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  1. 1. Indirect object Prepared by: Mohamed AIT MADANI YOUSSEF Dr. Youssef Tamer Prof. Jennifer Evans:
  2. 2. Outline  Definition  Sentences with indirect object: two patterns  Sentences with indirect object in discourse  Problems that ESL/ EFL students have with IO  Exercise  Activity
  3. 3. Definition An indirect object is a word or a group of words that tells to whom or to what something has been done.
  4. 4. I. Sentences with IO: two patterns
  5. 5. Prepositional pattern  Inthis pattern the IO (the goal) comes after the DO (the theme) and it is preceded by the preposition to.
  6. 6.  An Example for illustration: DO Preposition IO I sent an email to the teacher.
  7. 7. there are kind of verbs that have IO preceded by other prepostions like:  Verbs that have IO preceded by the preposition for.  I call a taxi for my friend.
  8. 8. Sentences with for dative verbs can have two meanings: 1. The subject performs the action indicated by the verb as a favor for the IO. 2. The subject performs the action because the IO can not do it.
  9. 9. Verbs that have IO preceded by the preposition of such as ask and require.  We asked a question of the child.
  10. 10. Dative movement pattern Indirect object occurs between the verb and the direct object and the preposition is omitted. I gave the book to Brahim. I gave Brahim the book.
  11. 11. Factors that restrict the possible pattern Sentences with IO can accept the two patterns or just one of them. There are several factors that determine which pattern is the most suitable.
  12. 12. The first factor Animacy of subject and indirect object
  13. 13. for both patterns to work, the subject and the indirect object should be an animate. But if this is not the case, sentences can generally take only one pattern.
  14. 14. e.g  The rain brought disaster to the farmer.  The rain brought the farmer disaster. incorrect
  15. 15. However, it is possible to find sentences with both patterns in which the subject or the indirect object is an inanimate. But the verb in this case has not an action meaning.
  16. 16. e.g  The justices give a literal interpretation to the constitution.(prepositional pattern)  The justices give the constitution a literal interpretation.(dative movement pattern)
  17. 17. The second factor The effect of verb meaning
  18. 18. Verbs that ordinarily take two patterns may in some cases be possible only with one pattern. e.g  I owe five bucks to larry. Two patterns I owe larry five bucks.
  19. 19. I owe my progress to my father one pattern
  20. 20. The third factor Verbs that are restricted to one pattern
  21. 21.  Verbs that are only or usually appear with dative movement pattern. Some verbs like allow, bet, forgive, envy, and others appear only in the dative movement pattern:  No one envies you that task.  No one envies that task to you.
  22. 22.  Verbs that appear only in the preposional pattern. Not all to dative verbs and for dative verbs can take the dative movement pattern.Those that don’t are restricted to the prepositional pattern.
  23. 23. Common verbs that appear only in the prepositional pattern: To dative verbs for dative verbs Confess,admit,declare,deliver,contribute, answer,cash,capture,create,eat;repeat Strate,donate, and many others. Select,correct,fix, and many others.
  24. 24. The fourth factor Pronominal direct object
  25. 25. Both the DO and the IO can be pronouns. When the DO is a pronoun used in place of an NP with a definite article, the sentence cannot occur in the dative movement pattern  Iman gave the CD to Idriss.  Iman gave Idriss it.
  26. 26. This does not hold if the DO is a pronoun such as one or some used in place of NP with an indefinite article.  Aziz sent a presentation to his classmates.  Aziz sent his classmates one.
  27. 27. It also does not hold if the DO is a demonstrative pronoun used to replace an NP with a demonstrative determiner.  Tofik gave that t-shirt to Jawad.  Tofik gave Jawad that.
  28. 28. Excercise For each sentence, decide what pronoun corresponds to the underlined NP and indicate whether that pronoun could replace the NP. 1. He loaned her a watch. 2. She handed him the flowers. 3. He lent her some gloves. 4. Ali passed him the salt. 5. I give her those pictures.
