O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

UNGS2040 ISLAM: KNOWLEDGE AND CIVILIZATION

10.009 visualizações

Publicada em

University Required Courses
Ungs 2030
Ungs 2040
Ungs 2050

Publicada em: Educação
  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

UNGS2040 ISLAM: KNOWLEDGE AND CIVILIZATION

  1. 1. 2/5/20091 (UNGS 2040) STANDARD CONTENTS © Department of General Studies, 2008 ISLAM: KNOWLEDGE AND CIVILIZATION Definition of Knowledge 2 Al-‘ilm (العمن ) /Knowledge Al-‘ilm (العلم ) 3 The arrival (Husul حصول: ) in the soul of the meaning of a thing or an object of knowledge and the arrival (wusul: )وصول of the soul at the meaning of a thing or object of knowledge  ”حصول هعىى أو صورة الشيء في الىفس ووصول الىفس إلى هعىى الشيء“ (al-Jurjani:160-161) ….cont., 4 Realization of the meanings of things (Al-Ghazzali) Realization of something in its true nature through different levels of understanding and in agreement with the facts or true to nature. (textbook, 4)
  2. 2. 2/5/20092 ……cont., 5 To know, to understand, to perceive, to be familiar and acquainted with things. A firm belief that accords with the reality of things (فاعلم أنه لا إله إلا الله ) )47: 19(. -Theology (عقيدة ),Principles of Jurisprudence( أصول الفقه ) etc. Opposite of العلم 6 الظو : Conjecture Uncertainty Not supported with decisive proofs It might accord with the reality and it might not 7  الشك : doubt  الجهل : ignorance  السفة : foolishness  الضلال : misguidance ….cont., Degrees of Certainty 8 العمن :knowledge •Certainty, conviction ( اهل /ًٖاهلظع ) •Accords with the reality •Certainty by observation عي اىيقيِ •certainty through knowledge عي اىيقِ •Certainty through experience حق اىيقيِ
  3. 3. 2/5/20093 Importance of Knowledge 9 1. Knowledge is a requirement for the fulfillment of man‟s obligations as a khalifahon earth. Allah says: 10  ْ ٍَِ بَهيِف ُ وَعْ جَجَأ اىُىبَق ًةَفيِيَ خ رْضِوَإِذْ قَبهَ رَبُّلَ ىِيْ لََََئِنَةِ إِ يِّّ جَبعِوٌ فِي الَْْ يُفْسِدُ فِيهَب وَيَسْفِلُ اىدِّ بٍَءَ وَ حَّْ سَُّبِّحُ بِحَ دَِْكَ وَ قَُّدِّسُ ىَلَ قَبهَ إِ يِّّ أَعْيَ بٍَ لََ جَعْيَ ىَُ ) 30 ( وَعَيَّ آَدَ الَْْسْ بََءَ مُيَّهَب ثُ عَرَضَهُ عَيَى اىْ لََََئِنَةِ فَقَبهَ أَ بِّْئُى يِّ بِأَسْ بََءِ هَؤُلََءِ إِ مُ حُْْ صَبدِقِي ) 31 ( قَبىُىا سُبْحَب لََّ لََ عِيْ ىَ بَْ إِلََّ بٍَ عَيَّ حََْ بَْ إِ لََّّ أَ ثَّْ اىْعَيِي اىْحَنِي ) 32 ( قَبهَ يَب آَدَ أَ بِّْئْهُ بِأَسْ بََئِهِ فَيَ بََّ أَ بَّْأَهُ بِأَسْ بََئِهِ قَبهَ أَىَ أَقُوْ ىَنُ إِ يِّّ أَعْيَ غَيْبَ اىسَّ بََوَاتِ وَالَْْرْضِ وَأَعْيَ بٍَ جُبْدُو وَ بٍَ مُ حُْْ جَنْحُ ىَُ ) 33 ) 11 2. The first revelation to the Messenger of Allah is about seeking knowledge and revealing scientific knowledge: ”ؤكرؤ تبشى رَبِّلَ اهذىخوق *خوق الا شٌب ي عوق *اكرا رّتم الانرى *اهذ عوى تبهلوى *عوى الا شٌب يب هى عٖوى“ )اهعوق: 1 - 5 ) ……Cont., 12 Read! In the name of the Lord and Cherisher, who created-created man, out of a mere clot of congealed blood. Proclaim! And your Lord is most Bountiful-He who taught the use of the pen, taught man that which he knew not‛ (96:1-5) [‚read, teach , pen‛]
  4. 4. 2/5/20094 ……cont., 13 3. Islam is a religion based upon knowledge. 4. The text of the Qur’an is full of verses inviting man to use his intellect, to ponder, to think and to learn. 5.The total number of verses in which ‘ilmor its derivatives and associated words are used is 704. 14 6.The main miracle and sign of authenticity of prophethood of Mohammed (صو الله عو شّوى ) was a book of knowledge; The Qur’an. ……cont., ……cont., 15 7.The Prophet (صو الله عو شّوى )made seeking knowledge obligatory on Muslims (men and women): ”ظوة اهعوى فر طٖج عو نل يشوى“ ‚Seeking knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim‛. ……cont., 16 8. Knowledge is the way through which people can recognize Allah, fear him, and discover the truth. ”هَنِ اهرَّاشِخُ فِ اهْعِوْىِ يِ ىٌُِِْ اَّهْيُئْيِ ئُْٖيِ تِيَب ؤُ زٌِْلَ اِهَ مَِٖ يََّب ؤُ زٌِْلَ يِ كَتِوِمَ“ )اه شٌبء: 162 ) ‚But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you…‛
  5. 5. 2/5/20095 17 ” رَََّٖ اهَّذِ ؤُ خُّ اّ اهْعِوْىَ اهَّذِ ؤُ زٌِْلَ اِهَ مَِٖ يِ رَتِّمَ اهْحَقَّ دََِِِّٖ اِهَ صِرَاظِ اهْعَزِ زِٖ اهْحَيِ دِٖ“ )شتإ :6( ‚And those who are knowledgeable see that the revelation sent down to you from the Lord is the Truth, and that it guides to the Path of Allah who is Exalted and Worthy of all praise.‛ ……cont., 18 9. Knowledge elevates the status and position of its bearer and makes difference between him and ignorant. ” رَِٖفَعِ اهوَّ اهَّذِ ءَايَ اٌُّ يِ نٌُْىِ اَّهَّذِ ؤُ خُّ اّ اهْعِوْىَ دَرَجَبحٍ“ )اهيجبدهج: 11 ) ‚Allah will raise up, to high ranks those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge…‛ ……cont., 19 ” هََّلَدِ ءَاخَ بٌَِٖ دَا دَُّ شَُّوَ يَِٖب عِوْيّب كََّبلا اهْحَيِدُ هِوَّ اهَّذِ فَطَّوَ بٌَ عَوَ نَذِ رٍٖ يِ عِتَبدِ اهْيُئْيِ “ًٌَِٖ ): 15 اه يٌل( We gave knowledge to David and Solomon: and they both said: "Praise be to Allah, Who has favoured us above many of His subjects whobelieve!" ……cont., 20 ” هََّلَدِ ءَاخَ بٌَِٖ دَا دَُّ يِ بٌَّ فَطِوًب بَٖجِتَبلُ ؤَ تِِّّ يَعَ اَّهظَّ رَِٖ ؤََّهَ بٌَّ هَ اهْحَدِ دَٖ) 10 ( ؤَ اعِيَلْ شَبتِغَبحٍ كََّدِّرِ فِ اهشَّرِدِ اَّعِيَوُ اّ صَبهِحّب اِ تِيَب خَعِيَوُ تَصِ رْٖ) 11 (“ )شتإء( ‚We bestowed grace on David … and We made the iron soft for him. Make coats of mail, balance well the rings of chain armour, and work righteousness; for be sure I see all that you do." ……cont.,
  6. 6. 2/5/20096 21 ”كل لُ شٖخ اهذ عٖوي اّهذ لا عٖوي “ًّ )اهزير: 9 ) ‚ Say: ‚are those equal, those who know and those who do not know?‛ ……cont., Purpose of knowledge Divinely WorldlyTo recognize GodTo benefit man Pleasure of God 22 Classification of Knowledge Week Two 24 Limitations (a) Absolute (perfect) knowledge: this is the knowledge of God who knows the reality, essence and details of all things. (b) Limited knowledge: The knowledge given to His creations;
  7. 7. 2/5/2009 7 25 angels, prophets, human beings, jinn, and animals. ……cont.,…..cont., 26 “Limited knowledge: (i) Gifted knowledge: a. Instinctive knowledge (natural): it is imparted in the very nature of the creation. b. Revealed/Sacred knowledge: the knowledge that Almighty God reveals to human beings. 27 (ii) Acquired Knowledge Gained through effort by way of reflection, senses and experience. (a) Recommended(praiseworthy) i-Fard ‘aynii. Fard kifayah (b) Prohibited(blameworthy) -Magic (kindly refer to slides 46-48) 28 General Classification of Knowledge in Islam
  8. 8. 2/5/2009 8 29General classification of Knowledge in IslamLimited Knowledge Acquired Knowledge Gifted Knowledge Absolute Knowledge Instinct (ilham) SacredPraiseworthy Blame worthy By external influenceBy itself Fard „Ain Fard Kifayah30 Al-Ghazzali’sCriteria for Classification of sciences: 1. Theoretical and practical 2. Presential and acquired 3. Religious and intellectual 4. Individual obligatory and communal obligatoryClassification of Knowledge According to al-Ghazali Theoretical Practical 31Intellectual Fard kifayah(Collective Obligatory Knowledge) Attained Presential Religious Fard ‘ayn (Personal Obligatory Knowledge) Al-Ghazzali’sCriteria for Classification of sciences 32 1. Theoretical and practical(philosophers) Theoretical: to know the states of beings as they are( to realize/ comprehend the reality of beings; celestial & terrestrial) Practical: deals with man’s actions To find out what is useful to mankind in this life as well as in the Hereafter
  9. 9. 2/5/2009 9 ….Cont., 33 2. Presential & acquired (tasawwuf) (the mode of knowing) Presential: intuitive, contemplative spiritual experience -revelation Acquired: empirical, rational, logical ….Cont., 34 Which one is better? Al-Ghazzali: the presential is superior to the acquired, It is free from errors & doubt, certainty on spiritual truths This is true with the revelationand intuition received by the prophets 35 The intuitive knowledge claimed by people other than prophets may not be taken for granted unless it is judged in light of the established principles of Islam ….Cont., 36 3. Religious and intellectual (the source) Religious (transmitted sciences): Acquired from revelation/ prophets 1. Roots (Qur’an, sunnah, consensus) 2. Branches (law and ethics) 3. Ancillary sciences (grammar and lexicography) 4. Complementary sciences (Qira’at, commentary, history) Intellectual: attained by human intellect alone
  10. 10. 2/5/2009 10 ….Cont., 37 4. Fard ‘Ayn and Fard kifayah(the need for learning) Fard ‘ayn: What should be learned by each and every Muslim. Individual responsibilities Things which can’t be done on behalf of others 38 Beliefs, worship, halal and haram, core moral values, how to discharge one’s responsibilities towards others (man’s obligations to family and society), necessary skills for daily life. ….Cont., ….Cont., 39 Fard kifayah: -the community’s needs that can be performed by a sufficient group on behalf of others. -collective responsibilities Religious sciences: knowledge that is not needed for daily practice of Islam. Intellectual knowledge: all types of knowledge needed for the welfare of the society in this life ….Cont40 Praiseworthy sciences: Enhances human well being and the environment within the boundaries outlined by shari’ah All sciences which are useful, beneficial and satisfy the requirements of science.
  11. 11. 2/5/2009 11 41 Blameworthy sciences: A science which does not meet the requirement of science, or it is purely or usually harmful. Blameworthy by its nature by an external factor….Cont… 42 Magic: It is defined as “seeking the help of demons to perform something harmful against somebody” or “showing something to an audience, which is contrary to reality. Reasons why magic is prohibited in Islam: 1) It is an act of blasphemy (kufr). Allah says in the Holy Qur‟an: 43 “AndwhentherecametothemaMessengerfromAllahconfirmingwhatwaswiththem,apartyofthosewhoweregiventhescripturethrewawaythebookofAllahbehindtheirbacksasiftheydidnotknow.AndtheyfollowedwhatthedevilsgaveoutfalselyofmagicofthereignofSolomon;forSolomondidnotdisbelievebutthedevilsdisbelieved, teachingmenmagicandsuchthingsthatcamedownatBabylontothetwoangelsHarutandMarut,butneitherofthesetwo(angles)taughtanyone(such 44 things) until they had said: we are only for trial, so don't disbelieve. And from them (magicians) people learn that through which they would cause separation between a person and his spouse, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's leave; and they learn that which harms them rather than profits them. And indeed they knew that its practitioner would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their own selves if they but knew.” (2:101-102).
