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Child development kamal

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TASK 1

Explain the concept, stages of development and the characteristics of the children‟s
socio emotional development b...
The first stage of physical- emotional development of human is oral, this stage
can be seen when the children is in 0 to 1...
given a chance to lead or become a leader. Although in this stage they always
wanted power and authority yet they still fe...
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Child development kamal

  1. 1. TASK 1 Explain the concept, stages of development and the characteristics of the children‟s socio emotional development based on related theories. ESSAY Socio- emotional is a combination word of the social and the emotional. It refers to the process of organizing human energies and activities at the higher levels to get better results that relates specifically to the interaction with the people, meanwhile emotional refers to the development of a full range of emotions such as sad, happy, angry as well as other feelings and learn how to overcome or deal with that emotions properly. Therefore, according to www.ehow.com, Virginia A. Lutz stated that socio-emotional development can be define as a mixture of learning skill and truthfulness to cooperate and interrelate with the persons or group in a manner that contributes positively to members of the public. As for early childhood, social and emotional development refers to the development of social, emotional and behaviour skills through early school age between 5 to 8 years old as they able to form secure relationship, express emotions and regulate behaviour impact of their ability to explore their environments, learn and communicate. Theory is a brilliant thought that was made by researchers, many new discoveries have been made recently therefore many new theories also have been created by those brilliant researchers. Regarding on this task I am required to study about socio- emotional development, this subject has been researched for a long time ago and there are few theories that have been made regarding this subject. The first person that has created theories about socio- emotional development was a psychologist from Czechoslovakia named Sigmund Freud. In his theory he said that human socio- emotional developments have a close relationship to their physical developments. Sigmund has divided human individual emotional developments into five stages according to their physical and social development and also increase of age of the person.
  2. 2. The first stage of physical- emotional development of human is oral, this stage can be seen when the children is in 0 to 1/1/2 years old. At this stage the child will only knows how to bite and chew. The second stage is at the children‟s anal, at this stage the children will to use his anal parts he or she will prefer to excrete faeces. Stage number three is at the children‟s phallic, he or she will gain satisfaction from their sexual organ, male children will be more attracted be close with his mother and the female children will be more attracted to be close with her mother. Next, this stage is called the latency stage that is stage number four, at this stage all sexual feeling are suppressed to the unconscious level, children will start to focus on their schooling and their other activities matter. The last stage of Sigmund Freud‟s theory is genital stage that is stage number five, this stage occurs after puberty until adolescence, at this stage there will be sexual interest exist. Teenager will try to fulfil whatever he missed during his or her childhood such as sexual satisfaction at mouth, anal and phallic. However Sigmund Freud‟s theory is not considered as complete, many years after Sigmund‟s theory is been used appear another theory that has been made by a scientist from Germany named Erik Erikson. The theory that has been made by Erikson completes Sigmund‟s theory of physical- emotional development. Erikson added three more theory in Sigmund‟s theory making it become eight theories all together. Erikson explains to people about human physical-emotional development from infants to adults. According to Erikson in each stage there must be a time where problems of behaviour among human emerges and this problem will lead to another problem that is psychological adjustments problems. As has been said just now Erikson‟s theory of emotional development consists of eight stages. I will only state four stages because those four stages cover the field of my studies. The first stage is trust versus distrust, this stage happens when a human is still a baby. In this stage the feeling of trust will develop at the first year after the baby was born, his or her feeling of trustiness will develop stage by stage. The baby will develop a feeling of distrust if his need cannot be fulfilled, this feeling will form a negative behaviour within the baby. Stage number two is the development of shy and doubt feeling, this stage occur in the early stage of childhood. In this stage the child will eager to have authority and power, they always wanted to do things or task by his own effort, they also will feel shy if they are not
  3. 3. given a chance to lead or become a leader. Although in this stage they always wanted power and authority yet they still feel shy in front of other people or audience, they are shy because they are afraid that they will commit mistake. In my opinion children at this stage wants perfection because they don‟t want other people to see them as weak person, that is why the feeling of doubt are develop in this stage. The child will think first before they do something because they want to avoid mistake. The next stage that is the third stage is the stage where children will develop the sense of initiative and the feeling of awry within their self, this stage happens at the early stage of childhood at pre-school. The children will tend to learn and move around rapidly, they also will become more sensitive to something that is true or false, the children also will feel awry if his friend make fun of the mistake that has been done by him. When his friend laughed at him he will develop another feeling within himself that is the negative feeling, the example of this feeling is the feeling to take revenge when this happens many other negative matter will happen such as children quarrel among them. Lastly stage four, in this stage the children will tend to become hard working and they will develop an inferiority complexion, this stage happens when the children has fully become a children that is on the 6th to 11th year old age. In this stage the children will show their desire to dominate something for example they wanted to master anything that have they learn at school and another one they wanted to be the number student in class. As has been said in the example they wanted to be the number one this means in this stage they have develop the desire to succeed in anything that they participate. At this stage also the children will develop the basic of physical and social skills for example, talent in playing football and talent in performing public speaking. Children needs full attention from teachers at this stage, teachers need to encourage children to perform well and teachers also need to praise their student for their success. Whenever the children are praised their morale will increase and they will do even better in the upcoming examinations or competitions, as well as getting a morale boost when they are being praised the children‟s morale also will experience a declination of morale if they are being criticised. At this stage children still cannot accept critic, all we must do is just encourage them to move forward by praising them for what have they done.
