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Mais de Saxion University, School of Entrepreneurship(20)


Hoe maak je een ondernemersplan?

  1. Opstellen van een ondernemersplan Matthijs Hammer Senior lecturer Innovative Entrepreneurship School of Business, Building & Technology Research Center for Innovation & Entrepreneurship Meer dan een lijstje…
  2. Menu •Wat is een ondernemersplan / ondernemingsplan? •De drie belangrijke vragen •Het belang van een ‘Business model’ •Verschillende formats •En nu jij!
  3. Wat is een ondernemersplan? “Plan om te ondernemen”
  4. De drie vragen •Wat •Waarom? •Hoe?
  5. Wat? Wat ga je doen? –Precies. –Geef de toegevoegde waarde. –Korte omschrijving. –Elevator pitch. –Jip & Janneke taal.
  6. Waarom? Waarom ga je het doen? •Is het nodig? •Inspiratie. •Hogere waarden. •Ultime doel. •The Why (Simon Sinek)
  7. Hoe? •Maak aannemelijk dat het gaat lukken. (haalbaarheid, concurrenten, juridisch) •Geef de mechanismen. •Wat zijn je (unieke) resources (bronnen). •Met wie? (Stakeholders) •Doe voorspellingen over de toekomst: –Financieel –Materieel –Markt (ontwikkeling)
  8. Verschillende formats •KvK •Banken •Saxion Centrum voor Ondernemerschap (Barry Koelman) •Eigen ontwerp Denk aan: •Herkenbaarheid •Verifieerbaarheid •Logica •Voorkennis
  9. Verschillende formats Tenminste: •Wat is het? •Waarom is dit nodig / belangrijk? •Hoe gaat het gebeuren? •Schets de toekomst door: –Modellen –Berekeningen –Schetsen •Wie gaat / gaan het doen?
  10. Hoe werkt het? •Voor wie ga je het plan schrijven? •Welke setting? •Wat is je doel? •Ieder doel / doelgroep kent een eigen (soort) plan. •Less is more, more less! •Het begint bij: het idee!
  11. Een business model Chesbrough & Rosenbloom (2002, 532): The business model provides a coherent framework that takes technological chracteristics and potentials as inputs, and converts them through customers and markets into economic outputs. The business model is thus conceived as a focusing device that mediates between technology development and economic value creation. Technical Inputs Economic Outputs Business Model
  12. Een business model Watch next slide please for the video
  13. Elementen van een model
  14. Elementen van een model Watch next slide please for the video
  15. Het Business model (Canvas)
  16. Starting a business in practice Recognise opportunityHave an ideaConsiderationPlanning? Business & product developmentAccess & gain resourcesSocial connectionLaunchEarly tradingSurvival?
  17. Principes van een succesvolle business •Realistische planning •Beheersing over kosten en cashflow •Genereren van omzet •Financiering En… •Een eenvoudig idee •Teamwork om het mogelijk te maken
  18. Ingredients of effective planning •The plan is a projection, not reality •Research: use real information not assumptions •Set realistic targets for sales and production •Teamwork – get everyone involved in planning •Plans should be dynamic not static – markets and other factors will change •‘Planning’ is more important than ‘having a plan’ •Always consider and plan for the downside
  19. What is your business model? •Who are your target customers? •What value is created for them? •Why will they buy the product from you? •How is it superior to its competitors? •How will you produce, market and distribute it? •How and when will it generate cash and profits? •What financial investment is required? •Can you draw a simple diagram to show the process?