  12. 12. 2/5/2009 1245 2) According to the following authentic hadith, magic is a deadly act: The Prophet (s.a.w) said: “Avoid the seven deadly acts which are: ascribing partners to God, magic, killing the human self which Allah prohibited except with right, eating usury (riba), devouring the orphan‟s wealth, defecting from the battle-field (without a justified reason) and slandering chaste, unwary believing women.” 46 Magic being harmful and evil act, Allah has told us to seek His protection against it: “Say I seek refuge in the in the Lord of daybreak From the evil of that which he created; From the evil of the darkness when it is intense, and from the evil of malignant witchcraft, And from the evil of the envious when he envies.” (Surah al-Falaq) Differences between magic and miracles (mu„jizat) 47 Magic is from devils (see the above Qur‟anic verse: 2:101-102)while miracles are from Allah. On the other hand, miracles are real while magic is deceptive; it is covering the truth with falsehood). Because miracles are from Allah, they could only be performed by Prophets while magic, which is from devils, can be performed by anyone who associates himself with the devil. 48 Horoscope Not only magic is prohibited in Islam but also horoscope or reading one‟s palm to foretell the future. The Holy Qur‟an affirms that no one knows the future or the unseen except Allah: “He knoweth the Unseen as well as that which is Open.” (6:73) “With Him are the keys of the Unseen, the treasures that none knoweth but He...” (6:59)
  13. 13. 2/5/2009 1349 The Holy Qur‟an also asserts that not even Muhammad knows the unseen: “If I had the knowledge of the unseen, I should have secured abundance for myself, and no evil would have touched me.” (7:188). 50 The Prophet (s.a.w) said: “Whoever goes to a fortune teller (a soothe sayer) or a diviner and believes him, has, in fact, disbelieved in what has been revealed to Muhammad.” ….Cont.. 51 Example: Horoscope Capricorn: (Dec 23 -Jan 20) Today’s stars encourage you to be more diplomatic and inclusive in your relations with others Aquarius: (Jan 21 ”Feb 19) On the Zodiac’s Day of Metamorphosis, you need to transform ideals into reality, and turn dreams into concrete plans. If you work patiently towards your goals, you can achieve the long- term success you are looking for. …Cont., 52 Astrology: It is the study of the positions and aspects of celestial bodies. Muslims scholars agree that astrology is a prohibited field to deal with. For example, Imam Ibn Taymiyah said: “Astrology that is concerned with studying the positions and aspects of celestial bodies in the belief that they have an influence on the course of natural earthly occurrences and human affairs is prohibited by Almighty Allah‟s Book, the Sunnah, and the unanimous agreement of the Muslim scholars.
  14. 14. 2/5/2009 1453 Ibn `Uthaymeen, said: “Astrology is a kind of sorcery and fortune-telling. It is forbidden because it is based on illusions, not on concrete facts. There is no relation between the movements of celestial bodies and what takes place on the Earth.” 54 During the Prophet‟s lifetime, it happened that the sun eclipsed on the same day when the Prophet‟s son Ibrahim died. The people then thought that it had eclipsed because of the Prophet‟s son‟s death. On knowing this, the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) led them in the Eclipse Prayer and then delivered them a speech saying: “The sun and moon are but signs of Allah; they do not eclipse because so-and-so died or was born.” 55 The above hadith indicates that the Prophet (s.a.w) denied all relation between the movements of the heavenly bodies and events on the Earth. 56 Ibn „Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him and his father) reported that Allah‟s Messenger (s.a.w) said: “He who has acquired some knowledge of astrology has acquired some knowledge of sorcery; the more he acquires of the former the more he acquires of the latter.” (Reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah)
  15. 15. 2/5/2009 1557 Commenting on the above hadith, al- Shawkani said that the Prophet (s.a.w) compared between astrology and sorcery because sorcery was known to be forbidden; and so, he who would get some knowledge of astrology would do something forbidden and would be sinful. 58 To sum up, astrology is based on lies and deceit; it has no scientific basis. The astrologists‟ usage of computers to convince people that what they do is technological and scientific is nothing but deceit. There is no scientific proof that there is a relationship between the appearance of a star in a specific time and the character and behavior of someone born at that time. Conclusion59 Sciences are inter-related, and none of them can exclude the others. Humanities, natural sciences, and the religious sciences unite to produce true understanding of this world and the causes behind its existence. Religious scholars are in need of philosophical and natural sciences as much as scientists are in need of the religious sciences. 60 Natural and philosophical sciences are to enable the Muslim to explore, exploit and get a better insight into what Allah has created in this universe. Religious sciences are to guide people to understand the reality of this life, their origins and their mission. And to set the moral and legal guidelines that should be observed by human beings for a meaningful and better life.
  16. 16. 2/5/2009 16 Sources and Means of Knowledge Week Three 62 1. Revelation ( اه حّ :ٕ اهلرآ اّهش جٌ ) 2. Reason (اهعلل ) 3. Nature/ physical world اهظتع جٖ( ) 4. Five Senses (اهح اّس اهخيشج ) 5. Intuition (الإه بِى ) The Qur’an as a Source of Knowledge63 An introduction to the the Qur’an Definition Qur’anis the Book revealed from Allah to His Messenger Muhammad (saw) as written in masahifand transmitted to us from him through an authentic continuous narration 64 Definition analysis: -Qur’anis the pure speech of Allah (al- Nisa’:42) -Only the Allah’s speech revealed to Muhammad -It is an exposition of all things (tibyanli kulli shay’) -As guidance and mercy -Nothing is neglected (al-Nahl:89)
  17. 17. 2/5/2009 1765 The Qur’anis the Arabic words as well as their meanings (translation is not a Qur’an) Transmitted to us by way of جىاجر [tawatur] (continuous narration by a large number of people in each part of the chain of narration) 66 Revelation&RecordingoftheQur’an a)RevelationoftheQur’an TheQur’anwastransmitteddirectlyfromAllah(swt)totheMessengerofAllahthroughGibril(notamereinspiration) TheQur’anwasnotrevealedtotheMessengerofAllahallatonce. ItwasrevealedtohiminstagesandsometimesinaccordancewithincidentsfacedbyMuslimcommunity. 67 Thewisdombehindrevealingitbystages 1.Toallowpeopletomemorize, understandandimplementitgradually. ” كَُّرِءَا بًٌ فَرَكْ بٌَ هِخَلْرَؤَ عَوَ اه بٌَّسِ عَوَ يُنْدٍ زٌَََّّهْ بٌَ خَ زٌِْ لٖا“ )الإشراء: 106( ItisaQur’anwhichwehavedividedintopartsfromtimetotimeinorderthatyoumightreciteittomenatintervals… (17:106) 68 2.TostrengthentheheartoftheMessengerofAllah(saw),givehimcourageandmoralsupporttoovercomethedifficultiesandchallengeshewasfacing.Allahsaid: ” كََّبلَ اهَّذِ نَفَرُ اّ هَ لِّا زٌُِّلَ عَوَ اهْلُرِءَا جُيِوَجً اَّحِدَثً نَذَهِمَ هِ ذٌَُتِّحَ تِ فُئَادَمَ رََّخَّوْ بٌَ خَرِخِ وًٖب“ )اهفركب :ً 32 )
  18. 18. 2/5/2009 1869 Those who reject faith say: "Why is not the Qur’anrevealed to him all at once? It is revealed in stages so that We may strengthenyour heart thereby, and We have rehearsed it to you in slow, well-arranged stages, gradually. (25: 32) 70 3.Liveinteractionbetweenthedivinetextandthesocio-politicalrealityanddailypracticeofthepeople. Someversescametodealwith: somesituationsfacedbytheMessengerofAllah; solveproblemsfacedbyMuslimcommunity; respondtothechallengesputbydisbelievers; correctthemistakescommittedbytheMuslimcommunity,etc. 71 Those incidents, cases, and questions are called occasions for revelation ( أ لّزٌها ةبتش ) and they help those who came laterin a better understanding and implementation of those verses. The period of revelation lasted for around 23 years. 72 The Recording of the Qur’an The Messenger of Allah used to memorize the verses revealed to him then recite them for his companions who used to memorize them Therewerescribeswhousedtorecordtheversesaftertheirrevelation
  19. 19. 2/5/2009 19 73 TheoriginalcopiesofthewrittenrecordswerepreservedinthehouseoftheMessengerofAllah. Whilesomeotherscribeswouldrecordtheversesforthemselvesandpreservethemfortheirownuse. 74 TheorderoftheverseswithineachsurahaswellastheorderofthesurahswasdirectedbyJibril. DuringeachmonthofRamadanJibrilusedtorecitewhatwasrevealedinitsorderwiththeMessengerofAllah. DuringthetimeofAbuBakrtheQur’anwascompiledinasingleofficialcopy. ThesuggestioncameafterthebattleofYamamah. 75 The Qur’anand the other Revealed Books Universality: ThepreviousBookswerelocalforspecificpeople. Qur’anasthelastrevealedBookandauniversalmessageforallmankindneedstobecomprehensiveandeternallypreserved. 76 ” ؤََّ زٌَْهْ بٌَ اِهَ مَِٖ اهْنِخَبةَ تِبهْحَقِّ يُصَدِّكًب هِيَب تَ دََٖ يِ اهْنِخَبةِ يَُّ يَِِِٖ بًٌ عَوَ فَبحِنُىِ تَ ىٌَُِِِٖ تِيَب ؤَ زٌَْلَ اهوَّ “َُ )اهيبئدث: 48 ) ToyouwesenttheScriptureintruth,confirmingthescripturethatcamebeforeit,andawatcheroverit.So,judgebetweenthembywhatAllahhasrevealed…‛
  20. 20. 2/5/2009 2077 2. The way of preservation ThepeopleofeachBookwereentrustedwithguardingitagainstanydistortionormanipulation ”اِ بٌَّ ؤَ زٌَْهْ بٌَ اهخَّ رَِّاثَ فِ بَِٖ دُُّ رٌَُّّْ حَِٖنُىُ تِ بَِ اه تٌَِّ اهَّذِ ؤَشِوَيُ اّ هِوَّذِ بَُدُ اّ اَّهرَّتَّب اَّهْإَحِتَبرُ تِيَب اشِخُحِفِعُ اّ يِ نِخَبةِ اهوَّ نََّب اٌُّ عَوَ شُ دََِاءَ...“ )اهيبئدث: 44 ) 78 ‚It was We who revealed the Torah; therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed to Allah's will, by the rabbis and the priests; for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's Book, and they were witnesses thereto…‛ (5: 44) 79 Iftheyfailtodoso,Allahsendsanotherprophettotakepeoplebacktotherightway. SinceMuhammad(saw)wasthelastMessenger, Allah(swt)assumedtheresponsibilityofguardingandpreservingHislastBook. ”اِ بٌَّ حٌَِ زٌََّهْ بٌَ اهذِّنْرَ اَِّ بٌَّ هَ هَحَبفِعُ ”ًَّ)اهحجر: 9 ) Wehave,withoutdoubt,sentdowntheMessage; andWewillassuredlyguarditagainstanymanipulationorchange. 80 Preservation of the Qur’an ThewayQur’anwaspreserved: TheQur’anwasmadepublicfromtheverybeginning. TheQur’anwasfullyrecordedfromthetimeitwasrevealed. TheQur’anwaspreservedintheoriginalform(samelanguage,samewords). TheassurancefromGodthattheQur’anwillbepreservedtilltheDayofJudgment.
