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HLTH101Chapter20

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  1. 1. A Lifetime of Health • Describe the longevity gender gap and possible contributing factors. • List the benefits that older Americans can gain from physical activity. • Discuss the hormonal changes that occur in men and women at midlife. • Name two challenges of aging and discuss their risk factors and possible ways of preventing them. • Describe the purposes and types of advanced directives. • Define death and explain the stages of emotional reaction experienced in facing death. • Identify an elderly family member or friend that has excellent health and determine their beneficial behaviors that may have contributed to their health status.
  2. 2. Topics of Focus For This Chapter Gender Longevity gender gap Midlife Hormone changes Aging Challenges Physical Activity Benefits Death Advance directives Stages and emotions
  3. 3. The Difference In Life Expectancy 80.6 years 75.7 years Women Men 4.9 years
  4. 4. Why Do Women Live Longer Than Men? Estrogen Protects heart, brain, bone and blood vessels Boosts immune function May protect against metastases X Chromosome Extra dose of immune genetics Testosterone Depresses immune function Increases risk of heart disease and stroke Injury Men die more frequently of injury
  5. 5. Life Years Lost Due To Lifestyle Habits Health Hazard Years Lost (man) Years Lost (woman) Smoking 10 10 High Blood Pressure 1.5 1.6 High Blood Sugar 0.5 0.3 Obesity 1.3 1.3
  6. 6. Successful Aging • Physical Activity: It’s Never Too Late • Exercise slows many of the changes that occur with age, including increases in body fat and decreases in muscle strength. • According to the U.S. surgeon general, physical activity offers older Americans many additional benefits, including: • Greater ability to live independently. • Reduced risk of falling and fracturing bones. • Lower risk of dying from coronary heart disease. • Reduced blood pressure. • Fewer symptoms of anxiety. • Improvements in mood. • Lower health costs.
  7. 7. Successful Aging • Nutrition and Obesity • The most common nutritional disorder in older persons is obesity. • Obese individuals face higher risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and other health problems, including arthritis. • The Aging Brain • Mental ability does not decline along with physical vigor. • Using your brain as you age greatly decreases the risk for memory loss.
  8. 8. Changes At Midlife For Women Perimenopause Begins 4 to10 years before last period Hormone shifts begin causing night sweats and hot flashes  FSH and LH increase; estrogen decreases Menopause Complete cessation of menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months Average age for menopause is 51.5
  9. 9. Menopause Has Some Health Effects Decreased estrogen causes: Dryness of skin and mouth Increased effect of androgens Increased risk of Urinary Tract Infections Increased risk of other health conditions Obesity Metabolic syndrome Heart disease Stroke Breast cancer
  10. 10. Hormone Therapy During Menopause Recommended for short-term symptom relief Estrogen Only Minimize hot flashes and night sweats Protect from heart disease and osteoporosis Combination Therapy Increases breast cancer, heart disease, breast cancer and stroke
  11. 11. Men Experience Changes At Midlife Too Decreased Testosterone By 30-40% between ages 48-70 Effects:  Decreased muscle  Increased fat  Loss of bone density  Lowered fertility and virility  Low energy Prostate Change Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy  May affect urine flow
  12. 12. Sexuality and Aging Better health translates into better sex life Men Sexually active men live longer Need more time for erection or orgasm Women Those who enjoyed sexual activity lived longer Produce less vaginal lubricant
  13. 13. Summary of Effects Of Aging On The Body
  14. 14. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Defined Noticeable and measurable decline in cognitive abilities, including memory and thinking skills. Coping Strategies  Reduce CV risk factors  Participate in mentally stimulating and socially engaging activities.  Exercise regularly to improve blood flow to the brain.
  15. 15. Alzheimer’s Disease Is a Form of Dementia Dementia Loss of previous mental capability Alzheimer’s Progressive deterioration of brain Disease cells and mental capacity Early Signs  Insomnia  Irritability  Increased sensitivity to alcohol  Decreased energy  Decreased frustration tolerance
  16. 16. Alzheimer’s Disease Is a Form of Dementia Still not sufficient evidence to prove that any preventative strategy can prevent Alzheimer’s May Lower Risk Regular exercise Have a purpose in life Weight management Healthful diet Cholesterol-lowering drugs Treatment No known treatment
  17. 17. Osteoporosis Is a Chronic Disease Losses in bone density become so severe that a bone will break with slight trauma or injury Prevention •Eat enough calcium or take a supplement •Drink alcohol moderately •Don’t smoke •Let the sunshine in •Exercise regularly
  18. 18. The Aging Pill: Physical Activity Older people receive additional benefits from exercise · Greater ability to live independently · Reduced risk of falling and bone fractures · Lower risk of dying from heart disease · Lower risk of developing high blood pressure, colon cancer and diabetes · Fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression · Improvements in mood and well-being
  19. 19. Advance Directives These documents are important because, without clear indications of a person’s preferences, hospitals and other institutions often make decisions on an individual’s behalf. Health- Gives someone else power to make Care Proxy decisions on your behalf Living Will Indicate whether you want or don’t want all medical treatment and technology used to prolong life www.caringinfo.org
  20. 20. Advance Directives Holographic Will A handwritten (not typed) statement that some states will recognize DNR Advance directive component that specifies you do not want to be resuscitated if heart stops Five Wishes Which person they want to make health-care decisions for them when they are no longer able to do so. Which kinds of medical treatments they do or don’t want How comfortable they want to be made How they want people to treat them What they want loved ones to know
  21. 21. The Gift of Life • If you’re at least 18 years old, you can fill out a donor card, agreeing to designate, in the event of your death, any organs or tissues needed for transplantation
  22. 22. Categories Of Death Death Moment heart stops Functional Death End of all vital functions Cellular Death Gradual death of body cells after heart stops Brain Death Absence of electrical activity on EEG and lack of reflexes Spiritual Death Moment when soul leaves body
  23. 23. Learning about Death
  24. 24. Kubler-Ross’ Emotional Response To Dying Several stages may occur at the same time and some may happen out of sequence.
  25. 25. Other Death Topics Care-giving Typically daughter, wife or sister may experience anxiety and depression Hospice Home-health program helps dying Near-Death Experience Autoscopy—watching from above as resuscitated Transcendence—passing into foreign region or dimension
  26. 26. Suicide Is Most Common In Those Above 65 ‘Rational’ Suicide? Person suffering without future positive outcome ends their life Perhaps as a result of undiagnosed depression Physician-Assisted Suicide Authorized in Oregon and Netherlands Debate about physician’s responsibility
  27. 27. Funeral Arrangements • A burial is typically the third most expensive purchase of a lifetime, behind the cost of a house and car. • If the body is to be cremated, you must comply with some additional formalities, with which the funeral director can help you. • The tradition of a funeral may help survivors come to terms with the death, enabling them to mourn their loss and to celebrate the dead person’s life.
  28. 28. Autopsies Examine Body After Death Medicolegal Cause of death Gather information for evidence Medical/ Educational Increase knowledge Determine more exact cause of death
  29. 29. Grief’s Effects On Health Are Numerous · Changes in respiratory, hormonal and central nervous system · Mood swings · Lose appetite, feel physically sick · Sleep poorly · Increased rates of depression, suicide, serious mental illness and premature death
  30. 30. How to Cope with Grief

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