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This assumption is what we hope to scrutinise in the light of Artificial Intelligence and its future potential as a technology.
Ask everyone to just take a moment to reflect on their thoughts at the moment.You may be thinking about, lunch, someone you know, or some event on the horizonNow try to find the beginning , middle and end of each thought…give them a minute….What you should notice is that it is very hard to understand thoughts as linear phenomena….They are all connected to other thoughts, events, people, places etcIn this way we may determine that all thought by its nature is interdependent, contextual and nested.
This quote epitomises the argument we wish to highlight – that is between reductionism and holism.
What do you see here? I would ask that you begin to become aware of the processes that are occurring in your mind to try piece together meaning?You should notice that as your mind encounters this abstraction, which is seemingly void of any semantic framework that it begins to judge it against many scenariois.The scenarios are pulled up from memory, and contrasted with the visual input at hand. When the most like “framework” has been established, a pattern of “meaning” is established and a way to “approach” the sensory data is found.
As there is a synchronisation of sensory input and contextual framework.Forarticifical intelligence
Basic understanding– failure to reproduce intelligence, awareness or understanding.Proposition from Flores and
Shadows of the Mind<br />Explorations in Artificial Intelligence<br />
Artificial Intelligence (AI):<br />The simulation of intelligence, at whatever level by computational means.<br />Assumptions:<br />The human trait of intelligenceis decomposable to basic mechanistic parts, furthermore it can be so precisely described that it can be replicated by a machine (algorithmic and computational).<br />
No predefined operational procedure or knowledge store, rather there is a procedure of how the system may learn –neural network</li></li></ul><li>Emergence – phenomena of a system which cannot be solely attributed to the aggregation of its parts<br /><ul><li>Weak Emergence – new properties emerge because of the interaction between sub-systems (it is reducible)
Strong Emergence – the emergent phenomena has no strong reducible/causal relationship</li></li></ul><li>The Stream of Consciousness<br />Embodied Cognition –Structural Coupling<br />Non-computational nature of the mind <br />Thinking Machines –<br />mind/body division<br />Rene Descartes<br />Kurt<br />Gödel<br />Maturana & Varela<br />Alan<br />Turing<br />Penrose &<br />Hameroff<br />Martin<br />Heidegger<br />Dasein -<br />Situated Cognition<br />Computational nature of the mind<br />Orchestrated<br />Objective Reduction<br />
Directionsof AI - Robotics<br />Early Work – Emphasized a quest to imitate principles of intelligence underlying human perception and action<br />Current Trends –Applying the same techniques developed earlier, to extend the the effectiveness and efficiency of automation<br />Authors argue that robotics can be useful in a limited domain and cannot reflect human perception and action<br />
Directionsof AI – Natural Language Interaction<br />Proponents argue that programs cannot not understand language in a significant sense because –<br /><ul><li>Programs are based on straight forward techniques developed in early AI
Programs fail to deal significantly with context, background and relevance
Programs have a limited language for expressing facts and relations</li></li></ul><li>The 5th Generation Computer System<br /><ul><li>Institute for New Generation Computer Technology-$500 million investment-Japan
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency(DARPA)-USA-Primary sponsor of AI research in the past
Initiated Strategic Computing Initiative</li></li></ul><li>5th Generation Vision for Social Improvement Areas<br /><ul><li>Increase productivity in areas such as agriculture, public services
Meeting international competition - development of information intensive industries
Assist in saving energy and resources by improving efficiency of resource use and developing knowledge intensive rather resource intensive industries
Coping with an ageing society through advances such as streamlined health management systems & lifetime education systems</li></li></ul><li>What Realistic Benefits can the 5th Gen Computer System Deliver?<br />Can computer technology play a major role in solving social problems?<br />Computer technology can definitely assist, expecting “intelligent” systems to tell us what to do is very naïve and dangerous.<br />Is the major technical problem to increase the effectiveness with which people use computers?<br />Yes this is a problem, instead of creating human like systems rather create tools that are designed to make maximal use of human perception and understanding. <br />
Human Evolution<br /> …occurs through a <br />symbiotic relationship <br />with technology<br />
References<br />1) Cotterill, R. (1998). Enchanted Looms. Cambridge: Biddles Ltd.<br />2) Flores, T., & Winograd, T. (1986). Computers and Cognition.Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.<br />3) Maturana, H., & Varela, F. (1980). Autopoeisis and Cognition. Boston studies in the philosophy of science .<br />4) Penrose, R. (1994). Shadows of the Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.<br />5) Simon, H. (1996). The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.<br />Compiled by Andisiwe, Shafeeq, Jan and Mehul<br />PgDip Class 2011<br />
Propositions<br />Thought is an interdependent phenomena<br />Language is a tool used to both construct and describe reality<br />While an artificial representation (AI) system may imitate reasoning, it falls short of true understanding<br />Programs have an implicate social and intellectual bias due to its construction by human agents – (they are extension of the human mind –shadows of the mind)<br />Reasoning is a weak emergent phenomena of system interaction<br />Intelligence is a strong emergent phenomena with no apparent causal reduction<br />Cognition and being are not states but rather dynamic constructed and emerging phenomena<br />Cognition is embodied and is a result of a complex biological and social structural coupling<br />Cognition and understanding has a non-computational basis<br />Humans are the key aspects of all reasoning, theory and proofs and hence artificial systems, due to their non-computational nature<br />If humans were to create effectively intelligent machine they need to have a non-computational aspect – probably quantum effects<br />Robotics can be useful in a limited domain and cannot reflect human perception and action<br />
13) Programs have a limited languagefor expressing facts and relations<br />14)AI’s purpose is to increase the effectiveness with which people use computers<br />15) AI is a tool to make maximal use of human perception and understanding<br />16) Technology is a fundamental tool in facilitating human evolution<br />