  4. 4. TASK 2 Describe the roles of teachers in helping the socio- emotional development of students in schools. ESSAY Teachers plays an important role in shaping students way of life, obviously a good teacher will produce a good student whereas a bad teacher will produce a bad student. This is why to become a teacher you must be well prepared or else you will just end up destroying our country‟s most valuable asset that is the next generation. Your preparation must not be just from the academic side but also from the spiritual side, this is because being good in academic alone will never guarantee that you will be a good person and being good in spiritual aspect alone also will never guarantee you to have a bright future thus both of this aspect must be balanced then only you can produce many brilliant student. Teaching children is not an easy job, to teach them you must be able to control your tamper, anger and ego this is because children are fast learner they will follow and copy anything that you show them no matter it is good or bad. To avoid this thing from happening, we as teachers must be a good role model to them so that they can only follow the good side of their teacher, this matter are very important in order to help children to be a good person while they are in the phase of socio- emotional development. Many things can be done by a teacher to help their student to complete their socio-emotional development positively. The first thing a teacher should do to help their students is create an environment of equality in the classroom. Element of equality is very important if we are dealing with children especially with small children from standard one until three, this is because these group of student are very sensitive they are in the stage of developing their socio- emotion they can easily demoralised if we treat them unequally in classroom. Therefore if we want to share something interesting, we have to share it with all of our students not just with students that we like. Next, we
  5. 5. must not make comparison between our students. For example if we have 30 students five of them are cute and the other 25 are not, we should not make comparison between all of them. It is not their fault that they are born with average looking face all of it was decided by our most merciful god, if we still raise this issue in class there are possibilities that we will ignite the flame of hatred and jealousy among our students. This will lead to social tension in class, when this happens our students will never be able to study comfortably. Then if we look it on the academic side, every time our student receive their examination result we must approach them and give them some encouragement so that they can improve more next time, we should not compare their results with their friends who are better than them because this will trigger inner tension to the weak student and it may lead to something worse like the student don‟t have the spirit to study anymore or even worse he quit studying. Second teachers should help students to recognize and express their feelings. To recognize and express our own feeling is not an easy job, feeling is something abstract that only happens at a particular time. We don‟t feel happy every time and we don‟t feel sad every day, these feelings only appear when our brain sends electric impulse that indicates our state at that time and then only our internal and external organ would react. To help our student, first we need to introduce a vocabulary of emotions and then we must discuss those emotional phrases from stories, in other words we must first introduce a list of human emotion to them for example sad, happy and angry. Then we read any story that are related to any of the emotions for example if we read a happy story to them at last we must ask our student to identify whether the story is about sadness or happiness and then we must ask them what they feel after hearing the story then we should ask them to express what they feel about the story. We also should encourage each of our students to have their personal diary so that they could express whatever they feel without feeling shy, having a diary also can help the student to release their tension they can critic whoever they like or dislike because nobody knows about their writings as long as their diary is kept safe in their hands. The third thing a teacher can do is constantly help their students in every field, the teacher must be well aware of what problem that their students are facing whether it is problem with studies or personal problem. By this way the student will
  6. 6. feel that they have a place to grab, a place where they can rely on if they ever face any problem that is severely complicated. When children feels this way they will start to be close with their teacher and as the first point the children will tend to copy their teachers behaviour. Looking at their teachers who always help people in trouble they also will do the same thing because they want to feel what it is like when they manage to help somebody. Whenever this thing happens our world will become a better place to live because everybody watches on each other backs and nobody will be the victim of suppression. Lastly, it is important that a teacher to have a good behaviour and attitude because this asset can be the most valuable one in front of students. This is because they will be the role model of the children besides the parents. Teacher must be patience and tolerant every time they deal with their students. For example, a teacher cannot simply become angry and yell to a student when the student commit mistake, no matter their mistake are big or small the teacher must remain calm and ready