  21. 21. 2/5/2009 2181 ” اّ هنخبة عز زٖ، لا إٖخ اهتبظل ي ت دٖ لّا ي خوف ،َ خ زٌ لٖ ي حن ىٖ حي دٖ“ )فصوح: 41 - 42 ) AndindeeditisaBookofexaltedpower.Falsehoodcannotcomeatitfrombeforeitorfrombehindit.(Itis)arevelationfromtheWise,theOwnerofPraise. 82 NoonecanalterorchangeanypartoftheQur’an;noteventheMessengerofAllahhimself. ”خَ زٌِْ لٌٖ يِ رَةِّ اهْعَبهَيِ ) 43 ( هََّ خَلَ لََّّ عَوَ بٌَِٖ تَعِضَ الأَكَب لِِّٖ ( 44 ( لأَخَذْ بٌَ يِ تِبهْ يَِٖ ) 45 ( ذُىَّ هَلَظَعِ بٌَ يِ اهْ خَِّ ) 46 ) فَيَب يِ نٌُْىِ يِ ؤَحَدٍ عَ حَبجِزِ “ًَٖ )اهحبكج: 47 .) ThisisaMessagesentdownfromtheLordoftheworlds.AndiftheMessengerweretoinventanysayingsinourname,weshouldcertainlyseizehimbyhisrighthand,andweshouldcertainlythencutoffthearteryofhisheart:Norcouldanyofyouprotecthimfromthat. 83 The Characteristics of the Qur’an 1-Guidance for and mercy to believers ”ذَهِمَ اهْنِخَبةُ لا رَ ةَِٖ فِ دُُّ هِوْيُخَّلِ “ًَٖ )اهتلرث: 2 ) This is the book; in it is guidance, sure, without doubt, to those who fear Allah. 84 ” هََّلَدِ جِئْ بٌَ ىُُِ تِنِخَبةٍ فَصَّوْ بٌَ عَوَ عِوْىٍ دُُّ رََّحِيَجً هِلَ ىٍِّ ئُْٖيِ “ًٌَُّ )الأعراف: 52 ) For We had certainly sent unto them a Book, based on knowledge, which We explained in detail, a guideand a mercyto all who believe.
  22. 22. 2/5/2009 2285 2. Spiritual/ social healer ” بَٖؤَ بَُِّٖ اه بٌَّسُ كَدِ جَبءَخْنُىِ يَ عِِّعَجٌ يِ رَتِّنُىِ شَِّفَبءْ هِيَب فِ اهصُّدُ رِّ دَُُّّ رََّحِيَجٌ هِوْيُئْيِ “ًٌَِٖ ) سٌّٖ: 57 ) Omankind!therehascometoyouadirectionfromyourLordandahealingforthe(diseases)inyourhearts,andforthosewhobelieve,aGuidanceandaMercy. 86 3-Light ”فَبهَّذِ ءَايَ اٌُّ تِ عََّزَّرُ صٌَََّرُ اَّخَّتَعُ اّ اه رٌَُّّ اهَّذِ ؤُ زٌِْلَ يَعَ ؤُ هَّئِمَ ىُُُ اهْيُفْوِحُ “ًَّ )الأعراف: 157 ) Soitisthosewhobelieveinhim(theMessenger),honourhim,helphim,andfollowtheLightwhichissentdownwithhim,itistheywhowillprosper. 87 “فَأيِ اٌُّ تِبهوَّ رََّشُ هِّ اَّه رٌُِّّ اهَّذِ ؤَ زٌَْهْ بٌَ ‘ اَّهوَّ تِيَب خَعِيَوُ خَتِ رْٖ" )اهخغبت :ً 8 ) Believe,therefore, in Allah and His Messenger, and in the Light which We have sent down. And Allah is well acquainted with all that you do. 88 4-Preacher for believers ” ذََُا تَ بَٖ هِو بٌَّسِ دَُُّّ يََّ عِِّعَجٌ هِوْيُخَّلِ “ًَٖ )آل عيرا :ً 138 ) Here is a plain statement to men, a guidance and instruction to those who fear Allah!
  23. 23. 2/5/2009 2389 5-Revealing reality and clarifying doubts “ظس خِوْمَ ءَا بَٖحُ اهْلُرِءَا نَِّخَبةٍ يُتِ “ًٍٖ )اه يٌل: 1 ) Ta. Sin. These are verses of the Qur’an, a Book that makes things clear. 90 ” بَٖ ؤَ لَُِ اهْنِخَبةِ كَدِ جَبءَنُىِ رَشُ هُّ بٌَ تَُٖ هَنُىِ نَذِ رّٖا يِيَّب نُ خٌُْىِ خُخْفُ يِ اهْنِخَبةِ عََِّٖفُ عَ نَذِ رٍٖ كَدِ جَبءَنُىِ يِ اهوَّ رٌُّْ نَِّخَبةْ يُتِ “ًْٖ )اهيبئدث: 15 ) OPeopleoftheBook!therehascometoyouOurMessenger,revealingtoyoumuchthatyouusedtohideintheBook,andpassingovermuch(thatisnowunnecessary):TherehascometoyoufromAllaha(new)lightandaperspicuousBook. 91 6-Miraculous The Qur’an is the main miracle of the Messenger of Allah and the main proof of the authenticity of his prophethood. The miracles contained in it are the proof of its authenticity as the real Book of Allah92 Its miracle is in terms of: i. Structure ii. Meaning(the knowledge contained in it: historical events, prediction of what will happen in the future, and scientific facts.
  24. 24. 2/5/2009 2493 Challenging the Unbelievers The miracle is manifested in a challenge to all mankind to produce: a. Another book similar to it: ”ؤَىِ لَُٖ هُّ خَلَ هََّّ تَل لا ئُْٖيِ )ًٌَُّ 33 ( فَوْ إَْٖخُ اّ تِحَدِ دٍٖ يِذْوِ اِ نَب اٌُّ صَبدِكِ ) 34 (“ اهظ رّ. Or they say: He has invented it? Nay, but they do not believe! Then let them produce a speech like it, if they are truthful. 94 b. Ten chapters similar to those of the Qur’an ”ؤَىِ لَُٖ هُّ افْخَرَا كُلْ فَإْخُ اّ تِعَشْرِ شُ رٍَّ يِذْوِ يُفْخَرَ بَٖحٍ اَّدِعُ اّ يَ اشِخَظَعِخُىِ يِ دُ اهوَّ اِ نُ خٌُىِ صَبدِكِ ) 13 ( ”) دُّ(. Or they say: He has invented it! Say: Then bring ten surahs, the like thereof, invented, and call on everyone you can beside Allah, if you are truthful! 95 c. One surahsimilar to those of the Qur’an ” اَِّ نُ خٌُىِ فِ رَ ةٍِٖ يِيَّب زٌََّهْ بٌَ عَوَ عَتِدِ بٌَ فَإْخُ اّ تِشُ رَّثٍ يِ يِذْوِ اَّدِعُ اّ شُ دََِاءَنُىِ يِ دُ اهوَّ اِ نُ خٌُىِ صَبدِكِ )ًَٖ 23 (“ اهتلرث. And if you are in doubt concerning that which We reveal to our Messenger (Muhammad), then produce a surahlike one thereof, and call your gods and supporters beside Allah if you are truthful. 96 Types of Knowledge in the Qur’an The Universal Book Islam is the last and universal religion; Human societies are always open for evolution and development. The Qur’an should: Meet the needs of all human beings in different places and different times.
  25. 25. 2/5/2009 2597 To be able to do so, it should: Give clear and detailed discourse on what is important for human life and can’t be known through human reasoning only (beliefs and ‘ibadat) Set the core values and principles which guide human life to the right way, and safeguard it against any corruption or deviation from such a way. Be flexible to accommodate the evolution and development of human life and societies. 98 Regarding human life’s aspects which are subject to change and development, the Qur’an , generally, sets norms, standards and universal values which suit all peoples and all times. These values and norms should not be subject to any alteration or change to ensure the prevalence of righteousness and justice (immutable values and norms). 99 In light of these norms, people are given freedom to innovate and adopt whatever systems, procedures, etc they may consider as good for them as long as they don’t breach those norms and values. 100 Physical and Natural Sciences The Qur’an deals with those things which are needed to be known and may not be realized by man or may not be understood accurately (man would speculate about themonly) Such as: -The origin of mankind, the substance and the way of his first creation, his first acquisition of the basic knowledge.
  26. 26. 2/5/2009 26101 -The origin of the earth and the heavens In other fields such as: -astronomy -Geology, -Physics, -Embryology The Qur’an just gives some references for the following purposes: 102 The aims of scientific references in the Qur’an It is not to give people details and teach them natural and physical sciences. They are signs to prove: -The existence of God -The omnipotence and power of God -The weakness of men compared to the power of the Creator103 -Indebtedness of mankind to Allah for all what we have in life. -The authenticity of Prophets and revealed Books i.e. this Qur’an comes from Allah and it is impossible for a human being, especially at the time of Muhammad (صو الله عو شّوى ).to compose it. Cont., 104 For the Muslim who reads and understands these references, they serve to strengthen his or her faith. ”اهَّذِ ذَْٖنُرُ اهوَّ كِ بَٖيّب كَُّعُ دّّا عََّوَ جُ تٌُِّ ىِِِ خَََّٖفَنَّرُ فِ خَوْقِ اهشَّيَ اَّحِ اَّلأَرِضِ رَتَّ بٌَ يَب خَوَلْحَ ذََُا تَبظِلاً شُتِحَب مٌََ فَلِ بٌَ عَذَاةَ اه بٌَّرِ“)آل الأعيرا :ً 191 .)
  27. 27. 2/5/2009 27105 Those who remember and praise Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplatethe wonders of creation in the heavens and the earth, (with the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught haveyou created all this! Glory to you! Give us salvation from the Penalty of the Fire. (3: 191) 106 For the non-Muslim who questions the authenticity or authorship of the Qur’an , these references provide some interesting answers. ”شَ رٌُِ ىِِِٖ ءَا بَٖخِ بٌَ فِ ا فَٗبقِ فَِّ ؤَ فٌُْشِ ىِِِ حَخَّ خََٖتَ هَ ىُِِ ؤَ اهْحَقُّ ؤَ هََّىِ نَْٖفِ تِرَتِّمَ ؤَ عَوَ نُلِّ شَ ءٍِٕ شَ دِِْٖ“ )فصوح: 53 ) 107 Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (farthest) horizons, and within themselves, until it becomes manifest to them that it is the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord does witness all things? [41:53] 108 How should we deal with these scientific facts? They should be used for the aforesaid things. They can be used to have a better understanding of those verses dealing with natural phenomena compared to the way they were understood by early Muslims.
  28. 28. 2/5/2009 28109 We should not over-emphasize the scientific miracles to the extent that we hurry to relate each new scientific theory to the verses of the Qur’an . Such an act may lead to misinterpreting the texts of the Qur’an and changing the interpretation from time to time. This may be counterproductive and cause some confusion especially among non-Muslims. 110 b) Religious, human and social sciencesBelief: (Revelation is the only source) The Concept of God The existence of God; the Creator and Lord of this universe. The concept of tawhid(Unity of God) Since the concept of God was not new to mankind, the Qur’an focuses on correcting the prevalent concepts of God and demonstrating the Unity of God, His omnipotence and knowledge, etc. 111 The Concept of Prophethood God used to send a prophet to every people A brief history of prophets (some names mentioned) Revelation Some revealed books: Suhuf/ Ibrahim, Zabur/ Dawud, Torah /Musa, Injil/ Gospel/ Esa Angels Their nature, character, position and relation with God (not his sons or daughters) 112 Day of Judgment Its existence, what will happen on that day, Jannah, Jahannam No specific date is given for its happening ‘Ibadat(worship) Revelation the only source. The Qur’an sets the basics of ‘ibadat and the Prophet gives details
  29. 29. 2/5/2009 29 113 Morality Revelation the main source The Qur’an sets universal ethical norms and values Obedience and submission to God, justice, benevolence, kindness, generosity, brotherhood, honesty, truthfulness, sincerity, trust (amanah), forbearance, patience, tolerance and forgiveness, inviting/encouraging people to do good, and preventing/ discouraging them from doing bad (munkar) 114 Human and social relations Revelation is the main source The Qur’an deals with the main principles of these relations: Relationship among family members -between husbands and wives -between parents and children -marriage, divorce, inheritance Relations with relatives115 Relations with neighbours Social relations and interaction Relations between genders Etiquettes and manners Relations with non-Muslims Relations with animals Halal & haram: (Revelation is the only source) Food, drinks, clothes 116 Law: -Family law -Criminal law -Procedural law -Commercial law -International law
  30. 30. 2/5/2009 30117 Economic system (Revelation provides guidance to attain and maintain justice) Islam sets some norms and principles along with some restrictions to ensure the observance of those norms and principles (prohibition of riba, uncertain contracts, etc.) 118 Zakatis imposed to secure the minimum economic and social justice, Rich people are exhorted to spend and promised to be rewarded for that. Social welfare (59: 7) 119 Political system The Qur’an sets norms and principles The establishment of a government/ central authority and the duties of subjects to obey its commands120 The governance should be based on consultation (ش رّْ )and the right of people to select their leaders. The format of )ش رّ (ْ and government are left to the choice of people and are open for development.
