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Water crisis in pakistan

  1.  Indus Basin  Makran coastal basin  Ground Water  Terbela Dam  Mangla Dam  Chashma barrage
  2.  Indus River sustained early human civilization along its banks, known as Indus Valley civilization.  The Indus river constitutes of the mountain basins Indus plain, Karachi plains & desert areas of Sindh.  Its source of water is snowing, glacier melting & rain falls .  The catchment area of the Indus is estimated at almost 386,100 square mi (1 million square km), and all of Pakistan's major rivers flow into it.  It is dammed near Peshawar to form the Tarbela Reservoir
  3.  Makran coastal region of Baluchistan ,surrounded with three mountain ranges system , Makran coastal Basin Constitutes of streams of Malir, Hub , Porali, Hingol, & kech. Its main source is rainfall .  it is half desert, half coastal area. It is one of the rich and amazing coasts situated by the side of Arabian Sea and the gulf of Oman
  4.  the water beneath the surface of the ground, consisting large ly of surface water that has seeped down:  the source of water in springs, Tube wells and wells.  Today, more than 60 percent of Pakistan's water is pumped from natural underground reservoirs, with no limits placed on how many wells can be drilled or how much anyone can take.  According to Punjab irrigation department, the water table in the province is going down by three feet per year.
  5.  Tarbela Dam is located in Pakistan & is the world's largest fill- type dam, 2nd largest dam in the world in terms of reservoir capacity, which is 11.62 million acre-feet .  Tarbela dam was constructed as part of the Indus Basin project after signing the 1960 Indus water treaty bw India & Pakistan.  Main water reservoir of Pakistan .  To control water for irrigation use, substantial generation of hydroelectric power and flood control by conserving snow melt and monsoon flows of the Indus River.
  6.  Mangla Dam, embankment dam on the Jehlum river near Jehlum , completed in 1967, one of the main structures in the Indus Basin river.  It is the 7th largest dam in the world.  storage capacity to some 7.4 million acre-feet (9.13 billion cubic meters).  initial installed power capacity of at least 600 megawatts, which was increased to 1,000 megawatts in the mid-1990s
  7.  Chashma Barrage is a barrage on the River Indus in Mianwali District of the Punjab. Completed in 1971.  Also Used for power generation, installed capacity power Station is 184 MW.  It’s purpose is to supply water to CJ-Link Canal on the left and Chashma Right Bank Canal on its right side.
  8.  Irrigation  Power generation  Drinking  Industry
  9.  Pakistan have worlds strongest irrigation system which is used to supply water to the agriculture sector .  Out of 240 maf , 172 maf water is utilized for irrigation purpose.
  10.  Mostly , Pakistan produce electricity through thermal & hydro power projects & for this purpose water is used  Conventional power plants require massive amount of water
  11.  2% of water is used for the purpose of drinking  Humanity cannot survive without drinking water
  12.  According to available data 3% of water is used for the purpose of industry in Pakistan  It is used for cooling purpose & manufacturing  Moreover due to industry, water pollution is increased.
  13.  Wastage  More than 36 MAF water is wasted in paksitan
  14.  Low rainfall causing shortage of water in Pakistan  The biggest reason of low rainfall is very short range of forests in Pakistan.  We can overcome this problem by planting more & more trees
  15.  Dams of Pakistan losing their capacity of storing water, That is why, most of the river water & rainfall water is wasted . All dams need to extend their capacity to store water New dams like kala baagh dam project must be completed
  16.  Growth of industry causing environmental changes & these changes Have bad effects on climates, increasing Temperature which low rainfall.  Moreover water us also wasted for the purpose of industrial usage .

Notas do Editor

  1. water scarcity is a bigger threat to Pakistan's security than militancy. Pakistan is facing an acute water shortage and may run dry by 2025.
  2. From Gwadar to Chabahar, the Makran Coast Is Becoming an Arena for Rivalry Between Powers.
  3. Due to extensive usage Underground water reserves under threat.