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  1. 1. Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity Chapter 4
  2. 2. 4 What is Gender? > Before 1970, most college campuses had gender- segregated or single-sex dorms. > As of early 2011, more than 54 universities offered gender-neutral housing > So how do we determine gender?
  3. 3. 4 Sex vs. Gender > Sex: the biological aspects of being male or female. > Gender: the behavioral, psychological, and social characteristics of men and women.
  4. 4. 4 Gender Stereotypes and Sexuality > Gender stereotypes shape our opinions about how men and women act sexually. > Do you believe that men are usually the initiators of sex, and are women more into “making love” than “having sex”? > Nature or Nurture?
  5. 5. 4 Conception > Simple vs Complex reproduction > Most cells in the human body contain forty-six chromosomes arranged in twenty-three pairs. > The germ cells from the male and from the female each contains half of the new person’s genes
  6. 6. 4 Conception > During fertilization, the gametes, each containing 23 chromosomes join to produce a zygote containing forty-six chromosomes. > The zygote can now undergo mitosis, or cell division, and reproduce its forty-six chromosomes.
  7. 7. 4 Sexual Differentiation > A human embryo typically undergoes about nine months of gestation.
  8. 8. 4 Sexual Differentiation > Endocrine glands, such as the gonads, secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream to be carried to the target organs. > Male and female organs that began from the same prenatal tissue are called homologous. > Androgens produce male characteristics and estrogen produce female characteristics.
  9. 9. 4 External Genitalia and Sexual Development
  10. 10. 4 Sexual Differentiation > Most hormonal secretions are regulated by the brain, yet hormones also affect the development of the brain. > Female brains control menstruation and must signal the release of hormones in a monthly cycle, whereas male brains signal release of hormones continuously.
  11. 11. 4 Disorders of Sex Development
  12. 12. 4 Chromosomal Disorders of Sex Development Klinefelter syndrome >Occurs in 1 of every 750 live male births when an ovum containing an extra X chromosome is fertilized by a Y sperm (an XXY), giving a child 47 chromosomes.
  13. 13. 4 Chromosomal Disorders of Sex Development > Turner syndrome occurs in 1 of every 2,500 live female births and results from an ovum without any sex chromosomes fertilized by an X sperm (XO), giving a child 45 chromosomes.
  14. 14. 4 Hormonal Disorders of Sex Development > Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia occurs for children who lack an enzyme in the adrenal gland and produce higher than normal levels of androgens. > Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome occurs when testosterone is present in the body yet a developing male is insensitive to it.
  15. 15. 4 Gender Roles and Gender Traits > We find it difficult to interact with someone without knowing his / her gender > Gender roles are culturally determined ideas about gender > Gender traits are innate or biological differences based on sex.
  16. 16. 4 Gender Roles and Gender Traits > Masculinity and femininity refer to the ideal cluster of traits that society attributes to each gender > Changing gender roles can result in confusion, fear, and even hostility in society > Behaviors are complex > They are almost always developed through interactions between one’s innate biological capacities and the environment in which one lives and acts.
  17. 17. 4 Biology, Culture and Gender Differences > Biological differences between genders include > physical differences in body size and strength for males > female “heartiness” and longevity > brain size > brain activity / usage by task > Even so, culture can contradict that trait or deny it
  18. 18. 4 Social Learning Theory of Gender > We learn our gender roles from our environment, and from the same system of rewards and punishments that we learn our other social roles. > Children learn to model their behavior after the same-gender parent to win parental approval.
  19. 19. 4 Cognitive Development Theory of Gender Differences > All children go through a universal pattern of development following the ideas of Piaget (1951) > He suggested that social attitudes in children are mediated through their cognitive developmental level.
  20. 20. 4 Gender Schema Theory > Schemas > cognitive mechanisms that organize our world > Sandra Bem’s gender schema theory explains that children and adults develop gender schemas by which our thoughts and behavioral expectations of gender are constructed universally.
  21. 21. 4 Masculine vs Feminine > The Hunter > It is difficult for men to live up to the strong social demands of being male due to the contradictions inherent in masculinity. > Masculinity has it’s downside > Men don’t live as long as women > Have more stress-related illnesses > More motor vehicle accidents > More suicides
  22. 22. 4 Masculine vs Feminine > The Nurturer > Sheila Rothman (1978) has argued that American society has gone through a number of basic conceptions of what “womanhood” should be, shifting from “virtuous womanhood” to “educated motherhood” to “wife-companion” to “woman as person.” > Many argue that the idea of femininity itself is an attempt to mold women in ways that are determined by men.