  31. 31. 2/5/2009 31121 History and Civilization The origin of this universe The Qur’an states that this universe was created by Allah, and gives short description of that creation The origin of mankind -The Qur’an states that the first man (Adam) was created by God from dust/ clay (15: 26), (15: 28-29), (17: 61), (23: 12), (32: 7), (32: 9), 38: 71-72) -Eve was created for Adam (4: 1), (7: 189), (39: 6) 122 -Adam was taught the basic knowledge by God (2: 30-33) -When Adam and his wife, mistakenly, disobeyed the commands of God, they were sent down from Jannah(Paradise) to the earth where they and their children settled. 123 History of Messengers of Allah -The Qur’an gives a brief account of the history of the most significant Messengers. -The Qur’an does not focus on the details of that history, instead it focuses on the lessons that should be learned from those events. 124 -The Qur’an pays enough attention to civilizational studies by examining the patterns of rise and fall of civilizations. -The Qur’an wants Muslims to learn from human experience. -The aim of this is to guide Muslims how to buildtheir civilization and guardit against social diseases that may lead to its fall and collapse.
  32. 32. 2/5/2009 32 125 How should we deal with the Qur’an? Qur’an is an authoritative text that should be followed and implemented by all Muslims. Those texts which are clear and self- explanatory should be implemented without any further examination. Those texts which are open for interpretation and may impart more than one meaning can be examined and construed based on the following principles: 126 Grouping of similar texts/ statements which talk on one topic/category Analysis and understanding of each text/ statement in its components and context Identification of the rules which unify the various categories Identification of the general rules and purposes which govern the interaction/ interrelation of various categories. The Sunnah as a Source of Knowledge127128 Literal Meaning: Sunnah ش جٌ( )means a clear path, an established course of conduct, the pattern of life, a precedent and custom. The word sunnahand its plural sunanhave been used in the Qur’an sixteen times. In all these instances, sunnahhas been used to imply an established practice or course of conduct.
  33. 33. 2/5/2009 33129 It may be a good example or a bad one, and it may be set by an individual, a sect or a community. ”ي ش ش جٌ حش جٌ فو ؤجر بُ ؤّجر ي عيل ت بِ اه ىّٖ اهل بٖيج يّ ش ش جٌ ش ئٖج فو زّر بُ زّّر ي عيل ت بِ اه ىّٖ اهل بٖيج“ 130 ‚Whosoever originates in Islam any good way/ precedent (good sunnah) has its reward and the reward of whoever acts upon it till the Day of Judgment. Andwhosoever originates in Islam a bad way/ precedent (bad sunnah) bears its burden and the burden of whoever acts upon it till the Day of Judgment‛ 131 The opposite of sunnahis bid`ah(innovation), which is characterized by lack of precedent and continuity with the past. Technical meaning: a.The acts, sayings and approvals of the Messenger of Allah. 132 Kinds of Sunnah with respect to the channels of the ahkam 1. Sunnah which is intended to be a binding law: This kind includes the sayings, acts and approval of the Prophet (saw) through which he intended the laying down of the law or the explanation of the ahkam(law) laid down by the Qur’an . This comprises the largest part of the sunnah.
  34. 34. 2/5/2009 34133 2-Sunnah which is specific to the Prophet( ٓوص الله عو شّوى ) This kind includes those acts which are specific to the Prophet (صو الله عو شّوى ). The number of these acts is very limited. One example is the number of his marriages, marriage without dowry, not eating out of charity (صدكج ). 134 3. Ordinary physical acts performed by every human being Like eating, drinking, walking. Such acts are not meant to lay down laws. If one imitates the Prophet (saw) in these acts out of love for him and with the intention to get reward, he will be rewarded for this. But the etiquettes and manners prescribed by the Messenger of Allah for the performance of such acts are part of that which is meant to be a binding law. 135 4. Acts based on human experience This may include acts that pertain to his experience as a human being, like the organizing of the army, tactics of war, trading skills. These acts don’t become precedents of law, because their basis is skill and experience rather than revelation. However, if they are still relevant to one’s situation they might be followed. 136 Status of the Sunnah with respect to the Qur’an The Sunnah is the second source just next to the Qur’an which is the first source. There will be no Islam without the adoption of the sunnah.
  35. 35. 2/5/2009 35 137 The Sunnah is basically an elaboration and commentary on the Qur’an . Some ahkamare found in the Qur’anin general, in an undetermined or unelaborated form. The Sunnahrestricts, qualifies, or elaborates these ahkam. 138 The Sunnah is a concrete implementation, a tangible form and the actual embodiment of the Qur’an The Sunnah may lay down some rules that are not mentioned in the Qur’an Qur’an says: ‚And whatsoever the messenger brought to you, follow it. And whatsoever he forbids, abstain from it‛ (al-Hashr:7) The knowledge we get from The Sunnah 139 Worship (عتبدث ) The rulings and teachings related to عتبدث Halal and haram: In food, drinks, clothes, and transactions: -the Sunnah interprets what needs to be interpreted in the Qur’an . -The Sunnah may add some prohibitions which are not included in the Qur’an . 140 Law (family, criminal, commercial, procedural, international ) Manner of conduct: The biography of the Prophet (saw) is the model of individual moral conduct. ‚A noble model you have in Allah’s Apostle, for all whose hope is in Allah, and in the final Day, and who often remember Allah‛ (al-Ahzab:21)
  36. 36. 2/5/2009 36141 The model in implementing and embodying the teachings and principles of the Qur’an The model in the relationship between humans and Allah (‘ibadah) The model in establishing a family and treating well the wives as well as the children. 142 A model in dealing with people. A model in hard-working, patience, and perseverance etc. Leadership: He was a model leader from whom we learn the requirements of a successful leader. 143 Da‘wah: How he started from nothing and ended with hundreds of thousands of followers after two decades only. 144 Nation building and social reformation: How he established a nation and changed an almost primitive society dominated by tribalism and rivalries among different tribes and social classes to a civilized and strong state characterized by unity, cooperation, and brotherhood.
  37. 37. 2/5/2009 37 145 Eliminating idolatry and establishing Tawhid Eliminating bad social values in dealing with the weak social classes: women, slaves, poor people, black people, etc. 146 Reason (اهعلل ) as a Sources of Knowledge147 Reason as a Source of Knowledge Theterm‚reason‛isusedindifferentsensesandmeanings: 1.Thepowerofbeingabletothinkinalogicalandrationalmanner,asdistinctfromexperienceoremotions. 2.Abilitytothinkclearlyandcoherently 3.Theabilityorprocessofdrawinglogicalinferences. 148 Meanings/ Functions of Reason: 1.Reasonissometimesusedtodenoteanumberofself-evidentprinciples(suchastheprincipleofnon-contradiction)whichgoverntheprocessofthinkingofmentallycompetentpeople,regardlessoftheirculturalbackground. -Thesefundamentaltruthsareintuitivelyapprehended -asopposedtosensation,perception,feeling, desire(theexistenceofwhichisdeniedbyempiricists)
  38. 38. 2/5/2009 38149 In this sense, reason is an instrumentused for examining the coherence and rationality of a body of statements. The examination allows us to conclude that the examined statements are: -Either coherent, and hence in conformity with the principles of reason; -Or contradictory, and thus in violation of reason Reason which gives a priori knowledge (pure reason) 150 2.Thecapacityofrationalbeingstoacknowledgethetruthofcertainassertionsanddenythetruthofotherswiththepowertoabstract,analyze, synthesize Abodyofknowledgewhichhasbeenexaminedandsystemizedbytheprincipleoflogicandconsideredbycertainpeopleasreasonable. =Reasonasamentalfaculty. Reasonistobeassociatedwithmethodsandmechanismsusedinscienceandknowledge, generally,ratherthanasourceofknowledge. 151 Reason vs. Revelation The faculty of reasoning is one of the most precious gifts of Allah to mankind. Reason is the basis of taklif(legal capacity) because it is the power of discernmentby which humans can distinguish between ‘good’ and ‘bad’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ Reason is the basis of Iman/ faith, thus, it is given the authority to examine the authenticity of prophets and the revelation they claim to bring from God. 152 The Qur’an is full of references which command and exhort people to think, contemplate, and to examine the claimed revelation This shows that: -Islam values reason; and -Islam is confident that there will be no contradiction between what is contained in the revelation and what can be reasoned by human reason
  39. 39. 2/5/2009 39153 What is claimed by unbelievers to be irrational or unreasonable is either: = Mere speculationand ignorance, such as when they deny some beliefs or they misunderstand them. ”وَهَب يَتَّبِعُ أَكْثَرُهُنِ إِلاَّ ظَىًّب إِوَّ الظَّوَّ لا يُغْىِي هِوَ الْحَقِّ شَيِئًب إِوَّ المَّهَ عَمِينٌ بِهَب يَفْعَمُووَ“ )يوىس: 36 ) But most of them follow nothing but conjecture and speculation: truly conjecture and speculation can never challenge or replace truth. Verily Allah is well aware of all that they do. (10:36) 154 =Ormerewishesanddeludedhopes(hawa) ” كََّبهُ اّ هَ دَِٖخُلَ اهْجَ جٌََّ اِهَّب يَ نَب دُُّّا ؤَ صٌََبرَ خِوْمَ ؤَيَب ىٌُُِِِّٖ كُلْ بَُخُ اّ تُرِ بَُ نٌَُىِ اِ نُ خٌُْىِ صَبدِكِ “ًٖ )اهتلرث: 111 ) And they say: "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian." Those are their vain desires. Say: "Produce your proofif you are truthful." (2: 111) 155 Interestingly,thosewhoclaimtorejectreligion/revelationbasedonlogicandrationalityarecharacterizedbytheQur’anasthosewhofailtousetheirmentalfaculties/ reasonproperly. ”ذُىَّ جَعَوْ بٌَمَ عَوَ شَرِ عَٖجٍ يِ الأَيِرِ فَبخَّتِعِ بَِ لَّا خَخَّتِعِ ؤَ اَُِّءَ اهَّذِ لا عَِٖوَيُ “ًَّ )اهجبذ جٖ: 18 ) “ Then We put you on the right way of religion; so follow that way, and do not follow the desires of those who do not know.‛ (45: 18) 156 ” يََّذَلُ اهَّذِ نَفَرُ اّ نَيَذَلِ اهَّذِ عٌَِْٖقُ تِيَب لا شَِٖيَعُ اِلاَّ دُعَبءّ دٌََِّاءّ صُىٌّ تُنْىْ عُيِ فَ ىُِِ لا عَِٖلِوُ “ًّ )اهتلرث: 171 ) The parable of those who reject Faith is as if one were to shout like a goat-herd, to things that listen to nothing but calls and cries: deaf, dumb, and blind, they are void of wisdom. (2: 171)
  40. 40. 2/5/2009 40 157 Hawwas (senses) as Means to Knowledge 158 Senses as sources of Knowledge: The Qur’an urges us to use the faculties of senses. It blames the Kuffar for not using their senses properly. The faculties of senses will bear witness for or against one on the Day of Judgment. 159 Sound Senses (Hawwas al-Salimah) 1. Hearing2. Sight, 3. Smell, 4. taste, 5. touch160 Hearing (al-sam’) It is a faculty (quwa) placed in the nerves spread out in the cavity of the ear hole, by which sounds are perceived. It is by way of connecting with the ear hole the air, which has assumed the quality of the sounds, meaning that Allah then creates perception in the soul (al-nafs) [E.Elder, 18]
  41. 41. 2/5/2009 41161 Seeing (al-basar) It is a faculty placed in the two hollow nerves which meet each other in the brain, thence they separate and go to the two eyes; by this faculty are perceived rays of light, colours, shapes, measures, motions, the beautiful and the ugly, and other things, the perception of which Allah creates in the soul whenever the creature uses this faculty. 162 Smelling (al-shamm) It is a faculty placed in the two protruding lumps on the front of the brain, which are like the two nipples of the breast; by this faculty odors are perceived by way of connecting with the cartilage of the nose the air which has assumed the quality of the odors. 163 Taste (al-zawq) It is a faculty spread out in the nerves situated on the organ of the tongue; by this faculty flavors are perceived through the mixing of the saliva which is in the mouth with the thing tasted, and through its reaching to the nerves. 164 Touch (al-lams) It is a faculty spread out into all the body by which heat and cold, moisture and dryness, and the like are perceived at the time of touching and contact.
  42. 42. 2/5/2009 42165 Methodology Definition: Method: Aparticularwayofdoingsomething,esp.asystematicone;impliesanorderlylogicalarrangement. Methodology: 1.Thetheoreticalanalysisofthemethodsappropriatetoafieldofstudyortothebodyofmethodsandprinciplesparticulartoabranchofknowledge. Kinds of Methodologies i. Methodology in revealed knowledge ii. Methodology in human knowledge (pure and social sciences) iii. Integrative methodology of revealed knowledge and human knowledge. 166What is Islamic Methodology? •Methodology means a technique or method. •It is the field of inquiry concerned with the examination of methods used in the study of natural sciences, human and social sciences and religious sciences in order to understand the subjects. •A comprehensive Islamic methodology means toIslamize and integrate knowledge on the basis of the combination between the revelation and reason in order to overhaul the obstacles and challenges facing a modern man and the society. 167 Methodologies used by the early Muslim scholars Slide Number? Ijtihad (wahy, `aql and Hawas) Istihsan (Juristic Preference) Masalih Mursalah (public interest) `Urf (a particular Custom) Consultation & Consensus Chain of Transformation Reliable Narrators Verifications Collection of Data Islamic Methodologies168
  43. 43. 2/5/2009 43 Islamic Methodology 1.Collection of data of the Qur‟an and Sunnah 2.Verified techniques used by the narrators in order to ensure the authenticity of narrations. 3.Compilation of the Qur‟an and Sunnah. 4.Considering the reliable narrators with specific criteria. 5.Chain of transformation, no gap between two generations and not less than 40 forty narrators. 6.Memorizations of the Qur‟an and Sunnah. 169 Islamic Methodology 7. Consultation among the scholars and consensus based on majority opinions. 8. Ijtihad (rational arguments, explanation, interpretation and adjustment with the local culture and custom) 9. Istihsan (juristic preference), supplementary methods in order to make up for the growing number of new situations that were difficult with the textual and the analogical arguments. 170 Islamic Methodology 10. Maslahah or Masalih Mursalah (public interest), supplementary methods, if the texts of the Qur‟an and Hadith or consensus or analogy were not available. 11. `Urf (custom of a particular society or a nation), supporting for adjustment from avoiding the contradictions and social division and disunity for the public interest. 171 Merits of the Traditional Approach Merits of the traditional approach were the sincerity, piety, enthusiasm, commitment, and dedication of the early Muslim researchers, many of whom looked for their rewards in the Hereafter. 172
  44. 44. 2/5/2009 44 Islamic research, experimentation and empirical investigation were considered acts of „ibadah. The God-consciousness of the traditional scholars was reflected in their writings and research, which they would commence with bismillah(in the name of Allah), seek His blessings and conclude by dedicating their results to Him. 173 The holistic nature of the traditional Islamic educational system made no distinction between revealed knowledge and empirically derived knowledge. 174 Knowledge was perceived as a comprehensive whole, with empirically derived knowledge subject to the verification of revealed knowledge. 175 Tawhidic Criteria for Islamic Methodology Three main tawhidic criteriafor Islamic methodology are as follows: 1.Anything which does not correspond with the reality must be rejected. 2.Ultimate contradictions must be denied and rejected. 3.Approaches must be open in order to adjust and accommodate new situations facing the society and man. 176
  45. 45. 2/5/2009 45 Merits of Islamic Methodology Summarized177 s Merit of Islamic Methodologies Allah’s pleasure Pure Intention For humanity Commitment to People and society Reflection Of Allah Awareness Self-Initiative (Establishing Institutions) Identifying the Short-comings Of Empirical Knowledge. Combination of Wahy& Aql Mastery of Arabic Language As Ibadah Knowing context, Purpose and Application of the Texts178 Obstacles And Recommendations for Muslim Scholars Depended on Traditional method Depended on Western Method Creativity and Initiative ness Absence of Islamic Curriculum Mis- Propagation And Misconception Unavailability Financial and Technical support Regaining Sincerity and Pure intention For humanity Bilingual Competency Traditional Methods as Inspiration Integrating Between Wahyand Aql Verification of Validities, shortcoming 179 Methodology in Human Knowledge (pure and social sciences) 180
  46. 46. 2/5/2009 46 181 Science From Latin word scientia means systematic knowledge of the physical or material world 182 Knowledge of Science Is acquired through experience, observation and research Discursive: preceded by arguments Inductive and deductive 183 Two scientific methods/ logical systems : induction & deduction 1. Deductive method (istinbat)(استىببط ) The researcher begins with a theory and then derives one or more hypotheses from it for testing. 184 Theresearcherimplementsthoseobservationstoseewhethertheyconfirmorfailtoconfirmsthehypotheses. Next,theresearcherdefinesthevariablesineachhypothesisandtheoperationstobeusedtomeasuretheminspecificobservableterms.
  47. 47. 2/5/2009 47 185 2.Inductivemethod(istiqra’)(استقراء ) Amethodofdiscoveringgeneralrulesandprinciplesfromparticularfactsandexamples. Ininductiononestartsfromobserveddataanddevelopsageneralizationwhichexplainstherelationshipsbetweentheobjectsobserved. 186 Characteristics of Scientific Method 1.Everythingisopentoquestion Inourquesttounderstandthings,weshouldstrivetokeepanopenmindabouteverythingwethingweknoworwewanttounderstand. Whatwecall‚knowledge‛istransitionalandsubjecttorefutation!! “Isthispossible? “Canthischaracteristicbeopen? “Towhichextentcanweholdthisperception? 187 2.Evidencebasedonobservation Scientificmethodseeksknowledgethroughobservedevidenceandnotauthority,traditionorideology. Theevidenceshouldbesystematic, comprehensive,andasobjectiveaspossible. 188 Basic Steps in Scientific Research: 1. Collection of data This is a common basis of all sciences; pure, human, and social.
  48. 48. 2/5/2009 48 189 This is a function of perception and cognition. -The mind goes on collecting data from all kinds of observations and experiences. Simultaneously, the mind, by using its power of identification and retention (the ability to remember things), goes on establishing relationships 190 Theobservationwillbeonsomeassumedcorrelationbetweensomeaspectsaccordingtosometentativehypothesistoproveifthereisanyinterrelationshipsbetweenthem. Thisobservationcanbedoneinalaboratory(physics,chemistry,biology, etc.)orinafieldwhenthepartsunderstudyspreadovervastareasintimeandspace(astronomy,geology). 191 Observationcanbedonethroughsensesandperceptivepowerorbyhelpofscientificequipment(devicesformeasurement)andtechnologicalequipment(devicestofacilitateworkandutilizingtheresourceofenvironment). Theadvanceofscientificandtechnologicalequipmenthavecontributedtotheexpansionofmethodsandmeaningsofcollectionofscientificdataandthehorizonofobservation. 192 InMuslimhistoryofscienceitisafactthatMuslimscientistsrealizedatanearlystagetheimportanceofscientificequipmentforcollectionofdata, thereforetheyintroducedbigastrolabes(scientificinstrumentusedforreckoningtimeandforobservationalpurposestoenableastronomerstocalculatethepositionoftheSunandprominentstarswithrespecttoboththehorizonandthemeridian)…
  49. 49. 2/5/2009 49 193 andquadrants(aninstrumentformeasuringangles, especiallytocheckyourpositionatseaortolookatstars)forexactobservationsofstarsandplanets,andevenhadinventedasphericalastrolabe. 194 Measures to guard against distortion: Thepersontakingobservationsshouldbeclearinhismind;heshouldnotbeobsessedbyanypreconceivedideas. Heshouldrecordonlywhatisreallyhappening(objective). Heneedspatienceandperseverancetoensurethereliabilityofhisobservations. 195 Eventheobservationstakenwithallthiscarecannotbetakenattheirfacevalue,untilpreliminarystatisticaltestsconfirmitsreliability,oranumberofotherscientistsconfirmitindependently. TherulesofobservationlaiddownbyJabiribnHayyan(chemistry): 1.Thetimeandseasonmustbecarefullychosen; 2.Itisbestforthelaboratorytobeinasecluded(quietandprivate)place; 196 3. The chemist must have trusted friends; 4. He must have sufficient time to conduct experiments; 5. Patience and reticence (not disclosing results hastily before testing them); 6. Perseverance; 7. He must not be deceived by appearances into bringing his operations to too hasty a conclusion.
  50. 50. 2/5/2009 50 197 2.Classificationandanalysisofdata: Toarrangethedatainsomeregularorder; Tofindoutthecharacteristicsofthepopulationfromwheretherandomsampleofdatawastaken; Toestablishtherelationsandcorrelationsbetweendifferentmembersofthepopulationunderstudyorwithmembersofotherseries. 198 3.Hypothesis: Afterstudyingthecharacteristicsofthemembersofthepopulationunderstudy,therecomesthestagewhentheresearcherbeginstoaskthequestion‚How‛abouttheworkingofthosemembersandtheircorrelations. Theanswertothisquestionisthehypothesiswhichdescribesinwordsorinsymbolstherelationshipthatappeartoexistbetweenthem. 199 Thishypothesiswillbedepending,tosomeextent,onguessing.Thisguessisbasedonthepastobservation,experienceandknowledge. Theremaybemanyhypothesesdependingonthenumberofvariableparametersinvolved. 200 4-Hypothesestesting: The hypotheses will be put into testing through experiments in different produced conditions to show their validity and applicability.
  51. 51. 2/5/2009 51 201 Ifthepredictionsinthehypothesiscomeoutcorrect,thenthestatusofthehypothesisisraisedtothatofa‚theory‛.Ifthistheoryisfoundtobeuniversallyapplicable,itiscalleda‚lawofnature‛. 202 Observation Logical deduction Experimentation and empirical observations (under controlled conditions) The hypothesis is validated = Theory 203 Origination of Scientific methodology Muslimscientistswerethefirstonestointroducethismethodandtoemphasizetheroleofexperimentation. JabiribnHayyan,forexample,statedclearlyinhisbookonchemistry:‚thefirstessentialistoperformpracticalworkandexperiments.Onewhodoesnotdosowillneverattainmastery‛. 204 Among the rules of experiments laid down by him: 1.The operator should know the reason for performing the experiment (hypotheses and predictions should be set clearly); 2.The instructions must be properly understood;
  52. 52. 2/5/2009 52 205 Impossible and profitless processes should be avoided (vague hypotheses which don’t lead to definite predictions, or hasty experiments which lead to vague results, are of no value). 206 Example: Until the 10thcentury the Greek and Egyptian theory of geocentric cosmology was assumed to be true, and It was held by early Muslim scientists. 207 AccordingtothistheorythefixedstarsarefartherthanthestarsoftheMilkyWay/theGalaxy(thesystemofstarsthatcontainsoursunanditsplanets)whichissupposedtobeclosetotheearthandtobesituatedintheatmosphereoftheearth. 208 InGreekastronomy,thiswasanaxiomandallotherproblemsofastronomyhadtosatisfythis‚truth‛. TheMuslimastronomerIbnal-Haytham,basedonhisinductivemethodandwithhelpoftheequipmentdevelopedbyMuslimscientists, cametoaconclusionthatthestarsoftheMilkyWaywereasfaroffastheotherfixedstars,andthattheywerenotsituatedintheatmosphereoftheearth.
  53. 53. 2/5/2009 53 209 Ibnal-Haythamwasfacingtwocontradictinghypotheses:theGreek‚axiom‛andhishypothesis. Andthequestionwas:howtodecideaboutthevalidityofthesetwoopposinghypotheses? 210 Ibn al-Haytham suggested an experiment to decide about these hypotheses: 1.tomeasurethedistancefromthesameplaceindifferentseasons. 2.tomeasurethedistanceatthesametimefromtwoplacesfarapartontheearth. 211 3.TheresultwasthatifthestarsoftheMilkyWayareintheatmosphereoftheearth,then,inboththesetsofobservationssuggested,theirrelativepositionswillbedifferent. 212 IfthestarsoftheMilkyWayareasfarastheotherfixedstars,therewillbenochangeintherelativepositionsofthetwosetsofstarsineithercases. ObservationsweretakenanditwasfoundthatthestarsoftheMilkyWaydidnotchangetheirrelativepositionsamongthefixedstars.
