Đặng Thị Hương Sen
-Apposition is the linking of units having the some meaning or
- The units linked together are called appositives
Eg. Mr. Tom, the doctor, was here last afternoon.
Eg. A brother, Thomas, was on the television last night.
Eg. The passenger of 1980s , namely the supersonic jet, will transform
relations between peoples of the world
The indicators express certain semantic relationships the appositives
Namely , that is to say, in other words, for example, for instance ,
including, as follows , mainly, especially , such as , particularly ,
Đặng Thị Hương Sen
3.Some of these indicators either precede or follow the second
Eg. The headmaster of Hop Duc secondary school , in other words Thu
Thao , was on newpaper last morning.
The headmaster of Hop Duc secondary school , Thu Thao in other
words , was on newpaper last morning
1. only precede the second appositive: namely, and, or(rather/better) as
follows, such as, of and the abbreviated forms, ie,viz and eg
Eg. Many professions, such as the legal profession , have established their
own codes of professional conduct.
2. “included” only follows the second appositive
Eg. Many people, my sister included , won’t forgive him for that
Đặng Thị Hương Sen
1. My friend Lan sings very well.
2. Have you ever seen the novel Harry Potter?
links the appositives having
E.g. The President of the USA Barack Obama
is quite handsome
1. 1st appositive is expression
and is preceded by a determiner
E.g. I’m looking for the teacher Emily
Is this Mr Harry the musician ?
=> 2. is more general expression
and is preceded by a definite determiner (and
3. Similar to (1) but no determiner
E.g. Teamleader Cuong was the most successful
leader which inspired the other group.
& Names of books…
“the fact that”, “the idea that”
Have you ever read the novel “Harry Potter”?
I totally disagree with the fact that she is more
intelligent than me.
• Restrictive apposition:
• 3 expressions
links the appositives
It provides unnecessary informations that
the meaning of sentence will not be
changed if we omit it.
- shows unique reference between 2 appositives.
E.g. The secretary, Tung, is the most handsome boy in us class.
- shows unique reference between 2 appositives, but the second less
specific than the first.
E.g. Tung, the secretary of us class, is a single boy.
- no unique reference between 2 appositives, the second
identifies the first.
E.g. That girl, with glasses, is my friend.
- means the rewording of the second appositive in the
content of the first.
E.g. Batman, a superhero, is my favorite character.
Presenter: Hà Quang Tùng
- Involves predication rather than
- Certain constructions in second
• No article
Team leader of group 6, Mai, is
• With Adverbial
My friend, particularly Huy,
• With verbless clause
John, my friend, believes the
second exemplifies the
more general term in first
Ex: He promised, say to arrive at 8, isn’t
first particularization the
more general term in second
Ex: The girl, particularily Huy and
Trang, say they don’t like him
Comparation between restrictive and
• Can’t be omitted
• No comma
• Can be
• Use comma
Identify whether the following sentences are restrictive or non-
1. My brother Jim went white water rafting in Colorado last
2. Starbucks, one of the best places for coffee in town, is always
3. George Washington the first president of the United States had
false teeth that were made of wood
4. Venice, a city of canals villas and marvelous cuisine, is home to
the Peggy Guggenheim Museum.
5. Mars the fourth planet from the sun is also called the "Red
Planet" because of its reddish appearance as seen from Earth.
A relative clause is not always an
1. My sister, Alice Smith, likes jelly beans.
2. My sister, a doctor whose name is Alice Smith, likes jelly
3. My sister, whose name is Alice Smith, likes jelly
=> The appositive is the noun phrase Alice Smith.
=> The appositive is the noun phrase with dependent
relative clause a doctor whose name is Alice Smith
=> There is no appositive. There is a relative
clause: whose name is Alice Smith.
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