscuits is baked in an oven. The baking time is around 3-4 minutes.
6) Oil spray-To improve the shining of the biscuits coconut oil is sprayed on both sides of the biscuits
which gives better appearance and eating quality to the biscuits.
7) Cooling-Cooling conveyor at room temperatures does the cooling of the biscuits. The cooling time is
about 3 minutes. At the end of the cooling conveyer which detects metal pieces if contaminated from any
part broken part.
8) Packing-The biscuits are packed in BOPP wrap and then sealed.
Cream crackers originated in the 1880s from an Irish firm named Jacobs. Although the product name
implies that there is cream in the product, there is none. The cracker is similar to a soda cracker in that it is
created from an unsweetened but long fermented, laminated dough. However, there are a significant number
of differences between the two products. The cream cracker is usually relatively large (65Χ75 mm) and
rectangular in shape. Its surface is pale with lightly browned blisters on both the top and bottom surfaces.
The finished moisture content is approximately 3-4%, slightly higher than for saltines.
This group of biscuits may also be termed savoury or fat sprayed crackers. They are made in a wide variety
of sizes and shapes. The products may also be salted or dusted with a flavored powder after the oil spraying.
The products in this group may be generated by a range of manufacturing methods. Generally snack
crackers are chemically leavened product have final 6.5 pH.
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In general, they have a more dense structure than that of either saltines or cream crackers and a relatively
soft bite. Snack crackers have a finished moisture content that should not exceed 2%. The flavor of the
product comes primarily from the fat spray and the topping applied. Surface oil sprays improve the mouth
feel and enhance the appearance. It is common for a small amount of sugar or syrup to be included in the
formulation. The sweetener acts to reduce the dry mouth feel and also as a flavor enhancer.
MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY of (biscuits, cookie, and crackers)
The manufacturing process used to produce all biscuits, cookie, and crackers consists of a mixing
step, a shaping or forming step and a baking step. The mixing and baking steps are common to the
manufacture of all types of these products. The processing steps used to produce these products are as
Mixing is commonly defined as a process designed to blend separate materials into a uniform, homogeneous
mixture. One or more of the functions is required for the formation of cookie and cracker dough. These
processes are accomplished with three principal types of mixers: vertical spindle mixers, horizontal drum
mixers, and continuous mixers.
THE FORMING PROCESS
While the same mixing and baking process there are following three steps processes used to form cookie and
(1) Sheeting & Cutting
(2) Rotary moulding
1) SHEETING AND CUTTING
After mixing, the dough is fed into a hopper, below which lie the sheeting rollers. There typically are three
rollers below the hopper arranged in a triangular fashion. At least one of the top two rollers known as
forcing rollers is grooved. The gauging roller, which is always smooth, serves to deliver the dough to the
conveyor belt. The purpose of the sheeting unit is converting the dough into a sheet of even thickness having
the width of the processing line.
After the gauging of dough sheet, it is normal to relax the dough before cutting. The relaxation is
accomplished by transferring the dough to a conveyor, still moving in the same direction, but at a slower
Once the dough has been relaxed it passes onto the cutting operation. Two different types of cutting methods
exist: reciprocating cutters and rotary cutters. The reciprocating cutters are heavy block cutters that stamp
out one or more pieces at a time. The cutter head may have a dual action.
The second type of cutter, the rotary cutter, consists of a rotating metal cylinder. On the face of the roll are
formed the desired shapes with a sharp metal edge. As the cutter rotates with the dough conveyor, the metal
edges cut into the dough sheet to form the product. The product pieces are then conveyed into the oven.
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As a result of either cutting process, from 20 to 60% of the dough sheet remains as scrap. The scrap dough is
lifted way from the cut dough pieces and returned either to the mixer or to the sheeter.
2) ROTARY MOULDING
Three rollers are placed in a triangular arrangement below a dough hopper. A roller called the forcing or
feed roller has deep grooves designed to pull dough down from the hopper. The dough is forced into the
cavities of the engraved roller by the forcing roller. A scraper blade is mounted against the engraved roller to
remove any excess dough and return it to the hopper via the forcing roller. The extraction roller applies
pressure to the engraved roller via the belt, causing the dough pieces are dropped from the take away belt
into pans or directly onto the baking belt.
