O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
Elwin P. Zebua
Procedures in collection information
about the students' need.
What the learner has to know in
order the function effectively in
the target situation (Kaewpet,
Strengths and weaknesses
What the learners view/wish
To find out what language skill a learner needs
To help determine if an existing course adequately addresses
the needs of potential students
To determine which students from a group are most in need of
training in particular language skills
To identify a change of direction that people in a reference
group feel is important
To identify a gap between what students are able to do and
what they need to be able to do
To collect information about a particular problem learners are
Who will be involved?
What types of information
should be gathered?
Which viewpoint should
People about whom the
information will be gathered
Who will be involved?
People expected to act
upon the analysis
People responsible for
conducting the need
People considered to
be a source of
THE USERS OF NEEDS ANALYSIS – FOR WHOM?
For a secondary school English curriculum, the users may
• Curriculum officers
• Testing personnel
• Staff of tertiary institutions
For a single teacher on his or her class, the audience
may consist of
The target population – about whom?
In conducting a NA to determine the focus of an English
program in public secondary schools in an EFL context,
the target population might include:
• Policy makers
• Ministry of education officials
• Vocational training specialists
• Influential individuals and pressure groups
• Academic specialists
• Community agencies
Issue of sampling
Sampling involved asking a portion of the potential population
instead of the total population and seeks to create a sample that
is representative of the total population.
factors which might influence the approach to sampling
the homogeneity of the population in terms of the kinds of
skills, attitudes, or knowledge being sought or
the need to study subgroups within the sample—for example,
based on sex, language group, or other factors.
What kind of
Discrepancies between the
desired performance and
by a majority of
What students need to move on a
lacks in learners’
specific contexts or
WHICH POINTS OF VIEW SHOULD BE TAKEN?
Three basic dichotomies that can help
narrow the choices of what investigate in
a need analysis
Situation needs Versus
PROBLEMS PRIORITIES ABILITIES
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Rossett (1982) identified five categories of questions: