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Kanbanviolet pill           Gaetano Mazzanti                    @mgaewsj                   Gama-Tech
disruptiveno change              change
révolution?
inspired by Joakim Sunden
changes often end up being local:big impact on a few people,small/no impacton the whole org
a storm in a glass?company          technical          dept                SW               teams                         ...
(scared) orgs, prefer smallimprovements, no change inroles and responsibilities(and they don’t like to be told thatmanager...
no cross functional team?
no product owner?
firefighting?
people working onmultiple projects?
scared to change?
sometimes you cannottransform   first         observe, visualize work,    apply continuous improvement,then   transform
Purpose > Observe, Measure > Method     method should come last!
a complex journey,   unknown destinationsame pattern:Code                un	  ProductProcess    (BTW you need a Vision…)
Kanban 101make work visiblelimit Work In Process(WIP)help work to flow
kanban   vs   Kanban  1950         2004
kanban & JIT in         manufacturingonly what is neededonly in the amounts neededonly when it is needed         pull
simple kanbanhome milk delivery
muri, mura, muda
if you can’t see ityou can’t manage it
Limit WIP
let work flowlet work flow
context matters
principles of the       Kanban methodstart with what you do nowpursue incremental, evolutionarychangerespect the current p...
five core propertiesvisualize the workflowlimit WIPmanage flowmake process policies explicitimprove collaboratively(let pe...
yes, and…two rules for improv…isation:1. agree2. add    Tina Fey               EMENT	  
“the aim of kanban is to maketroubles come to the surface andlink them to kaizen activity”       Taichi Ohno, 1984
map the mess                empower the team to fix it           workflow         bottlenecks            queuesmake       ...
expose dysfunctionsdo you keep stinky food in the fridge?
visualize your actual                 work(flow)backlog	               to do	     in progress	     test	     done	        ...
visualize your actual                 work(flow)backlog	            to do	     in progress	     test	     done	           ...
visualize your actual              work(flow)backlog	         to do	     in progress	     test	     done	                 ...
visualize your actual              work(flow)backlog	        to do	     in progress	     test	     done	                  ...
visualize your actual              work(flow)backlog	        to do	     in progress	             test	     done	          ...
limit WIPbacklog	                    to do	     in progress	           test	      done	              F	                   ...
limit WIP                                 measure flowbacklog	                    to do	     in progress	              tes...
why should we limit WIP?           Little’s Law            cycle time                  =        WIP / throughput(throughpu...
why should we limit WIP?          Little’s Law        length of queue               =arrival rate * average wait time
why should we limit WIP?too much WIP increases cycle timetoo much WIP leads to queuesqueues lead to delaysqueues lead to m...
Cost of Delay         source David J Anderson
causes of delay
multitasking sucks                     ABC	  ABC	  ABC	                       AAA	  BBB	  CCC	  
multitasking sucks                       multitaskers optimize for capacity,                                        not fo...
let work flow   backlog	         to do	          in progress	             test	      done	              H	      F	        ...
let work flowbacklog	         to do	          in progress	             test	      done	           H	      F	              ...
let work flowbacklog	         to do	          in progress	             test	     done	           H	      F	               ...
let work flowbacklog	         to do	          in progress	             test	     done	           H	      F	               ...
who’s working on what?backlog	                    to do	     in progress	           test	      done	              F	      ...
total WIPbacklog	                    to do	       in progress	           test	      done	              F	                 ...
buffersbacklog	         [   to do	        in progress	           test	      done	                    [                  G	...
buffers with no WIP limitbacklog	                to do	           in progress	       test	     done	     I	               ...
no WIP limits => queuebacklog	            to do	         in progress	                    test	          done	             ...
no WIP limits => queuebacklog	            to do	         in progress	     test	          done	      O	             N	     ...
flow = speed * density
flow = speed x density           density                        flow                                   vehiclesvehicles   ...
queues   cumulative flow diagram               cycle timecumulative   WIP quantity             time
cumulative flow diagram   large batches => long queuescumulative quantity               time
cumulative flow diagram   small batches => short queuescumulative quantity               time
what to do next (help)backlog	                    to do	     in progress	       test	     done	      G	              F	   ...
what to do next (pull)backlog	                    to do	         in progress	       test	     done	      G	              F...
stuck    (cannot break WIP limit)backlog	             to do	        in progress	          test	      done	           H	   ...
stuck (nothing to pull)backlog	              to do	     in progress	          test	      done	            G	      E	      ...
slack (%)                                                                                                                 ...
no testers
non-instant availability
non instant availability  external parking
what’s on a stickie?ID 326           As a user           I want to           So that                                 block...
type of work
types of workstandard        due dateexpedite          bug
classes of service and WIP      standard work = 60%      expedite = 10%      due date = 20%      bug = 10%
classes of service, WIP,             expedite lane backlog	                           to do	        in progress	          ...