The rotary moulding process is suitable only for dry, crumbly dough.
There are two types of devices used in the production of extruded cookies: wire cut machines and bar/rout
press. Both systems are very similar in design. A hopper is placed over a system of two or three rollers that
force dough into a pressure chamber. The rollers may run continuously or intermittently to force dough out
of the pressure chamber at the die.
For wire cut cookies, the dough is extruded through a row of dies and a wire or blade mounted on a frame
moves through the dough just below the die nozzle outlet. The cut dough pieces then drop into a conveyor
band for transport to the oven. The wire cut machines operate at rates of up to 100 strokes per minute.
Unlike the wire cut machine, the base of the pressure chamber has a die plate that is inclined in the direction
of the extrusion. A continuous ribbon of dough is extruded from a nozzle which cut into individual pieces by
a vertically operating guillotine before the oven or after baking.
The cookie and cracker industry relies almost exclusively on band or traveling ovens to bake its products.
The band oven is essentially an insulated, heated tunnel equipped with a continuous conveyor. The ovens
vary both in length (from 30 to 150m) and in band width (from 1.0 to 1.5 m). The most common type is the
direct-fired oven in which gas is burned inside the baking chamber itself.
The recommended temperature pattern for most cookies is a fairly low temperature (150-165°C) in the
first zone, which is also called puffing zone. Where the fat melts and un-dissolved sugars, chemicals
produce gas, resulting in the cookie increasing in volume. A considerable high temperature (200-205°C) in
the intermediate zone is provided where setting and baking of cookie takes place due to coagulation of
proteins and gelatinization of starch. In final zone slightly lower temperature is recommended to give
desired colour and flavour to the cookies. The baking time of cookies is recommended between 10 to 15
minutes. Because after 15 minutes of baking the cookie diameter become constant and, the loss of volatile
Hot cookies must be cooled uniformly before they are packed or sent for any secondary treatment. The
cooling is achieved by transferring the cookies in a single layer to a canvas conveyor and allowing them to
travel on the belt for double the baking time.
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The normal method of cooling products is to place them on an open conveyor and transfer them a distance
1.5-2 times the length of the oven. The products cool naturally in the ambient factory atmosphere. In a few
cases, it is necessary to provide forced air to aid the cooling process.
The cookies have the following quality characteristics those affect the packaging and shelf life of the
1. Low moisture content and hence the product has to be protected from moisture pickup during
2. The product has crispness and therefore, it is brittle and hence should be protected from breakage
during handling and transport.
3. The product is rich in fat and thus it should be protected from air to prevent development of fat
rancidity and off flavour.
Keeping in view the above properties, packaging of cookies is done in unit packs consisting of paper,
aluminum foil and polyethylene. Corrugated fiberboard boxes are used for bulk handling. These boxes are
used to contain the small packs.
ROLL OF INGREDIENTS
Soft wheat (pastry flours) flours are ideally suited
Protein – 8 to 10 %
Ash - <0.4 %
Finely & coarse granulated sugar is used.
Bold crystal sugar affects the colour of cookies.
Many cookies produced by replacing HFCS to sugar.
Malt syrup or any other type of malt used as flavour ingredients.
Invert syrup used for soft cookies.
All type of shortening suitable.
Should be care taken for balance of all ingredients.
Butter should be used in equal parts with the shortening.
Shortening mellows gluten helps to spread the cookies.
For richer type cookies 0.25 % to 0.3 % lecithin is preferable.
Egg yolk alone will produce a tender cookie rather the whole egg.
Care should be taken to supplement them with water or milk or both.
Egg yolk contributes to color.
It controls the cookies spread along with the normal functions.
Sodium & ammonium bicarbonate contribute aerated structure
And increase cookies spread.
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Faults and causes
Lack of spread Too fine granulation of sugar.