  54. 54. 2/5/2009 54 213 Herethevalidityofthehypothesiswasnottestedbythehelpofdeductivelogicalone.Onlythepredictionswerededucedbylogicandgeometry.Butthevalidityofthehypothesiswasprovedbyexperimentandobservation.Andthisiswhatiscalledtheinductivemethodofmodernscience. 214 Draper, Conflict between Science and Religion Thecharacteristicsoftheir(Muslims’)methodareexperimentandobservation,geometricalandmathematicalsciencesthatworkedasinstrumentsofreasoning. Intheirnumerouswritingsonmechanics, hydrostatics,optics,etc.itisinterestingtoremarkthatthesolutiontoaproblemisalwaysbyperforminganexperimentalobservation. Itwasthisthatmadethemtheoriginatorsofchemistry; 215 thatledthemtotheinventionofallkindsofapparatusfordistillation(tomakealiquidpurebyheatingituntilitbecomesagas,thencoolingitandcollectingthedropsofliquidthatform),sublimation(conversionofasubstancefromthesolidtothevapourstatewithoutitsbecomingliquid),fusion(theprocessorresultofjoiningtwoormorethingstogethertoformone,likethefusionofcopperandzinctoproducebrass),filtration(theprocessoffilteringaliquidorgas),etc.; 216 thatcausedtheminAstronomytoappealtodividedinstrumentssuchasquadrantsandastrolabes,inChemistrytoemploythebalance, thetheoryofwhichtheywereperfectlyfamiliarwith,toconstructtablesofspecificgravityandastronomicaltableslikethoseofBaghdadandSpain,greatimprovementsinGeometry,theinventionofAlgebraandtheadoptionofIndiannumerationinArithmetic. Suchweretheresultsoftheperformanceoftheinductivemethod”theirdecliningthereveries(imaginations/dreams)ofPlato.‛
  55. 55. 2/5/2009 55 217 FrancisBacon,whoisconsideredbytheWestasoneofthefoundersofinductive/scientificmethod,inhisbookNovumOrganum(1stquarterofthe17thcentury)whilepleadingfortheintroductionofempiricisminEuropesaysagainandagainthat: ‚greatauthorities‛followthisandconsiderthismethodbetterthantheolddeductivemethodoftheGreeks. 218 Butheneveroncementionsthenameofthe‚greatauthorities‛ andthe‚wisepeople‛ NooneappliedthismethodbeforeexceptMuslimscientists. Itissuggestedthathedidnotmentionthembynameforfearofinquisition. 219 Achievements of scientific method: Freedsciencesfromthedominationofrigiddeductivemethodthatismoresuitabletotheoreticalandphilosophicalstudies. Limitedthesphereofintellectualspeculationsandmadeabigroomforempiricalknowledge. 220 FreedscientificresearchfromthegripofGreekaxioms. Limitedthesphereofmetaphysicalstudiesandmadeshifttonaturalandphysicalstudies.
  56. 56. 2/5/2009 56 221 Successfulresultsachievedbyscientistsgavethemconfidenceinthisscientificmethodandencouragedthemtofurthertheirresearch. This,inturn,ledtoexpansionofthehorizonofscientificresearch; discoveringnewlawsandopeningnewareas. 222 Experimentalendeavourledtothetransformationofsciencetotechnology,andtheinventionofsophisticatedmachinesandequipment. 223 ‚Side effects‛ of the scientific method Theoverconfidenceinandadorationofthescientificmethodledtoextremerationality. Extremerationalityledtotheadoptionofscientificmethodinthefieldofhumanandsocialsciences. 224 Empiricism/ logical-positivism (from the Greek word empeiria = experience.) InauguratedbyFrancisBaconanddevelopedbyJohnLocke(1632-1704)Inphilosophy,theattitudethatbeliefsaretobeacceptedandactedupononlyiftheyfirsthavebeenconfirmedbyactualexperience.
  57. 57. 2/5/2009 57 225 Stressingexperience,Empiricismisopposedtotheclaimsofauthority, intuition,imaginativeconjecture,andabstract,theoretical,orsystematicreasoning(Rationalism)assourcesofreliablebelief. Theessenceofempiricismisobservation,measurement,andquantificationofsensedataavailabletotheobserver. 226 Early empiricism vs. Revelation AlthoughBaconproclaimstheuniversalapplicabilityofinduction,hehimselftreatsitalmostexclusivelyasameanstonaturalknowledgeandignoresitssocialapplication. 227 Mostdivineknowledgemustcomefromrevelation,andreasonhasnothingtodowithit.Thereissuchathingasdivinephilosophy(whatwaslatercalledrational,ornatural, theology),butitssoletaskandcompetenceistoprovethatthereisaGod. 228 JohnLockeoneofthefathersofempiricismdidconsiderrevelation,inprinciple,asasourceofcertaintypeofknowledge.Butheassignedtoitaverymarginalandsubordinaterole. Hearguesthatknowledgeacquiredbyhumanreasoningismorereliableandcertainthanknowledgereceivedthroughrevelation.
  58. 58. 2/5/2009 58 229 Becauseonemaydoubtthepreservationoftheoriginalrevelationthroughtheactofnarration,orquestionthelackofmeansforvalidatingorsubstantiatingitscontent. Butonecanalwaysbecertainaboutwhathisfacultyofunderstandingconsiderstrue. 230 Hegivesrevelationtheupperhandoverreasonintwoinstances: 1.Inquestionsbelongingtotherealmoffaith, becauseit’sinaccessibletohumanreasoning. 2.Revelationshouldsupersedereasonintherealmofprobableknowledgewhichdoesnotrisetocertainty. (Butonecanalwaysbecertainaboutwhathisfacultyofunderstandingconsiderstrue.) 231 Positivism Inphilosophy,generally,anysystemthatconfinesitselftothedataofexperienceandexcludesapriori(knowledgethatisindependentofallparticularexperiences,asopposedtoaposterioriknowledge,whichderivesfromexperiencealone)ormetaphysicalspeculations. 232 As a philosophical ideology and movement, Positivism first assumed its distinctive features in the work of Auguste Comte(1798”1857). It then developed through several stages known by various names, such as Empirio criticism, Logical Positivism, and Logical Empiricism, etc.
  59. 59. 2/5/2009 59 233 The basic affirmations of Positivism are: 1.Thatallknowledgeregardingmattersoffactisbasedonthe‚positive‛dataofexperience; 2.Thatbeyondtherealmoffactisthatofpurelogicandpuremathematics,whichwere,inalaterphaseofPositivism,classifiedaspurelyformalsciences. 234 3.Strictadherencetothetestimonyofobservationandexperienceistheall-importantimperativeofthePositivists. 4.Initsbasicideologicalposture, Positivismisworldly,secular,anti- theological,andanti-metaphysical. 235 Naturalism/ natural method Atheorythatrelatesscientificmethodtophilosophybyaffirmingthatallbeingsandeventsintheuniversearenatural. Consequently,allknowledgeoftheuniversefallswithinthepaleofscientificinvestigation. 236 Usuallynaturalismdeniestheexistenceoftrulysupernaturalrealities. Naturalistsassertthatnatureisreality.Thereisnothingbeyond,nothing‚otherthan,‛ no‚otherworld‛ofbeing.
  60. 60. 2/5/2009 60 237 Naturalismpresumesthatnatureisinprinciplecompletelyknowable. Thereisinnaturearegularity,unity, andwholenessthatimpliesobjectivelaws,withoutwhichthepursuitofscientificknowledgewouldbeabsurd. 238 Naturalismhasnoontologicalpreference:dualismandmonism, atheismandtheism,idealismandmaterialismareallpersecompatiblewithit. 239 Two positive results of bahaviourism 1.Development of neurosciences. 2.Development of behaviour therapy(behaviour modification), which focused on modifying observablebehaviour, rather than on the thoughtsand feelingsof the patient (as in psychoanalysis). 240 Conclusion W.M.Smart,Theoriginoftheearth. Letusnotthenexaltthescientificmethodundulyastheclosepreserveofthescientistnor,whichismuchmoreimportant,astheonlymeansbywhichweattempttodiscoverthesecretsofnature.
  61. 61. 2/5/2009 61 241 It is easy for a scientist to be a materialist if he sees only in the universe the apparently relentless (continuous) unfolding of natural law, and forgets that there are domains where the laws of physics are irrelevant 242 Butmoreandmorescientistsarerealizingthattheyareexploringonlyonesectionofthegreatworldofnatureinallitsmanifoldcomplexity;beauty,moral, conduct,spiritualvalues,religiousexperience,arealloutsidetheirdomain, yetallcomewithinman’sscrutinywhenheattemptstointerprettheuniverseasawholeandstrivestodiscernpurposetherein…‛ 243 Harris, Kelvin (1979), Education and Knowledge Thelimitationsofempiricisminhumanandsocialsciencescanbemanifestedindifferentareasamongthem: Derivedconclusionscouldnotbelogicallyvalidforgeneralizationbecausetherecouldbeexceptions. 244 Methodologyofdatacollectionistheoryladen,thatis,theinvestigatorhaspreconceptionsandmotives,whichinfluencehischoiceofmethodologyofinvestigationandthissubsequentlyaffectstheoutcome
  62. 62. 2/5/2009 62 245 ‚ThehumanisticstudiesofWesternmanandthesocialanalysisofWesternsocietybyaWesternscientistarenecessarily"Western"andcannotserveasmodelsforthestudyofMuslimsoroftheirsociety.‛ Ismail Raji al-Faruqi (1977), "Islamizing the Social Sciences" 246 The Search for an Islamic Methodology Methodologycomprises: 1.Technicalprocedures 2. Conditions for using methods/ conceptual aspects of methodology 247 1.Naturalandphysicalsciences Thescientificmethodinitstechnicalprocedureshasauniversalapplication. ItwasinitiallystartedbyMuslimscientistsand,laterdevelopedbyWesternscientists,andbecameasaheritageofhumanity. 248 There is no objection to adopting the technical procedures developed by non-Muslims. It needs to be applied within the Islamic ethical and ideological frame. Production of Muslim scientists
  63. 63. 2/5/2009 63 249 2.Social&humansciences ThemainobjectstotheWesternmethodsusedinthedomainofhuman&socialsciencesare: 1.Theyareheavilyinclinedtowardsmaterialismandapplicationofproceduresofthenaturalsciences. Exclusionofspiritualaspect. 250 1.TheyembodytheWesternconcepts&values(exclusionofrevelation). 2.TheysettheWesternvalues& conceptsasuniversalnormsandmodelsbywhichothersocietiesshouldbyjudged. 251 TheemploymentofthisWesternmethodologyintheMuslimworldisleadingtowardWesternizationofMuslimsocieties. 252 Theissuesof: Rejectingrevelationandcontrastingscientificwithrevealedknowledgeand; Confiningrealitytotheempiricaloneunderthejustificationthatreasoncannotascertaintranscendentalreality; ArenotrealproblemsinIslam.
  64. 64. 2/5/2009 64 253 -Thesestructuresarenotimmediatelyencounteredbythesenses.Instead,thestructuresofempiricalexistenceareinferredthroughtheuseofcategoriesabstractedfromthesensible,andmediatedbypurely‚rational‛ categoriesandstatements. 254 e.g. Ourunderstandingoftherelationshipbetweentheearthandthesunismediatedbymentalconstructs,andhenceiscompletelyatvariancewiththeimmediateimpressionreceivedfromthesenses. 255 2.Revelation,atleastinitsIslamicform, seeksitsjustificationinempiricalreality. Divinerevelationseesempiricalrealityasthemanifestationofatranscendentalreality. TheinterconnectednessoftheempiricalandtranscendentalisalwaysstressedbytheQur’an 256 Bothrevelationandempiricalknowledgeareneededforacomprehensiveunderstandingofnature. Thescience-revelationconflictisneitherimperativenoruniversal,butspecifictoWesternreligionandexperience.ThereisnoneedatalltoreproduceitinMuslimculture.
