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Immigration and education

  1. Immigration and Education By: Zuri Stocker, Heather Henslee, Melea Evans, and Elise McDonald
  2. Past Immigration Laws Timeline  1790: Naturalization Act of 1790  Only for white people with “good” moral character  Had to live in the country for two years before becoming naturalized  1795:  Increased the year limit to five years for having to live in the country from previous law  14th Amendment: Allowed all children that were born in the US to be citizens  1870:  Nationalization laws extended to African Americans
  3. Past Immigration Laws Cont.  1850-1882: Chinese Exclusion Act  Restricted further Chinese immigration due to an increasing amount of disease  1921: Emergency Immigration Act:  Created immigration quotas  Led to the Immigration Act of 1924  1924: Immigration Act of 1924  Capped number of immigrants able to enter the US based on the number of immigrants of that nationality already in the US  Immigration basically ceased during the Great Depression
  4. Current Immigration Laws  Immigration and Naturalization Act (INA)  Currently the body of law governing immigration policy  Provides for an annual worldwide limit of 675,000 permanent immigrants, with exceptions for close family members  Congress and President determine separate number of refugee admissions  Immigration to the US is based on certain principles
  5. Principles for Immigration  The reunification of families  Admitting immigrants with skills that are valuable to the US economy  Protecting refugees  Promoting diversity
  6. Defining Family Unification  This is an important principle governing immigration policy  Family-based immigration category allows US citizens and lawful permanent residents (LPRs) to bring certain family members to the US  480,000 family-based visas available every year  Family-based immigrants are admitted to the US either as immediate relatives of US citizens or through family preference system.  Immigrants include:  Spouses of US citizens  Unmarried minor children of US citizens  Parents of US citizens
  7. Defining Immigrants with Skills  More than 20 types of visas for temporary nonimmigrant workers  Include:  L visas (intercompany transfers)  P visas (for athletes, entertainers, and skilled performers)  R visas (religious workers)  A visas (diplomatic employees)  O visas (workers of extraordinary ability)  H visas (variety of these for both highly-skilled and lesser-skilled employment)  Permanent employment based on a set rate of 140,000 visas per year
  8. Defining Protecting Refugees  Refugees:  Admitted to the US based on inability to return to their home  Home countries must have a “well-founded fear of persecution”  Persecutions: race, social groups, political opinions, religion, or national origin
  9. Defining Protecting Refugees Cont.  In 2013, Obama set the worldwide refugee ceiling at 70,000  Regional allocations are in the image to the left
  10. Defining Diversity Promotion  Diversity Visa Lottery:  Creating by the Immigration Act of 1990  Dedicated channel for immigrants from countries with low immigration rates to the US  55,000 visas are allocated randomly to nationals with less than 50,000 immigrants to the US in the previous 5 years  Requirements for Diversity Visa  Must have a high-school education (or its equivalent)  Within past five years, a minimum of two years working in a profession requiring two years of training or experience
  11. More Current Immigration Laws  2011: Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors Act of 2011(DREAM Act):  Restored state option to determine residency for purposes of higher education benefits  Provides conditional legal status for certain individuals who:  Was under the age of 15 when entered the country  Has been physically present in the US for at least 5 years  Has earned a high-school diploma or GED  A person of good moral character  Is not inadmissible or deportable under criminal security grounds of the Immigration and Nationality Act  Younger than 32 years of age when law enacted
  12. More Current Immigration Laws Cont.  House Bill 56 (H.B. 56):  Sparked fierce debate across Alabama  A more radical law than those passed in other states  Has an impact on schools  Requiring school staff to verify each student’s immigration status during enrollment in Alabama  Numbers must be reported to the state yearly  Fear that parents will pull students from school  Burdens educators with enforcing laws that are not our responsibility
  13. In-process Immigration Laws  To understand the road to victory on immigration reform and what that means for 2014, one must first understand the journey to get to this point.  A national organization effort led to the passage of the Senate immigration reform bill in June of 2013, and shifted the public narrative to the inevitability of victory- no longer a question of if, but when.
  14. Road to Victory  Electoral punch: The Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights (ICIRR)  Began and electoral program with a relatively small experiment in 2002  Operated in about 10 precincts in some diverse suburban neighborhoods in Chicago  Individuals managed to organize non-partisan and 501©(4) programs in 20 different neighborhoods and suburbs  The whole idea of the vote was considered a joke at first, but with great success, “elected” individuals could not ignore the growth and power of the immigrant community  152,434 immigrant voter s have been registered by the ICIRR
  15. Furthering the Road to Victory  Individuals of the Latino community conducted driving calls  Involved shutting down Capital Hill switchboards with calls  Created national text messaging list with hundreds of thousands subscribers  Street Heats were conducted  Marches of 2006 to show that anti-immigrant insults are not going to be accepted in the immigrant community  Marches were so large, traffic was affected  This community takes things to another level (regarding legal authority) to demonstrate the disruption of deportation within their own family lives
  16. Furthering the Road to Victory Cont.  Telling stories  Leaders started “coming out” in stating that they were “undocumented and unafraid”  “Coming out” countered the fear that many leaders held, and has fundamentally changed their public lives  The Fair Immigration Reform Movement  Through the Keeping Families Together campaign, thousands of stories are told about the deportations of families involved  The movement has matured in many ways. This has allowed for more success in reform
  17. Victory In Sight  ICIRR and FIRM organizations have built citizenship programs to help legal immigrants  Thirteen million legal permanent residents in the US  Eight million of the thirteen million are eligible to become citizens (RIGHT NOW!)  In swing states like Colorado, Arizona, and Florida with legal permanent residents, current immigrant voters, and potential naturalized citizens could mean the margin of victory
  18. Impacts on Education and Families  Public spending is deceasing  Less funding in public schools  Increase in enrollment in private schools  Larger class sizes in the public school systems  Multiple cultures in a classroom setting  Teachers are expected to know and embrace the different cultures  Provides other students with a knowledge of other cultures  Promotes classroom diversity  Less staff support for those individuals that face language barriers  Immigrant students may be encourages to be productive members of society provided an education
  19. Practices to Support Immigration Students  ESOL services if needed  Cobb County School District: provides a number of resources to support these students  Value and build upon students’ academic, linguistic, and cultural background  Create supportive learning environments  Assist students in reaching their full potential  Build connections between ESOL and school wide instructional programs  Encourage participation of students and families with the school and the community  Foster understanding and appreciation of diverse populations within the school and community
  20. What do we do when they come to our classroom?  In the end, we need to create the best learning environment possible to support immigrant students. Remember that language proficiency does always support their academic ability. They are more than likely not “dumb” or “stupid.” These students may simply lack a knowledge of our academic content. Embrace their culture and support the family to the best of your ability. These practices will always promote support for these students.
  21. References  AZEMUN, M., & BENITO, L. (2014). A State and National Perspective. (Cover story). Social Policy,44(1), 3-8.  Education and Employment. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from aspx  How the United States Immigration System Works: A Fact Sheet. (2014, March 1). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from system-works-fact-sheet  Immigration. (2014, January 1). Retrieved September 17, 2014, from  Mavisakalyan, A. (2011). Immigration, Public Education Spending, and Private Schooling. Southern Economic Journal, 78(2), 397-423.  Walker, T. (2011, August 31). Alabama Schools Worry About Effects of Immigration Law. Retrieved September 17, 2014, from of-harsh-immigration-law/