Adding all sugar at one time & Too hot oven
Excessive mixing & Acidic dough
Excessive spread Excessive sugar & Alkaline batter
Too stiff batter & Too cool oven
Excessive pan grease & Improper or excessive fat
Fall during baking Excessive leavening &Improper size
Too soft batter & Weak flour
Tough cookie Insufficient shortening
Over creamed batter & Too strong flour
Sticking out pans Too soft flour & sugar spots in dough
Excessive egg content
Too slack a batter & unclean pans
Colour fat it Excessive sodium bicarbonate
Excessive ammonium bicarbonate
Lose of flavour Over baking & improper storage
Fast baking & Lack of moisture
Biscuit: A flat, crisp and baked product with low moisture content.
Cookies: A baked product similar to biscuit but it has uniform cracks on the top surface of the product.
Cookies are also rich in fat and sugar contents.
Crackers: Cracker is a term reserved for biscuit of low sugar and fat content. Crackers are usually made
from developed dough whereas cookies are made from weaker flour.
Hard dough biscuit: In hard dough biscuit the gluten is partially developed and to some extent extensible
depending on the percentage of sugar and fat in the composition.
Soft dough biscuit: The dough is mixed with excess of water and it remains just pourable dough i.e. very
loose dough from which the biscuits are baked.
Shortening: It refers to the fat used in bakery application. The fat is called shortening because of its action
on gluten. It does not allow the gluten to develop fully and the term shortening is given to bakery fat.
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Different types of cakes and pastries, preparation of cakes and pastries
using different methods, quality evaluation of cakes, different types of
The basic ingredients of a cake are divided into two types-the one that give the structure to the cake
flour, eggs and milk and the ones that make the cake tender-sugar, shortening and baking powder. Quality of
cake depends on three factors
(i) Quality and type of ingredients
(ii) Formula balance in which the ingredients are combined and
(iii) The conditions of mixing and baking.
Formula balance depends on the type of cake manufactured. Each ingredients used in different types
of cake contributes on the quality. Any basic change in one of the ingredients requires a counter balancing
adjustment in the other ingredient.
The ingredients can be classified as follows:
(i) Structure building material: flour, egg and mild powder.
(ii) Softener/ Tenderizer: Sugar, fat and baking powder.
(iii) Moistener: Milk, water and egg.
The cake formulation should have a right balance of the above ingredients. If cake contains too much
tenderizer such as fat, sugar, etc. The structure is weakened to that extent that it collapses. Too much baking
powder also results in collapse of cake in the center. Excess liquid in the cake causes toughness of the
Types of Cakes-Cakes are generally classified into two major groups. The twodiffer from one another based
on the type and proportions of ingredients used, way of mixing, baking time, temperature and the way of
Shortened Cake-These cakes contain fats or shortenings. Include butter cakes and pound cakes.There
are various ways of combining the ingredients for shortened cakes; all are based on the conventional
method by creaming of sugarand fats to produce tender cake with a light, delicate texture. Good
quality butter cake layer should bake flat; meaning it has the proper balance of tougheners to
tenderizers (Batter type, pound type, fruit cake etc.)
Un-shortened cake-These cakes contain no or little fats or shortenings. Texture range from dense and
spongy to light and airy, or from crispy and dry to melt-in-mouth tender depending on the
proportions of ingredients. Three types can be broadly categorized.
1. No fat cakes: angel food cakes, meringues and pound cakes
2. Only fat is egg yolk: sponge cakes, jelly roll cakes
3. Oil and fat in addition to egg yolks: chiffon and genoises
Cake Making Techniques
Sugar batter or creaming method: Fat and sugar added little at a time are creamed together till light and
fluffy, and the mixture falls from the spoon with a little jerk. To this beaten egg is added a little at a time
and mixed. Fold in flour into the mixture. Milk is used to make up the mixture to drop batter consistency.
The mixture is poured in a prepared cake tin and baked.
Flour batter method:Equal quantity of flour and fat are creamed together. The weight of broken eggs and
its equivalent weight of sugar is taken. Egg is beaten while adding sugar gradually till it is light and
frothy. This is added to creamed mixture lightly avoiding over beating. Sugar, if left over, is made into
solution and added to the mixture and the left over flour is folded in. This mixture is put in a prepared