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Ethics and morality



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Ethics and morality

  1. 1. ETHICS Vs MORALITY ● MORALITY: from the Latin moralitas "manner, character, proper behavior", it is the conduct or rules that a person or community adhere to, believing these things to be, in some sense, obligatory. It gives us rules for everyday life (morals= moral rules) and it is practical. ● ETHICS: critical reflection of “morals”. Philosophical reflection about the nature of the good life, of right action, of duty and obligation. It is theorical.
  2. 2. EXAMPLES OF MORAL LEVEL (moral vivida, Aranguren) ● When I keep a promise I made yesterday although I have discovered today that its compliance generates some problems to me. ● I help a friend voluntarily though I can hurt his pride. ● I decide if I have to be or not sincere with a partner who apparently wants to be my friend. ● I refuse to steal a classmate's calculator
  3. 3. EXAMPLES OF MORAL RULES IN SOCIETY Tell the truth ● Do not vandalize property ● Have courage ● Keep your promises ● Do not cheat ● Treat others as you want to be treated ● Do not judge ● Respect others
  4. 4. MORALITY DEPENDS ON SOCIETY AND CULTURE ● Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion, or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal. In this last case, we are talking about moral philosophy or Ethics, since the preoccupation for universal values is part of the Ethical reflection, which tend to be objective (sensibly examined) Vs morality (subjective, not sensibly examined).
  5. 5. MORALITY IN DIFFERENT CULTURES Morals vary dramatically across time and place. One group’s good can be another group’s evil. Examples: ● Cannibalism, practiced by groups in every part of the world. Anthropologists found evidence for cannibalism in 34% of cultures. ● Blood sports, such as those practiced in Roman amphitheaters: thousands of excited fans watched as human beings engaged in mortal combat.
  6. 6. MORALITY IN DIFFERENT CULTURES II ● Arranged marriage: some cultures marry off girls while they are still pubescent or even younger. In parts of Ethiopia, half the girls are married before their 15th birthday. ● Extreme forms of public torture and execution, as was the case in Europe before the 18th century. ● Female genital mutilation (FGM): the ritual removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. 27 African countries, Yemen and Iraqi Kurdistan, Asia, the Middle East, and among diaspora communities around the world
  7. 7. YOUR OWN EXAMPLES ● Activity 1: Can you find three new exaples of morality in different cultures? Write them down in your notebook.
  8. 8. ETHICS = theoretical ● Ethics= philosophical study or reflection about what justifies the rules given by morality. When we have to make a decision, conflicts of moral rules appear, and they are the engine for ethical reflection = moral pensada (Aranguren)
  9. 9. EXAMPLES OF ETHICAL LEVEL ● We reason that deals have to be always fulfiled, because if not, we would have to do legal contracts instead of deals. ● I wonder what is more important morally speaking, the intention that inspires an act or the results that we obtain with it. ● I reflect on values, wondering if the value of authenticity is better than the value of friendship. ● I have in mind the key golden rule: “ don't do to the others what you don't want for you”
  10. 10. Summarizing... ETHICS MORALITY Philosophical and cientific study of morality → theoretical Rules for everyday life → practical It emerges from the inner being, as a result of her own reflection and election. It has a social base, that is, established rules in a society It makes influence in a person's conduct but from her own consciousness and will It is a group of rules that act from the outside or from the unconscious, an external motivation of the human consciousness It is the value that we discover inside us in our reflection as subjects, not imposed from the outside. The legal, obligatory, coercive and punitive aspect is dominant OBJECTIVE SUBJECTIVE
  11. 11. ACTIVITIES Watch the next video and answer the questions ● Give two examples of ethical questions that philosophers have made.. ● What is Ethics according to the video? ● What is the meaning of Ethical reasoning? ● Explain “moral authority” and “moral relativism” and their problems. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gnCrH8PQ9Mg