to guide the student to the right path. If the teacher yells and punish the student this will cause the student to feel shame of their peers and at the same time will eventually hurt their feelings a lot. If a teacher have to encounter with a student that can easily become heartbroken what should they do is try to win the child‟s heart, this can be done by giving the student a hand in answering any question that they don‟t know, then the teacher should praise the student for their bravery to try, the teacher also must encourage the student to try harder next time. Good behaviour and attitude show by the teachers would allow the children contribute to their studies. As a reward to their teacher‟s hard work for sure the students would study harder and achieve the best and the highest goals in their academic life which at the same time would help them to build their self-confidence to a higher level, when all of these are achieved for sure it will help the students to have a better life in the future as to have a good socio-emotional development in themselves.
  7. 7. TASK 3 Identify and elaborate suitable teaching and learning methodologies in developing students‟ socio- emotion. ESSAY Developing socio- emotion in students is not an easy job therefore, various activities must be implemented in education field in order to help students develop this crucial skills. A student should master all the skills that are needed to help them to undergo their journey of life in this modern world. As has been said just now socio- emotional skills are crucial, these skills need to be conquered by children because it helps children to improve their interaction with others, their own feelings or emotion, and as well as their academic development. As teachers we should be creative enough to create our own teaching and learning method in order to aid the development our students‟ socio-emotional skills. “Role play” style of teaching is an effective method to develop the children‟s socio development. To carry out this way of teaching and learning method first we must separate our student into a few groups and then we need to ask our student about what kind of story that they prefer next we must let our student to choose one story from the entire story that they like. After the process of choosing finish, we need to ask them to perform the story in a form of drama in the time given. This activity would be very effective to help students to interact with others, it also can help students to build their self-confidence so that they could overcome their fear to face crowd. From this task also, the student would build the spirit of togetherness inside them and build their significance to work in group which contributes the progression in the task. Lastly this activity can make the student realize that they should be responsible for their work and show their responsibility by concerning about any work given to them and help others to fulfil the task instead of being selfish.
  8. 8. Besides organizing a group activity Teachers also should organize a solo competition such as story telling competition, this kind of activity requires the student to step in front of the class alone to tell any story that they want to share. Like „role play‟ just now this method of teaching and learning also helps in building self- confidence but the difference is that this time the student have to face crowd alone they are not been accompanied by their friends anymore which means this method is even effective in terms of self-confidence building if compared to the previous one just now. This activity also can make our classroom livelier because students love hearing to stories especially if those stories are told by their own friends, some of them may commit mistake while telling the stories but it is okay because they are still in the process of learning. Once they commit mistake it will only make our class even more cheerful because it will be filled with laughter and joy, this will lead to a more conducive atmosphere of studying where students happy learning with their teacher. The story teller also can learn something new that is about other people‟s emotion, he can learn to detect whether his spectator likes his stories or not by achieving this knowledge the story teller can improve his relationship with other people easily next time because he already knew how to predict other people‟s emotion. Normally in competition there would be a winner and a loser, as for this story telling competition the rules are still the same, whoever manages to attract the most spectators attention with their interesting story will be the winner, they would be given rewards such as sweets as present. When we give presents to students who win the competition they would be gladly happy and this will be a motivation for them to move forward, as for students who didn‟t manage to win the contest we must encourage them to try harder next time so that they wouldn‟t lose hope and excel in the next competition. To avoid student from getting bored because of always doing activities in class teachers should think of another way to aid their students in their socio- emotional development, this time a teacher can use the methods of teaching and learning outside the classroom. This method also can be known as outdoor class, by taking students outside of their classrooms the student will get impressed and feel eager to study because they had never study at other places than in their classroom. Teaching and learning outside the classroom is a unique method that enables the students to cultivate their ability to optimize the use of sensible things like eye sight