  23. 23. 4 Androgyny and the Concept of Gender Spectrum > In the 1970s, researchers suggested that androgyny was a desirable state, since androgynous individuals have greater flexibility in behavior because they have a greater repertoire of possible reactions to a situation. • When people’s behaviors fall outside of commonly understood gender norms, they might be referred to as gender diverse or transgender.
  24. 24. 4 Interview with Teo and Liz Teo: A Transman Liz: A Transwoman
  25. 25. 4 Behavior and Gender Norms > Although the majority of transgender people feel confident about their biological sex and gender identity, some experience gender dysphoria. > Confusion, discomfort, or both > The terms queer and genderqueer are umbrella terms that refer to a range of different sexual orientations, gender behaviorism or ideologies.
  26. 26. 4 Medical and Surgical Interventions > Transsexualism: a condition in which people identify with a gender other than the one they were given at birth. > Not every transperson desires genital surgery; some cannot afford Sexual Reassignment Surgery, while others are content with the results of hormonal therapy.
  27. 27. 4 Gender Diversity in Non-Western Cultures > Two-spirits (berdache): a term used in Native American culture > Xani-th (from Oman) are biological males not considered male or female > Hijra (from India) are also biological men who are castrated and considered to have special powers. > Kathoey (from Thailand) similar to Xani-th. > Aikane (from native Hawaii) who were attached to the court of the chiefs and served sexual, social, and political functions. > Mahu (from Tahiti)
  28. 28. 4 Socialization > Socialization refers to how individuals are raised and are taught to behave through parental, peer, educational, religious, social, and legal influences.
  29. 29. 4 Childhood Socialization > As early as age two, modeling behavior begins to emerge, and children begin to realize that objects and activities are appropriate to specific genders > Boys are treated more harshly when they adopt cross-gender characteristics > Children with a strong and persistent identification with the other sex and are uncomfortable with their own biological sex may be diagnosed with gender- identity disorder.
  30. 30. 4 Adolescence Socialization > By adolescence, gender roles are firmly established, and they guide adolescents through their exploration of peer and romantic relationships. > Gender roles in adolescence are changing, particularly in regards to heterosexual relationships.
  31. 31. 4 Adult Gender Role Socialization > In adulthood, men and women derive their gender identity mainly from their careers and their family lives. > In recent years, men’s and women’s roles have been changing in the workplace, as many women have moved from the home to paid employment.
  32. 32. 4 Older Adults and Gender Role Socialization > American culture values youthfulness and therefore many negative stereotypes are present toward this group, which is especially perpetuated by the media. > Women tend to be more vulnerable to these negative attitudes as women who age are considered “old”, while men are considered “distinguished.”

Notas do Editor

  • Photo: James W. Porter/Fuse/Getty Images
  • LO1: Differentiate between coeducational, single-sex, and gender-neutral housing.
    However, beginning in 1970, many colleges designed coeducational dorms which allowed for both male and female residences on separate floors, and beginning in 2008, colleges implemented gender-neutral dorm housing in which individuals could room with an opposite-gendered person.
    Photo: © iStockphoto/YinYang
  • LO2: Differentiate between the terms sex and gender.
    In sexology research…
    Sex refers to biological aspects of being male or female
    Gender refers to the behavioral, psychological and social characteristics of men and women.
    Photo: Getty Images
  • LO3: Identify how gender stereotypes can affect sexuality.
    Gender stereotypes, or normative beliefs about how men and women “should be” and “should act,” shape our opinions about how men and women act sexually. For instance, gender stereotypes suggest that men should act aggressively sexual whereas women should act submissively and passively.
  • LO4: Explain the primary difference in the ways that simple and complex organisms reproduce.
    Reproduction in simple organisms occurs as cells split during meiosis, resulting in the creation of a pair genetically identical to the original simple organism. More complex organisms reproduce through processes of sexual reproduction during which two parent organisms each donate a gamete, or germ cell, the two of which combine to create a new organism.
    LO5: Explain how the sex chromosomes combine to determine the sex of a child during the fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.
    This “23rd pair,” referred to as the sex chromosomes, determine the chromosomal sex of a developing organism. One of the pairs contains an X chromosome from a female’s ovum, and the second contains either an X or Y chromosome donated through a male’s sperm. If the male’s chromosome is an X, the organism will develop as female (XX); if the male’s chromosome is a Y, the organism will develop as male (XY).
    Gametes are haploid, meaning that they contain half the number of chromosomes (23) of the body’s other somatic cells, which contain 46 chromosomes.
  • During fertilization, a haploid sperm and a haploid egg join to produce a diploid zygote which contains 46 chromosomes, one haploid gamete from each donor parent.
    At the moment of conception, the zygote will develop into a male or female.
    Photo: Cell division. MichaelTaylor/Shutterstock.com
  • LO6: Summarize the sequence of events from undifferentiated zygote to a sexually differentiated male or female embryo.