cost of delay &               classes of servicecost	  	                 6me	     cost	  	                                ...
explicit policies                    -­‐	  standups	  at	  11.45	  am	                      -­‐	  2	  hours	  pairing	  3	...
multiple projects project A project B project C
multiple projectsbacklog	                 to do	        in progress	                 test	                 done	   G	     ...
peopleworking on  multiple  parallel  projects
portfolio Kanban ouch!
portfolio Kanban  one month later
world is not linear…backlog	     to do	     in progress	     test	     done	  
multiple routes                                 DEVELOPERS	                               design	   code	   test	         ...
networked Kanban            source Jurgen Appelo
Kanban is not a processKanban is something that isoverlaid over an existing processKanban is a catalyst for change
a drug for all seasons                   Agile Teams running out of steamprocess maturity                        tradition...
gateway drug theory    softer drugs (Kanban)    can lead to harder    drugs (Scrum, XP,    whatever…)                 Mich...
a trojan horse?
dogma? no, thanks
don’t stop improving
don’t stop improving                    Z Z Z Z Z 	  process                  time
overburden               task switching             command & controlKan’t Ban?YESB UT   Kan…but?
it’s a never ending journey                   K anban            enjoy the ride                        learn from the peop...
it’s a never ending journey                   K anban            enjoy the rideGaetano Mazzanti@mgaewsjGama-Tech
Kanban = Violet Pill
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Kanban = Violet Pill

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Kanban talk presented at Italian Agile Day 2011 #iad11

Publicada em: Negócios, Tecnologia
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Kanban = Violet Pill

  1. 1. Kanbanviolet pill Gaetano Mazzanti @mgaewsj Gama-Tech
  2. 2. disruptiveno change change
  3. 3. révolution?
  4. 4. inspired by Joakim Sunden
  5. 5. changes often end up being local:big impact on a few people,small/no impacton the whole org
  6. 6. a storm in a glass?company technical dept SW teams change impacts just here
  7. 7. (scared) orgs, prefer smallimprovements, no change inroles and responsibilities(and they don’t like to be told thatmanagers should be kept out of the loop)
  8. 8. no cross functional team?
  9. 9. no product owner?
  10. 10. firefighting?
  11. 11. people working onmultiple projects?
  12. 12. scared to change?
  13. 13. sometimes you cannottransform first observe, visualize work, apply continuous improvement,then transform
  14. 14. Purpose > Observe, Measure > Method method should come last!
  15. 15. a complex journey, unknown destinationsame pattern:Code un  ProductProcess (BTW you need a Vision…)
  16. 16. Kanban 101make work visiblelimit Work In Process(WIP)help work to flow
  17. 17. kanban vs Kanban 1950 2004
  18. 18. kanban & JIT in manufacturingonly what is neededonly in the amounts neededonly when it is needed pull
  19. 19. simple kanbanhome milk delivery
  20. 20. muri, mura, muda
  21. 21. if you can’t see ityou can’t manage it
  22. 22. Limit WIP
  23. 23. let work flowlet work flow
  24. 24. context matters
  25. 25. principles of the Kanban methodstart with what you do nowpursue incremental, evolutionarychangerespect the current process,roles, responsibilities & titles David J Anderson
  26. 26. five core propertiesvisualize the workflowlimit WIPmanage flowmake process policies explicitimprove collaboratively(let people design their own process)
  27. 27. yes, and…two rules for improv…isation:1. agree2. add Tina Fey EMENT  
  28. 28. “the aim of kanban is to maketroubles come to the surface andlink them to kaizen activity” Taichi Ohno, 1984
  29. 29. map the mess empower the team to fix it workflow bottlenecks queuesmake visible teamwork time type of work
  30. 30. expose dysfunctionsdo you keep stinky food in the fridge?
  31. 31. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   B   C   D   E   F  
  32. 32. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   B   C   D   E   F  
  33. 33. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   B   A   C   D   E   F  
  34. 34. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   A   C   B   D   E   F  
  35. 35. visualize your actual work(flow)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   C   A   B   D   E   F  
  36. 36. limit WIPbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J  
  37. 37. limit WIP measure flowbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J   cycle time   lead time  
  38. 38. why should we limit WIP? Little’s Law cycle time = WIP / throughput(throughput = average completion rate)
  39. 39. why should we limit WIP? Little’s Law length of queue =arrival rate * average wait time
  40. 40. why should we limit WIP?too much WIP increases cycle timetoo much WIP leads to queuesqueues lead to delaysqueues lead to multitaskingqueues lead to … many additionaldysfunctions (variability, lowerquality, demotivation, higher risks, etc.)