  29. 29. Answers 1. He loaned her a watch.(one. Yes) 2. She handed him the flowers.(them. No) 3. He lent her some gloves.(some. Yes) 4. Ali passed him the salt.(it. No) 5. I give her those pictures.(those. Yes)
  30. 30. II. Sentences with indirect object in discourse
  31. 31. Sentences with IO occur in daily conversation. And the choice of the suitable pattern is determined by two information structuring principles:
  32. 32. Sentences with indirect object in discourse 1. The Given-new contract and IO This states that given or mentioned information should appear before new Information.
  33. 33. Sentences with indirect object in discourse use DO was given prepositional pattern use IO was given dative movement pattern
  34. 34. E.g Susan: I can’t figure out what to get John for his birthday. Any idea? Ann: give him a CD. You know how much he likes music.
  35. 35. Sentences with indirect object in discourse 2. End weight A long, complex, heavy NP should not appear in the middle of a clause  Mrs. Jennifer gave the list of the students who are selected to attend the conference to us.
  36. 36. Sentences with indirect object in discourse  Mrs. Jennifer gave us the list of the students who are selected to attend the conference.
  37. 37. Sentences with indirect object in discourse End weight and avoidance of ambiguity We move the long DO to the end to avoid ambiguity.  The man bought a rocking chair that Frank had spent all summer restoring for his mother.
  38. 38. Sentences with indirect object in discourse We don’t know whether Frank restore the chair for his mother or that the man bought it for his mother. But if we say:  The man bought his mother a rocking chair that Frank had spent all summer restoring.
  39. 39. Sentences with indirect object in discourse End weight and verbs that don’t take Dative Movement. The problem raises when we have a complex NP as a DO of a verb that don’t take dative movement pattern.
  40. 40. Sentences with indirect object in discourse As a solution many writers choose to move the long direct object NP to the end of the Sentence.  Hassan demonstrated the method for fixing a carburetor that Hamza taught him to his friend.
  41. 41. Sentences with indirect object in discourse  Hassan demonstrated to his friend the method for fixing a carburetor that Hamza taught him. prep + IO + DO
  42. 42. Excercise For each discourse choose (A) or (B) as a completion and explain your choice. Example: do you see Hayda? A . I have just sent him a message. B . I have just sent a message to him. Answer: A; because it puts the old information before the new one. 1. I want to attend the birthday party of Mr.Omar so I decided to: A . buy him a t-shirt. B . buy a t-shirt for him.
  43. 43. Excercise 2. There were two items on the table a package and a letter.where are They? A .I sent Hamza the package and Salwa the letter. B . I sent the package to Hamza and the letter to Salwa. 3. Fred wanted to make a good impression on his first date with Susan so he decided to: A .bring her some flowers. B .bring some flowers to her
  44. 44. Answers 1. (A) because it puts given information (him) before the new one (message). 2. (B) since it puts the already mentioned information before the new one. 3. (A) because it puts the old information (her) before the new one (some flowers).
  45. 45. Problems that EFL/ESL have with IO Students are influenced by thier L1 when they move from one pattern to the other.
  46. 46. E.g In Arabic we say: ‫.اشتريت الحلوى لحمزة‬  I bought the sweet for Hamza.(correct) ‫.اشتريت لحمزة الحلوى‬  I bought for Hamza the sweet.(incorrect)
  47. 47. Tell and say(German) in English, the verb tell takes two pattern; while say take only the prepositional pattern. But students whose mother tongue is German may use the verb sagen (say) not only in the sense of say but also in the sense of tell. They are influenced by the structure of their language and come up with sentences like: a. He said me her name. Incorrect b. He said to her she should come. c. He told to Judith, ’’i am coming’’.
  48. 48. The activity
  49. 49.  Read the text carefully and find out the mistakes (indirect object) and correct them. Amals’s accident was on Monday. Her classmates wanted to give a hand of help to her but they didn’t know what to do. “I know what we can do” said Zakaria. “We can collect some money for her.” “Good idea.” Replied Mohamed. Another student says “I will send her a message to know whether we have the possibility to visit her or no.” “If it is not possible to visit her we will send her our wishes for recovery with one girl who is living in the same resident.” The next day Nadia started to gather the gifts. When she finished she gave her them. And she brought good news about Amal to her classmates.
  50. 50.  Her classmates wanted to give her a hand of help…  We can collect her some money.  she gave them to her.

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