  9. 9. and taste senses. To implement these idea teachers can take their students to some place that has many flowers and trees, in school there is only one place that have all of those things that is the school garden. Teacher also can organize a trip to somewhere that have more nature features for example the waterfall and the reserve forest. The purpose of this trip is to let students know about nature because nowadays humans are destroying nature day by day so it is good for the students if they get to know the nature before it extinct. Organizing a trip is not limited to places like forest and waterfall only, teachers also can take their students visit big towns like Kuala Lumpur, Johor and Malacca. Visiting big towns enables students who don‟t have the opportunity visit these extraordinary places to feel what it is like when we visit other peoples‟ places, besides that we can avoid our student from being a human being that knows nothing about the outside world. Teachers should organize many outdoor classes because, teaching and learning outside the classroom will be able to give pleasure to the students. The situation outside the classroom also provides convenience for the students to think and to give full attention in the learning session. Lastly, one more way to aid students in their socio- emotional development is by having a “learn and play” session. We as teacher should be creative enough to create various kinds of game, creating a game is not an easy task because our game need to be understand by our student and we also need to understand how to play the game so that we could explain it to our students. Our game also need to be academic enough so that our student would gain benefit from it, example of the games are word puzzle, broken radio, word building and so on. These games can improve our students‟ vocabulary and as well as self- confidence, we also can encourage our students to play the “rubic cube”, this game really requires a non-stop thinking brain because each time we twist the cube we must think about how to combine the cube colours, it is amazing if our student can complete the cube without using others help. Playing games while learning don‟t just make our learning session enjoyable but it also can train our students to think faster, for example if we play mathematical games for sure our students will calculate faster because they want to win the game. As teachers we should be creative to attract our students attention so that they would feel happy to study for the sake of their future.
  10. 10. CONCLUSION Education is a system that constantly undergoes changes, these changes occurs due to exchange of ideas between our academician as a result we have to face these exchanges every day. Nowadays everything is considered as important, from the students‟ manner until the students‟ emotional development is crucial. Now academic and social-emotional learning has become a new standard for what is considered the basics that a child should acquire during their schooling. Therefore, as teacher we must be well prepared to aid our students to develop their socio- emotional skill so that they wouldn‟t face any problems regarding socio-emotions throughout their journey in this transient nature.
  11. 11. REFLECTION Alhamdulillah, firstly I would like to thank Allah SWT because preserving my health so that I can complete my child development assignment that was given to me by my beloved lecturer. Then, I would like to thank to my lecturer, Tuan Haji Zubir b. Ismail, who helped me and my friends a lot while doing this assignments . He gave plenty of notes and ideas to complete this task. Moreover, he also shares with us a lot of information in each of his classes. I would also would like to thank my beloved parents who sacrifices a lot for me and guided me until now. Since small, they tried their very best to give me proper education and their blessings are very important me in my life. At last, I would like to thank my fellow friends who are very helpful in sharing ideas and information with me along the my way in completing this assignment. I gain a lot of benefits by doing this assignment this is because I have understood what have I learned in class before. Now I am able to explain the theories of socio-emotional development in children. Before receiving this assignment I know nothing about socio- emotional development, I am just a quiet boy in the class who knows nothing about child development but now I already have confidence in myself because I already know what I am studying. I am very grateful to have this assignment as my task, although I face many major and minor difficulties
  12. 12. in the process of completing this assignment I am pleased because at last I manage to complete it and at the same time understands what I am studying at class. As I said just now I face many difficulties while finishing this short coursework, some of the difficulties are I couldn‟t understand what the question demands, this problem blocks me from doing the assignment thank god one day Tuan Haji Zubir explains what must be done to complete the assignment. Next, the second problem is that I become lazy after reading the long sentenced question, this problem was solved when my friend invite me to discuss about the assignments with him my spirit to complete the assignment rose high because of his invitation. Lastly, I couldn‟t get any idea of how to start the assignment, this problem was settled after my friend showed me his essay introduction to be make as role model. Now I have finished this assignment and I understand what have been taught by my lecturer in class in the past classes, I hope this knowledge will last forever so that I can benefit it in my future life.

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