    XX and XY gonadal growth begins during the 5th or 6th week. Gonads develop as “undifferentiated” with the capacity to develop into testes (male internal reproductive organs) or ovaries (female internal reproductive organs).
    Most males (XY) then begin testicular development from this “undifferentiated gonad” about the 7th to 8th week of development. Most females (XX) begin ovarian development by the 10th or 11th week.
    Around the 10th or 11th week, a Mullerian duct system generally develops in females and a Wolffian duct system develops in males, and following gonadal development, the testes or ovaries generally hormonally control the development of these ducts into either a female or male reproductive system.
    Figure: Development of the male and female internal reproductive systems from the undifferentiated stage. Figure: © Cengage Learning 2013
  • LO7: Identify the two key hormones responsible for the development of female and male organs at the embryonic stage of development.
    The ovaries produce two major female hormones, estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved in the development of female sexual characteristics during fetal development and later in life; progesterone regulates the menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
    The testes produce androgens, or male hormones, that are important in development of male sexual characteristics. If androgens are not secreted at the right time or if a developing organism is insensitive to (does not react to) androgens, a chromosomal male organism will develop “female” characteristics. If androgens work as expected, it will stimulate development of male external genitalia (penis, scrotum).
    Figure: Development of the male and female external genitalia from the undifferentiated genital tubercle. © Cengage Learning 2013
  • LO8: Explain why certain male and female external sex organs, such as the penis and clitoris, are called homologous.
    External organs of males and females develop from the same prenatal tissue and thus are considered to be “homologous” in that they originate from the same tissue yet have different functions. During week 8, female external genitalia (clitoris, labia major, labia minor, and vestibule) begin to develop. After androgen production begins, male genitalia are developed (penis / scrotum).
    Table: © Cengage Learning 2013
  • LO9: Identify the two most common chromosomal disorders of sex development and describe their physical manifestations.
    The Y triggers male genitalia development, yet the X prevents their full development. As adults, these men have feminized body contours, small testes, low testosterone levels, gynecomastia or abnormal breast development, and possible verbal deficits yet may be able to be fertile.
  • LO9: Identify the two most common chromosomal disorders of sex development and describe their physical manifestations.
    Physical symptoms include: external female genitalia, improper ovarian development, inability to menstruate (amenorrhea), probable infertility, short stature, a high-pitched voice, immature breast development, and abnormalities of internal reproductive organs. Although women with Turners may become pregnant, the pregnancies are high risk for chromosomal abnormalities and fetal death.
    Photo: Female with Turner Syndrome. Wellcome Trust Library/CMSP
  • LO10: Identify the two most common hormonal disorders of sex development and describe their physical manifestations.
    Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia have female internal organs yet masculinized external genitalia.
    Androgen-Insenstivity Syndrome
    This insensitivity causes the Wolffian ducts to be ineffective and thus stops development of male external genitalia. However, female organs also do not develop as the gonads in males develop into testes and therefore are not associated with Mullerian duct functioning. These individuals are generally raised as females and have no internal reproductive organs except for two unusable testes within the abdominal area.
    Photo: Genitalia of a fetally androgenized female and an androgen-insensitive male with feminized genitals. Source: Money, John & Anke, A. Ehrhardt. Man and woman, boy and girl: Differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity (p. 115; Fig. 6.2). © 1975. Reprinted with permission of The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • LO11: Explain why many people find it difficult to interact with someone without knowing that person’s gender.
    LO12: Differentiate between gender roles and gender traits.
    We are “programmed” to respond to another based on perceived gender and language is constructed around gender.
    Photo: © iStockphoto/Blue Magic Photography
  • LO13: Differentiate between biologically and culturally based gender differences.
    However, culture (e.g., body changes in female bodybuilders) can challenge many “biological” differences across the genders.
    Photo: © iStockphoto/MichaelSvoboda
  • LO14: Articulate the social learning theory of gender differences.
    Social learning theory suggests that individuals learn gender roles from their environments through modeling, reinforcement, rewards, and punishments.
    Photo: © iStockphoto/TimArbaev
  • LO15: Articulate the cognitive development theory of gender differences.
    Cognitive development theory suggests that all children go through universal patterns of development, and that, at different parts of this development, children develop understandings of their own and others’ gender based on various cues (stages of physical development, observation of socially accepted stereotypical roles of men and women).
    Rigid gender role behavior should decrease after the age of seven or eight, once children realize that gender roles are social and arbitrary.
    Photo: © iStockphoto/Jacob Wackerhausen
  • LO16: Explain how gender schema theory improved on social learning and cognitive development theories of gender differences.
    She incorporated cognition (how we absorb understandings of physical differences and interpret media and other information regarding gender into our thoughts), social learning (learning gender through parents, peers and experience), and cultural expectations into a “gender schema.”
