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Copyright or Copyleft - Creative Commons

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History Day @ Your Library 2010

Publicada em: Educação
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Copyright or Copyleft - Creative Commons

  1. 1. Copyright or Copyleft: Creative Commons Resources for Research and Teaching
  2. 2. CopyrightCopyright This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike 3.0 License.
  3. 3. United States Congress, Article 1, section 8United States Congress, Article 1, section 8 clause 8:clause 8: Congress shall have power: To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries
  4. 4. Copyright LawCopyright Law Copyright law protects creative works or works of authorship. This includes books, newspapers and other writings, music, art, photography, films, choreography, architecture, computer software and maps. Copyright law grants exclusive rights to the copyright owner, including: Reproduction rights, distribution rights, right to creative adaptations or derivative works, performance and display rights.
  5. 5. Copyright law does not protectCopyright law does not protect •Facts •Ideas – a work must be fixed in a “tangible medium of expression” •Things which are in the public domain, either because the copyright has expired or because it was dedicated to the public domain •Works created by US government employees, blank forms, laws and court decisions, recipes, words and most short phrases, and “common property” works such as calendars.
  6. 6. Obtaining copyright protectionObtaining copyright protection Registration is not required, but: – You’ll need to register your work before being able to enforce your claims in a court of law. – If you have registered your work within the first 3 months of publishing, and you win a lawsuit, you may ask for your legal fees to be covered by the other party. How to register your work – Request a registration form from the Copyright Office, housed in the Library of Congress. Their website is http://www.loc.gov/copyright – Return the form with the required filing fee and requested copies of the work. In 12-16 weeks you should receive a certificate of registration.
  7. 7. Copyright noticeCopyright notice Additionally, though not required, it is a good idea to put a notice of copyright on your work. The notice contains either ©, or the word Copyright, or both, followed by the year of publication and the copyright owner. It might look something like this: Copyright 2007 Jennifer DeJonghe If the notice is visible on the work, a defendant may not use an “innocent infringement” defense.
  8. 8. Why have copyright?Why have copyright? Copyright law is designed to advance the progress of knowledge by protecting an author’s ability to profit from their creativity Too little copyright protection could encourage “piracy” which may discourage artistic creation and would hinder the growth of knowledge –Too much copyright protection could also freeze new authorship and hinder the growth of knowledge. Or it would put new knowledge only in the hands of the rich
  9. 9. Selling or transferring the rights to yourSelling or transferring the rights to your workwork
  10. 10. The “Fair Use” exception to copyrightThe “Fair Use” exception to copyright protectionprotection (section 107 of copyright code)(section 107 of copyright code) Designed to encourage the advancement of knowledge and free flow of ideas Allows use of copyrighted material without permission for educational and research purposes, news reporting and criticism in certain conditions and if the value of the copyrighted work is not diminished.
  11. 11. The following factors are considered when FairThe following factors are considered when Fair Use is claimed:Use is claimed: 1. The purpose and character of the use. The more “transformative” the work is, the more justified the fair use claim. 2. The type of work involved. More protection is given to works of fancy, and less to works of research and factual works. 3. The amount and importance of the material used – whether the material used reflects the “heart” of the work. 4. The effect of use on potential market.
  12. 12. Teach Act of 2002 (Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act)
  13. 13. The Value of the Public Domain •When copyright protection on a work expires it becomes part of the public domain. •Many great works are now in the public domain, and you can adapt them, perform, use them in your film score etc. without paying for rights.
  14. 14. Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) ofCopyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) of 19981998 Also known as the Sony Bono law or the Mickey Mouse Protection Act Extended copyright protection by 20 years. Is now life of the author plus 70 years and for works of corporate authorship to 120 years after creation or 95 years after publication, whichever endpoint is earlier To determine when something goes into the public domain, you can use a chart here: http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/public_domain/
  15. 15. The Digital Millennium Copyright ActThe Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998(DMCA) of 1998 The DCMA Increases copyright protection for works transmitted over the internet. If a copyright owner finds that their work is being used without their permission and compensation, the website, the ISP, search engines etc. can all be served with DMCA takedown notices. Search Engines, ISPs etc. are protected from liability, as long as they comply with the takedown requests. The DCMA Criminalizes efforts to circumvent DRM technology. DRM is technology that is used to protect copyrighted material online. It is used by iTunes,
  16. 16. Criticism of the DMCACriticism of the DMCA Some believe that it is too easy to make copyright challenges, and too difficult to fight a takedown notice. Software research and cryptography may be stifled and DRM software may be uncompetititive due to the protections. The DMCA undermines the “First Sale” doctrine of the US copyright act, which allows you to do what you choose with a purchased item – such as sell, copy, or print it.
  17. 17. Copyleft http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Copyleft.svg
  18. 18. http://creativecommons.org/
  19. 19. License Conditions http://creativecommons.org/about/licenses
  20. 20. Licenses Attribution Attribution Share Alike Attribution No Derivatives Attribution Non-Commercial Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives http://creativecommons.org/about/licenses
  21. 21. http://search.creativecommons.org/
  22. 22. Searching for Creative Commons Resources http://www.flickr.com/photos/k8s/358282497
  23. 23. Images Karin http://www.flickr.com/photos/nirak/2282406809/
  24. 24. Compfight http://compfight.com/
  25. 25. Flickr: The Commons http://www.flickr.com/commons
  26. 26. http://www.flickr.com/photos/k8s/5100743175 Multimedia Resources
  27. 27. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page Wikimedia Commons
  28. 28. ccMixter http://dig.ccmixter.or
  29. 29. http://www.archive.org/details/o pensource_movies Community Video
  30. 30. Books http://www.flic kr.com/photos/k 8s/4274927405/
  31. 31. http://wiki.creativecommo ns.org/Books
  32. 32. http://craphou nd.com/littlebr other/downloa d/
  33. 33. http://www.zotero.org/ http://www.easybi b.com/ Citation Management Tools
  34. 34. http://www.flickr.com/photos/nikonvscanon/472167639