  65. 65. 2/5/2009 65 257 Setting the norm/ standard/ model Insocialandhumansciencenorms, models,standardsarecrucialforunderstanding,judging,andchanginghumanbehaviouraswellassocialphenomena. Thenorms/standards/modelsareusedtodeduceconclusions. 258 WesternscholarshipassumesthatthepracticesoftheWesternsociety(whichisassumedtostandatthepeakofhumanevolution)becomethestandardofnormality. 259 Integrative Methodology of Revealed Knowledge and Human Knowledge ThecommonpointamongMuslimscholarswhoareconcernedwithIslamizationofknowledge/ IslamicmethodologyistheincorporationofRevelationintodifferentfieldsofresearch. 260 Butwhenitcomesto‚How‛theanswersmaybedifferent. Untilnow,onlylittlehasbeendone, andmoreeffortsarerequiredtoestablishaviableIslamicmethodologyfordifferentsocialandhumansciences
  66. 66. 2/5/2009 66 261 Islamic Methodology should: Incorporaterevelationasasourceofknowledgeandgiveititsdueroleinguidinghumaninquiryofknowledge. Workunderthedirectionsofourworldview(theorigin&natureofmananduniverse,thepurposeoftheircreation,andtheirdestiny). 262 ReflecttheIslamicobjectivesandvalues Setournorms/standards/modelswhicharederivedfromtheQur’an, theSunnah,andthepracticeoftheearlyMuslimsociety 263 A framework for islamization of knowledgeIslamic legacyWestern knowledge Mastery of disciplinary substantive knowledgeMastery of analytical and synthetic techniques University textbooksIslamic University Perfect/universal man Conclusion Muslims of the past always followed the Islamic methodology in their research: They based their work on the principle of tawhid; They verified the information to ensure its authenticity; They were sincere, pious, enthusiastic, committed and dedicated researchers; They perceived knowledge as a comprehensive whole; They avoided any innovation in the religion for fear of Allah‟s punishment; 264
  67. 67. 2/5/2009 67 265 They had greater familiarity with classical Arabic than contemporary Muslim scholars, which facilitated their understanding and analysis of the original texts; They used to commence their work with bismillahi al-Rahman al-Rahim (in the Name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful), seeking Allah‟s blessings and conclude by dedicating their results to Him; in this way they treated their research as an act of „ibadah. 266 Islam and Civilization 1.Meaning of civilization 2.Civilization and Culture 3.Arabic terms for civilization 4.Characteristics of Civilization267 Arabic terms: al-Hadarah/ Al-Tamaddun/ al- Madaniyyah Al-Tamaddun/ al-Madaniyyah: derived from the word ‘madinah’(city or town), and ‘din’(religion). Al-‘Umran268 Meaning of Civilization An advanced level of development in society that is marked by complex social and political organization, and material, scientific, and artistic progress A society, its cultureand its way of lifeduring a particular period of time or in a particular part of the world.
  68. 68. 2/5/2009 68 269 The way and level of life of people in the cities as contrasted with the way and level of life in rural areas. The relation between ‘madinah’and ‘din’indicates the role of religion in the establishment of civilization and refinement of social culture270 Civilization designates a condition of human society characterized by a high level of cultural and technological achievements; and correspondingly complex social and political development It is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural and material development in human society 271 Each civilization has a body or matter and a soul. The body of the civilization is its material achievements such as buildings, infrastructure, agriculture, industry, educational institutions, technological equipment, and all that is related to various pleasures of worldly life. 272 The soul of civilization is the set of; ideologies, concepts, moral values, manners and traditions that are embodied in the behavior of individuals, groups, and their interrelations.
  69. 69. 2/5/2009 69273 Characteristics of Islamic civilization 1-Based on the توحيد Muslim civilization was the first universal civilization that was based on a pure and strict unitarianism (unity of God) The only one who deserves submission The only one who deserves worship The only one who deserves absolute obedience. 274 Eliminatesidolatry (idols, and statues) Frees common people from the oppression of the kings, Papacy, and Brahmanism Sets right the relationship between the ruler and the ruled (all people are equal) 275 2. Universality Islamic civilization was the first civilization which embracedthe entire humanity It declared equality of all human beings of all descents, races, andcolours  إِ أَمْرَ نٍَُ عِ دَْْ اللََِّّ أَجْقَبمُ ‚Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is he who is the most righteous of you‛ (49: 13). 276 This civilization is attributed to all Muslims on an equal basis. (Arab nationalism / Western civilization /supremacy of white man) [Universality vs. Globalization] Open to the contribution of all members of the Muslim ummah regardless of their race, ethnicity, or colour, and even non-Muslim citizens.
  70. 70. 2/5/2009 70277 3-Moderate Rationalism It gives human reason a high position Its faith is based on reasoning and conviction It rejects superstitious and unfounded beliefs. It does not go to the extreme of denying the truths which are not directly related to empirical knowledge but are based on revealed knowledge 278 4.Tolerance Tolerance towards people of different religions (especially Christians and Jews) Minorities enjoyed a high level of tolerance and freedom of religion and economic pursuit. This characteristic is peculiar for a civilization based on religious foundations. 279 It would be reasonable for a secularist who does not believe in any religion to treat religions equally and give people freedom of belief, but it may be difficult for a religious person to do so. 280 5. Integrated and balanced civilization Integrates the faith with the state/ rejection of secularism Integrates the body with the spirit (material vs. spiritual) Integrates the worldly life with the life in the hereafter
  71. 71. 2/5/2009 71 281 Integrates empirical sciences with revelation Assigns priority to moral principles = morality vs. pragmatism Integration in a balanced manner Balance means following a middle course between two extremes of thought and action. 282 Western Culture and Civilization WesternCivilizationis‚Thecivilizationthathasevolvedoutofthehistoricalfusionofcultures,philosophies,valuesandaspirationsofancientGreeceandRome; theiramalgamationwithJudaismandChristianity,andtheirfurtherdevelopmentandformationbytheLatin,Germanic, CelticandNordicPeoples‛. 283 Western Civilization Characteristics of Western civilization In terms of material progress and scientific exploration, the modern Western civilization has surpassed all civilizations across history. Pushing forward man’s incentives and capabilities to exploit nature and benefit from it. 284 Technological achievements = eased human life, luxury Effective management and organization Respect of human rights within its homelands
  72. 72. 2/5/2009 72285 The ideologies of the Western civilization are: 1. Utilitarian materialism This civilization may not deny the existence of God strongly and openly, or deny the existence of the spirit. But it does not recognize the value of ‚God‛ in its ideological system. 286 It accepts only things which are considered by it as of ‚practical value‛ The ‚practical value‛ is in luxury and worldly pleasure = this is the real ‘God’ 287 2. Secularism Inspired by secular philosophy, devoid of certainty, subject to constant review and change Its worldview formulation is not upon revealed knowledge and religious belief but rather upon cultural tradition, speculations to secular life centered upon man as physical entity288 religion as a personal matter limited to individual practice without any interference in social, economic or political activities religious practice limited to dead rituals
  73. 73. 2/5/2009 73289 Destruction of moral values = utilitarianism/ pragmatism Destruction of family (abortion, neglect of the elderly…) Creates an atmosphere of fear, anxiety and distraction 3. Atheism: The doctrine or belief that there is no God 290 4. Humanism Reliance upon the powers of human reason alone to guide man through life291 5. Dualism Adherence to the validity of dualistic vision of reality and truth Affirmation of the reality of the temporary/impermanent aspect of existence projecting a secular worldview292 The Rise and Decline of Islamic civilization
  74. 74. 2/5/2009 74 293 A brief chronology of Muslim Civilization Preparatory phase 571:BirthoftheProphet. ThisyearwasmarkedwithaninvasionofMakkahandanattempttodestroyKa‘bah(theyearoftheElephant). 610:ThefirstrevelationinthecaveatMountHira’.ThebeginningofMohammad’sprophethood. 294 621:FirstpledgeatAqaba. ThesearchforaplacetoestablishMuslimstate. 622:SecondpledgeatAqaba. TheacceptanceofthepeopleofYathribtoreceivetheProphet(saw)andhisfollowers295 The Emergence of the State 622:TheHijrah(migrationtoYathrib/ Madina),markstheestablishmentoftheMuslimstate. 624:BattleofBadr. ThenewpowerintheArabpeninsula. 628:TruceofHudaibiya. Peacetogivepeopleachancetoknowaboutthenewreligion,andtofocusonstrengtheningthenewlyemergedstate. 296 628:TheProphetaddressesletterstovariousheadsofstates. Goinginternational(beyondArabianterritories) 630:MuslimsreturnbacktotheirhomelandMakkahafterbeingexpelledfromit.
  75. 75. 2/5/2009 75297 631:Expedition to Tabuk Sending a message to the Persian authorities who had been occupying the Arab territories and were hostile to the new religion. 632:Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah. The Prophet addresses his followers with his last speech. 632:Death of the Prophet (saw). Election of Abu Bakr as the Caliph. 298 Transitory instability Attempts to destroy the new religion and state Pseudo-prophets, Rejection of paying Zakat (disloyalty to the central authority) 299 Wars of liberation: 633-641:LiberationofArabterritories(Bahrain,Oman,Iraq,Syria, al-Quds/Jerusalem,andtheremainingpartsofJazirah. (occupiedbyPersiansandRomanByzantines) 636:DefeatingtheoccupyingforcesoftheRomans(BattleofYermuk)followedbytheliberationofSyriaandal-Quds. 300 636:ThelastmajorbattleagainstPersianEmpire(thebattleofQadsiyyah) thefalloftheircapital‘Madain’.
  76. 76. 2/5/2009 76301 641: -LiberationofoppressedpeopleinEgypt. -TheCatholicArchbishopofEgyptinvitestheMuslimstohelpfreeEgyptfromRomanoppressors. -ThisexemplifiesthealliancesformedbetweenMuslims,ChristiansandJewsduetotheMuslims'establishmentofreligiousfreedomforChristiansandJews. 302 644: Umar dies and is succeeded by Caliph Uthman 654:IslamspreadsintoallofNorthAfricawhichwaspartlyoccupiedbyRomans. 656:AlibecomestheCaliph.BattleoftheCamel.Anotherperiodofturmoilandpoliticalinstability(fightingbetweendifferentpoliticalgroups) 660:Mu'awiyahdeclareshimselfastheCaliphatDamascus. 303 661:Aliassassinated.AccessionofHasan.AnattempttotransformtheIslamicpoliticalsystemtoamonarchysystem.Al-HasanbinAliabdicates(givesup/renounces) infavourofMu‘awiyah.Mu'awiyahbecomesthesoleCaliph. 304 680:Death of Muawiyah. Accession of His son Yazid. The monarchy system successfully established
  77. 77. 2/5/2009 77 305 710:TariqibnMalikcrossesthestraitseparatingAfricaandEuropewithagroupofMuslimsandentersSpain.Ayearlater,7000MuslimmeninvadeGibraltar. 718:BythisyearalmosttheentireIberianpeninsulaisunderMuslimcontrol. 750:FallofDamascus.EndoftheUmayyadrule. 750:TheestablishmentoftheAbbasidrule306 756:Thefirstbreakaway AbdulRahmanfoundstheUmayyadstateinSpain. 763:FoundationofBaghdad. 767:Thesecondbreakaway KhawarijsetuptheirownstatebyIbnMadraratSijilmasa. Thirdbreakaway: RustamidstatesetupinMorocco307 ThosebreakawayswerefollowedbyhundredsofotherbreakawaysandcivilwarsacrosstheMuslimworld 792:InvasionofSouthFrance. 814:CivilwarbetweenAminandMa’mun.AminkilledandMamunbecomestheCaliph. 827:Ma’mundeclarestheMutazilacreedasthestatereligion. 308 870:TurksrevoltagainstMuhtadi,hisdeathandaccessionofMu‘tamid. 968:RomanByzantinesoccupyAleppo. 1091:The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule. 1095:Thefirstcrusade. 1099:Thecrusaderscaptureal-Quds. 1144:Secondcrusade.