    Since gender schemas are more powerful in our culture because they are used more often. This emphasis is why this theory is different than Cognitive development.
    The gender schema becomes so ingrained that people do not even realize that they are created by stereotypes.
  • LO17LO18: Cite some examples of the contradictions in feminine and masculine gender roles in modern Western society.
    Males are “providers” yet are not supposed to live entirely for work.
    Males are “strong” yet cannot cut off his emotions from loved ones.
    Males are “sexual aggressors” and can never be scared, sexually inexperienced or sexually inadequate.
    Male stereotypes tend to be narrower than female stereotypes, and men who want to conform to society’s ideas of masculinity have less flexibility in their behavior than women who want to live up to feminine stereotypes.
    Photo: When John Boehner, Speaker of the House, got teary and emotional during a 60 Minutes interview, he was called “weak” and a “sissy.” Some even referred to him as “Weeper of the House.”
    Photo: Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images
  • LO17LO18: Cite some examples of the contradictions in feminine and masculine gender roles in modern Western society.
  • LO19: Define androgyny.
    Individuals who exhibit high scores on both masculinity and femininity are considered as androgynous by Bem.
    LO20: Explain the concept of the gender spectrum.
    The gender spectrum suggests that our biology, gender identity, and gender expression all intersect, creating a multidimensional view of sex and gender that is much broader than a dichotomous views of maleness and femaleness.
    Photo: Billy Tipton, a well known jazz musician, was discovered to be a female when he died in 1989. He was married to a woman who was aware of his biological gender, and he was also the father of three adopted boys who did not learn of his biological gender until after his death.
    Photo: AP Photo
  • LO21: Identify terminology used to describe persons whose behavior falls outside of commonly understood gender norms.
    Transgendered persons are individuals whose behaviors fall outside of commonly understood gender norms and include transyouth, transsexuals, transwomen and transmen. Queer and genderqueer are terms that refer to a range of different sexual orientations, gender behaviors, or ideologies.
  • LO22: Compare the processes and results of medical and surgical methods of sex reassignment.
    Surgical interventions in sex reassignment involve surgically altering genitalia in order to make genitalia resemble that of the opposite sex (sex reassignment surgery). Some individuals opt for lesser medical interventions after psychotherapy such as cross-dressing, cross-sex hormone therapy to create physical appearance changes similar to those of opposite genders without incurring surgical interventions and find these changes as satisfying.
    Photo: A completed female-to-male transsexual. Surgery performed by Dr. Toby R. Meltzer, Scottsdale, AZ.
    Photo: A completed male-to-female transsexual. Surgery performed by Dr. Marci L. Bowers, Trinidad, CO.
  • LO23: Describe expressions of gender diversity in two non-Western cultures.
    Some cultures challenge Western dualistic gender notions and even have a third gender category that encompasses both genders.
    For instance, American Indian, Indian and Filipino cultures have identified “two-spirits” who are usually biological males who were effeminate or androgynous in nature who assumed female social roles and were revered as “sacred” and having “special powers.”
    As another example, the hijra of India are men who experienced ritual castration (partial or full genital removal) who are considered as having special powers to curse or bless male children. These individuals dress as but do not try to “pass” as women, and they are considered “a third social gender.”
    Photo: A third sex in the South Pacific, referred to as fa’afafine, which means “in the way of the woman.” © Nick Cardillichio
  • LO24: Define socialization.
    Photo: Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit
  • LO25: Identify the influences of parents, teachers and peers on gender role socialization in childhood.
    Children observe and imitate parents, teachers and peers as gender role models. Also, children who violate expected gender role expectations or sex-typed play are often ostracized by these models.
  • LO26: Explain the connection between gender roles and same-sex and other-sex peer relationships in adolescence.
    Part of the task of adolescence is to figure out what it means to be a “man” or a “woman” and to adapt to that role. For instance, boys watch and interact with same-sex peers, learning gender-role expectations such as playing sports, expressing interest in the opposite sex, emotional restraint, and masculine behaviors, and they are more ostracized than are girls when deviating from these gender-based norms.
  • LO27: Describe gender role socialization in adulthood.
    Adults derive their gender identity from two sources: their careers and their family lives.
  • LO28: Describe the impact of a lifetime of gender role socialization on men and women in their senior years.
    Aging women are often viewed as “old” and devalued as a result of losing their reproductive capabilities and physical appearance, whereas aging men are considered “distinguished” and valued for their achievements. These views vary by race, ethnicity and sexual orientation, such as the finding that Black, Latina, and lesbian women have less rigid stereotypes about aging than do White women and express more positive views regarding aging.
    Photo: © imagebroker/Alamy