  20. CUSTOMER GROUPPROJECTED GROWTHSalesYear 2 = Year 3 = BUSINESS MODELSALES INCOMETotal income= VARIABLE COSTSVariable costs per customer = Total variable costs = FIXED COSTSFinance costsPremises, facilities, insurance Salaries Other fixed costsTotal fixed costs = CUSTOMER BENEFITSGross profit margin: Net profit margin: Breakeven sales: Total costs: Gross profit: Net profit before tax:
  21. A simple business model PROJECTED GROWTHGain 300 customers/year in years 2-3Lose 25% past customers/yearIncrease charges 5%/yearSalesYear 2 = £425000Year 3 = £634000 CUSTOMER BENEFITS200 x improved communications systems100 x start e-business100 x managed CRM system100 x time saved within businessesGross profit margin: 83% Net profit margin: 32% Breakeven sales: £110844CUSTOMER GROUPMicro-small businesses buy integrated web/e-business/comms/CRM serviceThey pay £50 month flat fee + traffic charges on 1 year contract BUSMODE LTDFIXED COSTSRepayment on £100,000 financing of IT system = £28,000Premises, facilities, insurance = £24,000 Salaries (2 people) = £40,000Total fixed costs = £92,000SALES INCOME200 customers in year 1£50 month each = £120,000 + £25 month average traffic = £60,000Total income= £180,000VARIABLE COSTSMarketing costs £100 to attract each customer = £20,000Variable costs £50 per customer = £10,000Total variable costs = £30,000Total costs: £122,000Gross profit: £150,000Net profit before tax: £58,000
  22. Is the business a sound investment proposition? •Growth potential? •Perceived risk? •Return on investment: profit stream? •Competition and differentiation? •Breakeven •Timescale •Potential exit routes •The people – capability and incentives
  23. The growth business plan: typical contents •Summary of the business proposition •Vision, goals and targets •Market opportunity: research, analysis and plan •Product/service concept •Business model or process •SWOT analysis in relation to competitors and differentiation from them •People: who will run the business, track records •How the business will operate: capabilities, resources, people, processes •Financials: investment and working capital requirements, breakeven, pricing, gross and net margins, cashflow, return on investment
  24. Vision •What do you want to achieve? •what business are you in ? •How do you see the business in 2–5 years’ time? •What is the purpose of the business? •What are the values? Start with yours. •Is it memorable and inspirational? •Can it be understood by everyone in the business? •Dreams need numbers to make them into business goals
  25. Opportunity •What are the most attractive opportunities for the business? •Current market opportunities – exist now •Future opportunities – need to create •Why are they attractive for the business? •What is the business model? •What factors drive profitability? •What investments are needed? •What are the projected returns?
  26. SWOT analysis: risk and advantage A look from the inside and the outside in relation to the competition: –How is the business stronger? –Where is the business weaker? –What opportunities can you exploit? –What threats can you identify?
  27. Risk factors •Market risk: customer demand, volatility, competitor action •Technical risk: performance, production capacity and responsiveness to demand •Financial risk: investment, cost control, increase or reduction over time
  28. Marketing and sales plan •Your SWOT compared to competitors •Success factors and buying triggers •Current and future clients – groups or segments •Market matrix •Products and services in relation to client groups •Pricing (incentives etc) •Place (route to market, delivery, distribution) •Promotion and selling (How you will reach and retain clients) •Marketing budget and action plan •Sales targets
  29. Operations plan •Products and services to be provided •Sales order and key processes/systems •Maximising use of capacity •Continuous improvement – eg: –Quality, customer service –Efficiency – use of resources, time reductions –Effectiveness of processes, ‘make or buy’ –Economy – cost savings –Use of information, measurement
  30. Project plan Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Competitor research Analysis Product development Suppliers & logistics Design promotionals Production Sales campaign Launch Sales Review Planning Customer research Launching a new product or service
  31. People plan •Leadership •Team roles, areas for development •Organisation – structure, responsibilities •Capabilities and knowledge needed in the business •How to develop or acquire these? –Plan to develop existing staff –Recruitment plan –Motivation and rewards
  32. Financial plan •Business model •Financial objectives, years 1, 2  5? •Cash flow forecasts •Profit and loss (P&L) forecasts •Funding requirements: –Capital expenditure, acquisition –Working capital –Sources of funding, return on investment •Assumptions –Break-even analysis, pricing –Risks •Balance sheet See ‘Financial Planner’ toolkit on page 264 of Entrepreneurship: from opportunity to action
  33. Pricing - the three ‘Cs’ •Cost: lower limit, full cost or marginal? •Customers: upper limit, how high will (or can) they go? •Competitors: how good are they? How do you compare? (This determines how high you can go and your price position in the market)
  34. Key questions in ‘pitching’ the plan to sell the idea •Who is the plan written for? •What do you aim to achieve from presenting the plan? •What are you prepared to exchange to gain what you need? •What are the listeners’ needs and expectations? (e.g. are they looking for investment or lending opportunities, technology or distribution partnerships?) •Do you know your audience – what is their investment history, in which types of ventures? What are their investment objectives or lending criteria? •How can you fine-tune your presentation of the plan to meet their needs? •How can you reassure them of your credibility and capability of making it happen?
  35. Characteristics of an effective venture plan Twelve features of an effective venture plan: 1.Demonstrates a clear opportunity which has not yet been exploited 2.Displays strong customer attraction and differentiation from competitors 3.Shows significant, quantified growth potential in identified markets 4.Demonstrates a credible strategy and plan to exploit the opportunity 5.Deploys innovation which can be shown to work effectively 6.Has unique aspects which can be prevented from copying (control of IPR [Intellectual Property Rights (NL=octrooien)]) 7.Success factors with risks identified and minimised 8.Investment required is shown with realistic return on investment 9.Timescale to breakeven and anticipated profit stream are realistic 10.Financial planning is accurately costed and realistic 11.Potential exit routes and timescales for investors are shown 12.The venture team demonstrate capability and motivation