  78. 78. 2/5/2009 78309 1187:Salahal-DinwrestsJerusalemfromtheChristians. Thirdcrusade. 1212:BattleofAI‘UqabinSpain. MuslimsdefeatedbytheChristiansinSpain 1248:BythisyearMuslimcontrolofSpainwasreducedtotheKingdomofGranada,whichsurvivesformorethantwocenturies. 310 1258:BaghdaddestroyedbytheMongols. EndoftheAbbasidrule. 1260:BattleofAynJalutinSyria. TheMongolsaredefeatedbytheMamluksofEgypt; andthespelloftheinvincibilityoftheMongolsisbroken. 311 1266:Theeighthcrusade. ThecrusadersinvadeTunisia. Failureofthecrusade. 1267:MalikulSalihestablishesthefirstMuslimstateofSamudraPasaiinIndonesia. TheSpaniardsinvadeMorocco. TheMarinidsdriveawaytheSpaniardsfromMorocco. 312 1274:NinthcrusadeunderEdwardIofEngland.ThecrusadeendsinfiascoandEdwardreturnstoEngland. 1371:IntheOttomanTurksempire, InvasionofBulgaria, BulgarianterritoryuptotheBalkansannexedbytheTurks.
  79. 79. 2/5/2009 79313 1446:IntheOttomanTurksempire, SecondbattleofKossovaresultinginthevictoryoftheTurks.SerbiaannexedtoTurkey. 314 1453:CaptureofConstantinople(Istanbul)bytheOttomanempire. 1456:AnnexationofSerbiabyOttomanempire. 1461:AnnexationofBosniaandHerzegovina. 1462:AnnexationofAlbania. 315 1475:AnnexationofCrimea(peninsulainsoutheasternUkrainebetweentheBlackSeaandtheSeaofAzov). TurkeybecamethemasteroftheAegeanSea. 316 1507:ThePortugueseunderestablishstrongholdsinthePersianGulf. 1511:ThePortugueseconquerMalaccafromtheMuslims. 1517:TheOttomansdefeattheMamluksandconquerEgypt. 1529:UnsuccessfulOttomansiegeofVienna.
  80. 80. 2/5/2009 80 317 1550:TheriseoftheMuslimkingdomofAcehinSumatra. 1550:IslamspreadstoJava,theMoluccas,andBorneo. 1687:DefeatoftheTurksbyAustria. 318 1718:InthewaragainstAustria, Turkeysuffersdefeat.BythetreatyofPassarowichTurkeylosesHungary. 1797:RussiaoccupiedDaghestan. 1811:TheBritishoccupiedIndonesia. 319 1812:MadinafelltoEgyptians. 1813:MakkahandTaifcapturedbyEgyptianforcesandSaudisexpelledfromHijaz. 1827:MalayabecameapreserveoftheBritishaccordingtoAnglo-Netherlandstreatyin1824. 320 1830:FrenchforcesoccupyAlgeria, ending313yearsruleofTurks. 1832:TurksdefeatedinthebattleofKoniabyEgyptianforces. 1857:BritishcapturedDelhiandeliminatedMughalruleinIndiaafter332years.Thiswasalsotheendof1000yearsofMuslimruleoverIndia. .
  81. 81. 2/5/2009 81321 1859:Imam Shamil defeated by Russian forces in Daghestan 1901:FrenchforcesoccupyMorocco. 1916:ArabrevoltagainstOttomanrule.LawrenceofArabialeadsattacksontheHijazRailway. 322 1918:SyriaoccupiedbyFrance. 1921:AbdAllahbinHusaynwasmadeKingofTransjordanbytheBritish. 1924:TheTurkishkhilafahisabolished. 1948:TheofficialestablishmentoftheJewishstateinPalestine. 323 Stages of the process of rise and fall 1)Gestation (Hijra ”the end of Abu Bakar’s khilafah) 2)Expansion/ Universal Empire 3)Decay (the second half of khilafa Abbasiyyah) 4) Invasion/ fall324 Causes of Rise of Muslim Civilization 1.Spiritualpower:atremendousimpulsewasgiventotheMuslimcommunitytoexplorelifeandtheworldaroundthem(lifeandworldcreatedforapurpose). TheMuslimsspreadthewordofAllah. Islam”waytosavepeopleandliberatethem
  82. 82. 2/5/2009 82325 2. Ability to transform the ideals of the Qur’an to daily conduct: Hard- work, perseverance, sincerity, honesty, patience 326 3.Intellectualfreedom,freeinghumanintellectfromsuperstitions,teachingpeopletothinkcriticallyandcreatively(prohibitionofimitationwithoutsoundevidence) 4.Politicalfreedom,equalitybetweentherulerandtheruled. ‚Allahhassentustofreehumansfromworshippingotherhumans,andtocommitthemtoworshippingAllah‛ 327 5.Openness: Tolearnfromhumanexperience Topeopleofdifferentracesandethnicities. MuslimcivilizationwasajointendeavourofMuslimsfromdifferentpeoplesandraces ItwasnotthemilitarypowerwhichenabledearlyMuslimstodominatehalfofthethenknownworld.Itwastheirrighteousnessandtheirhumaneness. TheMuslimsintermarriedfreelywithlocalpeopleandbecamepartofthem. 328 6.Thespiritofseekingknowledge MostoftherulersofBanuUmmayahandthefirsttwocenturiesofal-‘abbasiyyindynastieswereeducatedorscholars. Theyencouragedlearningandscientificenquiryandusedtospendonitgenerously(theHouseofWisdom).
  83. 83. 2/5/2009 83 329 The establishment of hundreds of schools and universities such as al- Nizamiyyah, al-Azhar, al- Qayrawan etc. 330 Inadditiontothegenerousspendingoneducationandscholars,waqf(endowmentfund)waswelldevelopedandplayedasignificantroleindevelopingeducationalinstitutions. Althoughtherewasarelevantlevelofdictatorship,rulersdidnotusetointerfereineducationalinstitutionsandtheaffairsofscholars. 331 Causes of decline Tribalism Ethnocentrism TheProphet(saw)wasabletosuppressthesesocialdiseasesandreducethemtotheminimallevelamongsahabahandsubstitutethemwithastrongbrotherhood. 332 ThenewcomerstoIslam,whousedtoliveundertheruleoftribesormonarchsandemperors,broughtwiththemthoseloyalties. Sectarianism Obsessionwithpower/prestige/ Strivingforpower”assassinations” overthrowingeachother”civilwars” separation”seekinghelpfromenemies
  84. 84. 2/5/2009 84333 Revolutions / insurgencies here and there Moral decadence: Dishonesty, indifference, cheating, laziness, neglecting obligation, involvement in haram, interest in pleasure and enjoyment rather than more serious things…etc. Dictatorship/ political injustice/ changing the political system from shurato monarchy334 Weaknessofcentralauthority: FormostofthelastthreecenturiesoftheAbbasidrule,therulers(Caliphs) becamenominal. TherealsovereignpowerhadpassedalreadytotheTurks. Therulersbecameundertheirdirectinfluenceandtheywerefrequentlychangedormurderedoneafteranother. 335 Deteriorationintheeducationalleveloftherulers:Theguardians,soonbecamethemasters. Theyweremenofsimple,downright, brutalcharacter,ofenergyandcommonsense. TheOttomanTurks/Mamalikweresoldiersfirst.Theyweresoldierlyinalltheydid. 336 Theydidinfusesomemanhoodintothedecliningempire,whichwouldhaveperishedbutforthem. TheymanagedtofreesomeMuslimterritories,stoptheadvancementofMongols,andexpandtheMuslimempire. ButthoserulerswerenotreallyqualifiedtomaintaintheMuslimcivilization.
  85. 85. 2/5/2009 85337 Atthebeginning,forcenturiesthecivilizationofIslamwasalmostunaffectedbythistransferofpowerfromaculturedpeopletoapeopleofcomparativeilliteracy,ratheritcontinuedtoprogressinspiteofit. ButtheEmpirewasapparentlyprogressingonthewaveofabygoneimpulsewhichwasfadingaway. 338 Academicdecline Islamicsciencesreachedthestageofstagnation; ijtihadwasvirtuallystopped, fanaticismtojuridicalaswellastheologicalschoolsofthoughtbecamewidespread, 339 Theextremismofphilosopherandtheologianswasmetwithanotherextremismofsomereligiousscholarswhowenttotheextentofprohibitingthestudyofphilosophyandthesciencesrelatedtoit,burningofthebooksofsomephilosophersandtheologiansinsomeareassuchasIbnRushd,al-Ghazzalietc. 340 Muslim Sciences: Origin and Development
  86. 86. 2/5/2009 86 341 1. Philosophy, natural and physical sciences The real development of Muslim natural and physical sciences started after the era of translation. Translation of the intellectual heritage of other nations and civilizations started in the 2ndIslamic century from the four major languages: Greek, Syriac, Persian and Sanskrit. 342 In the 3rdcentury, the establishment of bayt al-Hikmah(The House of Wisdom) founded by Harun al-Rashid and well developed by his son al-Ma’mun. It was a research and educational institute and the centre for intellectual development. 343 Many scientific works were rendered into Arabic in the field of mathematics, physics, astronomy, medicine, pharmacology, history, philosophy and other sciences. The translators were Muslims as well as non-Muslim citizens. 344 Translation: advantages & disadvantages Positive impact Benefiting from human knowledge and experience Negative impact Translation was not confined to what is useful (pure sciences) Extended to theology and metaphysical issues
  87. 87. 2/5/2009 87345 Creating confusion among some Muslims Led to the creation of an elite group of philosophers who were fascinated with Greek philosophy and to some extent deviated from the right principles of Islam Tension between this elite group and religious scholars346 2. Islamic sciences Established and developed solely by Muslims 347 The Contribution of Muslim Scholars (Natural Sciences) 348 Major Areas of Contribution 1.The adoption and development of the scientific/ inductive method 2. Development of different fields of science + inventions 3. Transfer of the intellectual heritage of the ancient civilizations to the modern civilization
  88. 88. 2/5/2009 88349 1-Al-Khawarizmi Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Musa Al- Khawarizmi. (780-850 CE) his birthplace is Khwarizm (modern name: Khiva) south of the Aral Sea. Al-Khawarizmi was a mathematician, astronomer and geographer. He was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. 350 He influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent than any other mediaeval writer." (Phillip Hitti). 351 He is the founder of Algebra(al-Jabr) In Arabic, the full expression was ‚Ilm aljabr wa al-Muqabalah‛ (the science of reunion and equations) and Algorithm(the old name for arithmetic) These terms are derived from the title of his work, HisabAl-Jabr wal al- Muqabalah(Book of Calculations, Restoration and Reduction). 352 His work on algebra was outstanding, as he not only initiatedthe subject in a systematic form but he also developed itto the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations, which established him as the founder of Algebra. He also gives geometrical solutions (with figures) of quadratic equations, for example x2 + 1Ox = 39, an equation often repeated by later writers.
  89. 89. 2/5/2009 89 353 In the twelfth century Gerard of Cremona and Roberts of Chester translated the ‘Algebra‛ of Al- Khawarizmi into Latin. Mathematicians used it all over the world until the sixteenth century. 354 Algorithm = Arithmetic His arithmetic synthesized Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to mathematics and science. 355 He explained the use of zero, a numeral of fundamental importance developed by the Muslims. He developed at length several arithmetical procedures, including the decimal system and operations on fractions. 356 He introduced the Indian system of numerals (now generally known as Arabic numerals) which was later passed to Europe. He wrote many books on arithmetic, among them: Kitab al-Jam’a wa al- Tafriq bi al-Hisab al-Hind, which was translated to and preserved in Latin language (the Arabic version was lost)
  90. 90. 2/5/2009 90357 A Latin translation of a Muslim arithmetic text was discovered in 1857 CE at the University of Cambridge library. Entitled 'Algoritimi de Numero Indorumآ’, which is believed to be a copy of Al-Khawarizmiآ’s arithmetic text, which was translated into Latin in the twelfth centuryby Adelard of Bath (an English scholar). 358 Geography He revised and corrected Ptolemy's views He produced the first map of the known world in 830 CE. His geography captioned Kitab Surat al- Ard,(The Face of the Earth) together with its maps, was translated to Latin language. 359 He worked on measuring the volume and circumference (the line that goes around the earth) of the earth (this measurement was ordered by Al-Ma’mun) 360 Geometry He had many contributions to geometry including: His astronomical and trigonometric tables, revised by Maslama Al-Majrti (Second half of tenth century), were translated into Latin as early as l126 by Adelard of Bath. They were the first Muslim tables and contained not simply the sine function but also the tangent (Maslama's interpolation).

×