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The Simple Sentence

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For English learners!

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The Simple Sentence

  1. 1. The simple sentence Group 1: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan Tran Thi Linh Duong Thanh Mai Dang Thi Ngoc Nguyen Thi Mai
  2. 2. Definition • Sentence is a complete unit of meaning. • A simple sentence consists of one clause often with a “subject” and a “predicate”. • The subject is what the sentence is about, and the predicate is a comment about the subject. • E.g.: The boy washed clothes. Subject Predicate He is an English teacher. Subject Predicate
  3. 3. Syntactic features of 5 sentence elements 1. Subject 2. Verb 3. Compliment 4. Object 5. Adverbial Presenter: Tran Thi Linh
  4. 4. element expression position identity S Noun phrase/ nominal clause + before Verb phrase + after operator in + number 2 person + concord with Verb phrase V Verb phrase ( S form) after S + concord with S + intensive relationship to C/A C Noun phrase, adj prep, nominal clause + after verb phrase + after clause + co-referential with S, O O Noun phrase, nominal clause +after VP + concord with S,V,C +S in passivization A Adv Prep, A Clause, NP, Prep P + mebile +most optional + obligatory in SVA, SVOA
  5. 5. Syntactic Features of Sentence Elements Seven Sentence Patterns: • SV: He is sitting. • SVC: Marry is a nurse. • SVA: Tom is in the house. • SVO: I love you. • SVOC: He made her happy. • SVOO: He gave me a rose. • SVOA: He put it on the table. Presenter: Duong Thanh Mai
  6. 6. 1. Agentive (most typical) 2. Instrumental 3. Affected 4. Recipient 5. Locative 6. Temporal 7. Eventive 8. Empty “It” Semantic roles of SUBJECT
  7. 7. Agentive Subject • Animate being instigat- ing or causing the happening denoted by the verb. • For example: John opened the door Agentive Subject Presenter: Dang Thi Ngoc Instrumental Subject • Inanimate or unwitting being causing the happening. • For example: The key opened the door Instrumental Subject
  8. 8. Affected Subject One being affected by the event The door opened. Intransitive verbs: E.g: Jack fell downIntensive verbs: E.g: The pen is lying on the table Presenter: Dang Thi Ngoc
  9. 9. Recipient Subject One that receives the happening John has a beautiful wife. This role of subject is found with such verbs as have, own, possess, benefit (from)…
  10. 10. Perceptual verbs See, Hear require a recipient subject. Verbs Taste, Smell, Feel have both an agentive meaning and a recipient meaning. Verbs indicating cognition or emotion may also require a recipient subject. E.g: I liked the play (The play gave me pleasure)
  11. 11. Locative Subject Temporal Subject • One that denotes time. • For example: Tomorrow is my birthday = It’s my birthday tomorrow. • One that denotes location. • For example: The bus holds forty people = Forty people can sit in the bus
  12. 12. Eventive Subject • One that denotes events • For example: The meeting ended successfully. Empty “IT” Subject • One that lacks semantic content. • For example: It is sunny and hot.
  13. 13. Semantic roles of OBJECT DIRECT OBJECT 1. Affected Direct Object 2. Locative Direct Object 3. Effected Direct Object INDIRECT OBJECT 1. Recipient Indirect Object 2. Affected Indirect Object
  14. 14. Affected direct object A participant which does not cause the happening denoted by the verb but is directly involved in some other way E.g.: Many people criticized John. Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
  15. 15. Locative direct object One that shows location and is often found after such verbs as turn, leave, reach, cross, surround, penetrate, climb ... E.g.: They climbed the mountain.
  16. 16. Effected direct object 1. Object that exists only by virtue of the activity indicated by the verb E.g.: I am writing a letter. Bin invented television. 2. Object that repeats partially or the whole meaning of the verb E.g.: Mary sang a song. We fought a good fight.
  17. 17. Effected direct object 3. Object that takes the form of a verbal noun following a common verb of general meaning E.g.: He did little work that day. The prisoner made no comment. Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan Have, do, make, take, give, ....
  18. 18. Recipient indirect object An animate participant being passively implicated by the happening or state E.g.: My parents gave me some money. = I was given some money by my parents. Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
  19. 19. Affected indirect object • An animate or inanimate participant that is affected by the action of the Verb. • For example: I gave the ball a kick = I kicked the ball. affected Oi effected Od affected Od I paid her a visit = I visited her. affected Oi effected Od affected Od Presenter: Vu Thi Thanh Xuan
  20. 20. 1. Current attribute 2. Resulting attribute Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  21. 21. • A current attribute denotes an already existing characteristic. E.g.: My father was a teacher. Subject Complement We found her attractive. Object Complement Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  22. 22. • A resulting attribute denotes a characteristic that comes about because of the event reported in the sentence. E.g.: He became a teacher in 1965. Subject Complement Her new dress made her attractive. Object Complement Presenter: Nguyen Thi Mai Semantic roles of COMPLEMENT
  23. 23. Memorable Conclusion • A simple sentence consists of one clause often with a “subject” and a “predicate”. • Syntactic features of 5 sentence elements. • Semantic functions of simple sentence elements: Agentive/Instrumental Affected Subject Recipient Locative Temporal Eventive Empty “It”
  24. 24. Memorable Conclusion Affected Direct Object Effected Object Locative Indirect Object Recipient Affected Current Attributive Complement Resulting Attributive
  25. 25. Exercise 1: Indicate whether the underlined element is: S agentive S instrumental S affected S recipient O affected O recipient O effected O locative C current C resulting 1. The bell rang loudly.  S affected 2. I heard it ring, too.  S recipient 3. You have got brains.  S recipient 4. Use your brains.  Od affected 5. Who owns this hat?  S recipient 6. They left the house empty.  Co resulting 7. We found this house empty.  Co current 8. We laid him on the sofa.  Od affected
  26. 26. Exercise 1: 9. We made him some tea.  Oi recipient 10. We have fought a good fight.  Od effected 11. I climbed the hill as light fell short.  Od locative 12. Who is making that noise? Od effected 13. Has anyone touched the television today?  Od affected
  27. 27. Exercise 2: Make 5 sentences with current/resulting complement. • Current meaning: 1.He’s a student. 2.He thought John a fool. 3.He looks handsome. 4.It’s hot. 5.I’m feeling good now.
  28. 28. Exercise 2: Make 5 sentences with current/resulting complement. • Resulting meaning: 1.The leaves turned yellow. 2.He named John a fool. 3.It’s getting hot. 4.I became a teacher. 5.The rose is growing up.