2. Understanding the
Concept “Planned efforts designed to facilitate the
acquisition of relevant skills, Knowledge
and attitude by Organizational members”.
Training is a process by which people improve their knowledge, skills
and attitudes and use them to enhance their performance on the job.
Training Development Education Teaching
specific to a job or
immediate or short
Linked to the overall
improvement of the
skill and attitude and the
resultant behaviour over
a longer period
Building the ability of
the individual to
Usually linked to a
Meant for Operatives Executives
Focus Current job Current and future jobs
Scope Individual Work group+ organization
Goal Fix current skills Future work demands
Initiated by Management Individual
Content Specific job related
Time frame Immediate Long term
4. Training Needs
Task & role
ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS 1. Job
1. Analysis of objective: short term & long term
2. Resource utilization analysis: human, physical & financial
3. Environmental scanning: social, economical, political, technological
4. Organizational climate analysis: turnover & absenteeism ratio
1. Poor performers
2. Person potential
TASK & ROLE
3. Operations & conditions of job
4. Skills, knowledge, attitude
5. Data Sources Used In Training Need Assessment
Organizational goals &
Asking questions about
Training Needs Assessment
The Process of Training
Preliminary steps in preparing a Training & Development Program
7. Designing training and development program
I. Who are the trainees?
II. Who are the trainers?
III. What techniques & methods?
IV. What should be the level of training?
V. What principles of learning?
VI. Where to conduct the program?
What principles of learning:
Recognition of Individual differences
Schedule of learning
Meaning of material
Transfer of learning
Where to conduct the program:
I. At the job itself
II. On site but not the job
III. Off the site
8. Objectives/Need/Importance or Benefits of Training
• Better quality of work
• Higher productivity
• Cost reduction
• High morale
• Reduced supervision
• Less learning period
• Personal growth
• Fewer accidents
• Brings loyalty
• Self confidence
• Higher earning
• New skills
• Personal growth
9. Concept of Primary Market
“Orientation is a systematic and planned
introduction of employees to their jobs,
their co-workers and the organization”.
Objectives of orientation Strategic choices of orientation
10. Contents of Orientation Or Steps of Orientation
• Welcoming to the organization
• Brief history and operations of the company.
• The company’s organization structure.
• Policies and procedure of the company.
• Products and services of the company.
• Location of department and employee facilities.
• Safety measures.
• Grievances procedures.
• Benefits and services of employee.
• Standing orders and disciplinary procedures.
• Opportunities for training, promotions, transfer etc.
• Suggestion schemes.
• Rules and regulations.
11. Pros & Cons of Orientation
• It helps to build two way communication
• It facilitates informal relations and team work
• Induction is helpful in supplying information about the
organization, job, and welfare of employees
• Proper Induction will reduce employees grievances,
absenteeism and labor turnover
• Induction helps to develop good public relations and improve
the overall morale of employees
• An Induction program proves that the company is taking a
sincere interest in getting him off to a good start
1. Employee is overwhelmed with too much information in a short time.
2. Employee is overloaded with form to complete.
3. Employees mistakes can damage the company.
4. Employee is asked to perform tasks where there are high chances of failure that could
needlessly discourage the employee.
5. Employee is thrown into action too soon.
6. Employee ‘s wrong perceptions because of short periods spent on each job.
12. Evaluation of orientation programme
Complete a questionnaire
Suggestions from the employees to know their opinion
Group discussion sessions
13. What is the difference between Orientation and Training?
15. On the Job Training
On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through
observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour.
Training a person to learn by actually doing it. Every employee from mailroom clerk to
company president, get on-the-job training when he or she joins a firm.
16. Step by step structured training method in which a trainer
1. Prepares a trainee with an overview of the job its purpose, and the results desired,
2. Demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee,
3. Allows the trainee to mimic the demonstration on his or her own
4. Employee does the job independently
5. Follows up to provide feedback and help.
Listing each job’s basic task, along with key points, in order to
provide step-by-step training for employees.
It is used in that types of jobs which consist of a logical
sequence of steps also list a corresponding “key point” and
best taught step-by-step process.
Job instruction training
18. Job Rotation Job rotation is an approach to management development
where an individual is moved through a schedule of
designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the
To cross-train employees in a variety of
jobs, some trainer move a trainee from
job to job.
Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into
the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction &
skill enhancement through job variation.
Training employees on actual equipments
used on the job but conducted away from
the actual work setting.
One involve a
that replicates the
major features of the
work situation. Other
is computer simulation
often comes in the
form of games.
20. Off the Job Training
Off the job training involves employees taking training courses away from their place of work.
This is often also referred to as "formal training".
Off the job training courses might be run by the business' training department or by external
Use of specialist trainers and accommodation
Employee can focus on the training - and not be distracted by work
• Trainees act out characters assigned to them.
• Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees.
• Focus on interpersonal responses.
• Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees.
• The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity.
Behaviour modelling is referred to as “matching” or “copying” or as “observational
learning” or “imitation”, all of these terms implies that behaviour is learned or
modified through the observation of some other individual.
21. Lectures and Video Presentation
Training is basically incomplete without
lecture. When the trainer begins the
training session by telling the aim, goal,
agenda, processes, or methods that will
be used in training that means the trainer
is using the lecturemethod
Main Features of Lecture Method:
+ Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings
+ Less expensive
+ Can be reached large number of people at once
+ Knowledge building exercise
+ Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity
22. Case Study
In case study, trainees learn about
real or hypothetical circumstances
and the actions others take under
those circumstances and as result
a person can develop decision
A development method in which the
manager is presented with a written
description of an organizational problem
to diagnose and solve.
23. In-basket exercise & Business Games
A candidate is given a list of items
that must be addressed within a
certain time frame. He or she is
asked to prioritize the items and
justify his reasons to the panel.
It’s up to the candidate to
determine what is important,
and what is urgent.
The exercise gives the
department a snapshot of
the candidate’s ability to
perform the administrative
functions of the position.
Business game refers to games that
are used at an educational tool for
teaching business. Business games
may be carried out for various
business training such as: general
management, finance, organizational
behaviour, human resources, etc.
24. Other Methods
• Laboratory Training: It is designed to enhance interpersonal skills and to develop
desired behavior for future job responsibilities.
• Action Learning: it takes place in small groups that seeks a solution to a real
problem confronting the organization, aided by a facilitator who is either an outside
consultant or a member of the firm’s in-house staff. OR a training technique by
which Management trainer are allowed to work full time analyzing and solving
problem in other department.
25. What do you mean by “Evaluation” of training and
“Training and Development must be regarded as both a
cost and an investment to an organization.”
What does the above statement means?
What does it tells us about the need to evaluate our training
and development intervention?
Evaluation for training effectiveness
26. What do you mean by evaluation of training
1. The process for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information useful to decision makers in
selecting amongst alternatives.
2. The process of determining, to what extent the ( training) objectives are actually being
3. The process of providing feedback to trainers about the effectiveness of their training.
• In summary, evaluation should try to find answers to
– Is the training program effective in achieving its goals.
– If not, what are the deficiencies in the program.
– How can the deficiencies be remedied?