  41. 41. Cost of Delay source David J Anderson
  42. 42. causes of delay
  43. 43. multitasking sucks ABC  ABC  ABC   AAA  BBB  CCC  
  44. 44. multitasking sucks multitaskers optimize for capacity, not for throughput 100   80  percent   60   ABC  ABC  ABC   AAA  BBB  CCC   40   20   0   context  switching  4me   1   2   working  4me   3   4   5   number  of  simultaneous  projects   working  4me   context  switching  4me   source Jerry Weinberg
  45. 45. let work flow backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   E   A   I   G   J   D   B  can’t push anything here  
  46. 46. let work flowbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   E   A   I   G   J   D   B  
  47. 47. let work flowbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   A   I   E   G   J   D   B  
  48. 48. let work flowbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   F   C   A   I   E   G   J   D   B  
  49. 49. who’s working on what?backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J  
  50. 50. total WIPbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   F   C   A   E   G   D   B   H   I   J   total WIP = 4  
  51. 51. buffersbacklog   [ to do   in progress   test   done   [ G   H   C   A   I   F   J   E   D   B  
  52. 52. buffers with no WIP limitbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   I   G   C   A   J   D   B   K   E   L   F   H  
  53. 53. no WIP limits => queuebacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   C   O   N   K   A   D   M   P   L   E   B   F   Q   G   H   I   J  
  54. 54. no WIP limits => queuebacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   O   N   K   A   M   P   L   B   Q  
  55. 55. flow = speed * density
  56. 56. flow = speed x density density flow vehiclesvehicles per Kmper hour Km per hour speed Km per hour
  57. 57. queues cumulative flow diagram cycle timecumulative WIP quantity time
  58. 58. cumulative flow diagram large batches => long queuescumulative quantity time
  59. 59. cumulative flow diagram small batches => short queuescumulative quantity time
  60. 60. what to do next (help)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   F   C   A   H   B   I   E   D   J  
  61. 61. what to do next (pull)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   F   C   A   H   D   B   I   E   J  
  62. 62. stuck (cannot break WIP limit)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   H   G   D   A   F   I   J   E   B   C  
  63. 63. stuck (nothing to pull)backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   E   D   A   H   I   F   B   C  
  64. 64. slack (%) absorb variations 25   20   15  queue size 10   queue size 5   grows exponentially 0   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   at high capacity % capacity utilization
  65. 65. no testers
  66. 66. non-instant availability
  67. 67. non instant availability external parking
  68. 68. what’s on a stickie?ID 326 As a user I want to So that blocked due date 12 Nov 2011 this is just an example
  69. 69. type of work
  70. 70. types of workstandard due dateexpedite bug
  71. 71. classes of service and WIP standard work = 60% expedite = 10% due date = 20% bug = 10%
  72. 72. classes of service, WIP, expedite lane backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   H   E   A   C   J   F   D   B   I  6   M   L   K  2   O   N   EXPEDITE LANE  1   Q   P  1  
  73. 73. cost of delay & classes of servicecost     6me   cost     6me  cost     6me  
  74. 74. explicit policies -­‐  standups  at  11.45  am   -­‐  2  hours  pairing  3  days/week   -­‐  retrospec6ve  every  Friday  at  2pm  backlog   to do   in progress   test   done   =>  In  Progress:   =>  Done:   -­‐  Acceptance  Test  defined   -­‐  Acceptance  Tests  verified   on  test  server   -­‐  Signed  Off  by  Marke6ng   -­‐  Test  coverage  >  80%    
  75. 75. multiple projects project A project B project C
  76. 76. multiple projectsbacklog   to do   in progress   test   done   G   E   A   C   J   F   B   M   L   K   D   O   N   H  
  77. 77. peopleworking on multiple parallel projects
  78. 78. portfolio Kanban ouch!
  79. 79. portfolio Kanban one month later
  80. 80. world is not linear…backlog   to do   in progress   test   done  
  81. 81. multiple routes DEVELOPERS   design   code   test   H   E   BACKLOG   DONE  backlog   to do   D   deploy   done   N   M   C   A   L   SUPPORT   B   script   test   I   F   G  
  82. 82. networked Kanban source Jurgen Appelo
  83. 83. Kanban is not a processKanban is something that isoverlaid over an existing processKanban is a catalyst for change
  84. 84. a drug for all seasons Agile Teams running out of steamprocess maturity traditional chaotic
  85. 85. gateway drug theory softer drugs (Kanban) can lead to harder drugs (Scrum, XP, whatever…) Michael Sahota
  86. 86. a trojan horse?
  87. 87. dogma? no, thanks
  88. 88. don’t stop improving
  89. 89. don’t stop improving Z Z Z Z Z  process time
  90. 90. overburden task switching command & controlKan’t Ban?YESB UT Kan…but?
  91. 91. it’s a never ending journey K anban enjoy the ride learn from the peopleGaetano Mazzanti plan with the people@mgaewsj begin with what they haveGama-Tech build on what they know Lao-Tzu
  92. 92. it’s a never ending journey K anban enjoy the rideGaetano Mazzanti@mgaewsjGama-Tech

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