O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

Sappress variant configuration_with_sap (1)

2.089 visualizações

Publicada em

  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

Sappress variant configuration_with_sap (1)

  1. 1.  Uwe Blumöhr, Manfred Münch, and Marin Ukalovic Variant Configuration with SAP® Bonn Boston
  2. 2. Contents at a Glance 1 Basic Principles of Variant Configuration ...................................... 29 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration ............. 65 3 Business Processes in SAP ERP ..................................................... 203 4 Customizing SAP ERP for Variant Configuration ........................... 249 5 Special Features of Product Configuration in SAP CRM ............... 273 6 Enhancements in SAP Industry Solution DIMP ............................. 301 7 Enhancements and Add-Ons in the SAP Partner Environment ..... 315 8 Project Lead Reports on Projects and Project Structures ............. 373 9 Customer Reports on the Introduction of SAP Variant Configuration ............................................................. 405 10 Challenges in Variant Configuration .............................................. 449 11 Configuration Workgroup .............................................................. 491 12 Outlook for SAP Business ByDesign ............................................. 503 A Database Tables of Variant Configuration ..................................... 517 B APIs of Variant Configuration ........................................................ 521 C User Exits of Variant Configuration ............................................... 523 D Comprehensive Examples of Variant Functions ............................ 525 E The Authors .................................................................................... 531
  3. 3. 9 Contents Foreword .................................................................................................... 17 Introduction ............................................................................................... 21 1 Basic Principles of Variant Configuration ...................................... 29 1.1 What Is Product Configuration? ......................................................... 29 1.1.1 Terminology ........................................................................ 29 1.1.2 Elementary Configuration Modules ....................................... 34 1.1.3 Product Configuration in Logistic Scenarios .......................... 36 1.1.4 Core Problem of Variant Diversity ......................................... 38 1.1.5 Procedural and Declarative Approaches ................................ 41 1.2 What Is SAP Variant Configuration? ................................................... 44 1.2.1 Product Configuration Using Variant Configuration ............... 44 1.2.2 Further Areas of Use ............................................................. 45 1.2.3 “Hello World” Example ......................................................... 45 1.2.4 Variant Configuration LO-VC ................................................ 50 1.2.5 Internet Pricing and Configurator (IPC) ................................. 55 1.3 How Do Business Processes Benefit from Variant Configuration? ........ 58 1.3.1 Prerequisite for the Usage of Variant Configuration ............... 58 1.3.2 Factors for the Usage of Variant Configuration ...................... 59 1.3.3 Exemplary Consideration on the Master Data Volume .......... 61 1.4 Summary ........................................................................................... 62 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration ............. 65 2.1 Overview of the Modeling and Integration of Variant Configuration .... 65 2.1.1 Multivariant Product without Variant Configuration .............. 66 2.1.2 Multivariant Product with Variant Configuration ................... 66 2.2 Tools from the Classification System ................................................... 70 2.2.1 Characteristic Management .................................................. 71 2.2.2 Class Management ............................................................... 77 2.2.3 Classification ........................................................................ 78 2.2.4 Search .................................................................................. 79 2.3 Material Master, BOM, and Routing .................................................. 81 2.3.1 Material Master of the Configurable Material ....................... 81 2.3.2 Super BOM of the Configurable Material .............................. 86 2.3.3 Super Task List for the Configurable Material ........................ 89 2.4 Configuration Profile and Configuration Scenarios .............................. 91 2.4.1 Overview of the Configuration Profile ................................... 91 2.4.2 Configuration Profile in Detail ............................................... 93 2.4.3 Overview of Configuration Scenarios .................................... 99
  4. 4. Contents 10 2.4.4 Planned/Production Order Without BOM Explosion Scenario ...................................................... 99 2.4.5 Order BOM Scenario ............................................................ 101 2.4.6 Sales Order (SET) Scenario .................................................... 107 2.4.7 Planned/Production Order with BOM Explosion Scenario ..... 111 2.5 Overview of Object Dependencies ..................................................... 114 2.5.1 Types of Object Dependencies and Assignment .................... 114 2.5.2 The Procedural and Declarative Character of Object Dependencies ........................................................... 119 2.5.3 Global and Local Object Dependencies ................................. 119 2.5.4 Status of Object Dependencies ............................................. 120 2.5.5 Object Dependencies in Classification and in Variant Configuration ....................................................................... 120 2.5.6 Execution Sequence of Object Dependencies ....................... 121 2.5.7 Basic Syntax Rules ................................................................ 123 2.5.8 Syntax Elements ................................................................... 126 2.5.9 Variant Tables and Functions ................................................ 129 2.5.10 Evaluation Function for Object Dependencies ....................... 130 2.6 Object Dependencies for the Value Assignment Interface or the Sales View ......................................................................................... 134 2.6.1 Product Modeling Environment PMEVC ............................... 134 2.6.2 Example ............................................................................... 137 2.6.3 Variant Tables in Detail ......................................................... 142 2.6.4 Constraints in Detail ............................................................. 147 2.6.5 Preconditions ....................................................................... 152 2.6.6 Selection Conditions ............................................................. 155 2.6.7 Procedures ........................................................................... 156 2.6.8 Reference Characteristics ...................................................... 158 2.6.9 Variant Functions .................................................................. 161 2.6.10 User Interface Design ........................................................... 164 2.7 Object Dependencies for BOM and Routing ...................................... 166 2.7.1 Local and Global Object Dependencies ................................. 166 2.7.2 Selection Conditions for BOM and Routing ........................... 169 2.7.3 Class Nodes in BOMs ........................................................... 169 2.7.4 Classified Materials in BOMs ................................................ 173 2.7.5 Procedures in BOM and Routing ........................................... 175 2.8 Pricing for Configurable Materials ...................................................... 177 2.9 Product Costing for Configurable Materials ........................................ 184 2.10 Material Variants ............................................................................... 185 2.10.1 Material Master of the Material Variant ................................ 187 2.10.2 BOM and Material Variant .................................................... 189 2.10.3 Routing and Material Variant ................................................ 189 2.10.4 Pricing and Material Variant ................................................. 191 2.10.5 Material Variant Matching .................................................... 192
  5. 5. Contents 11 2.10.6 Material Variant Matching at the Header and Assembly Levels ................................................................... 195 2.11 How to Create a Product Model for the IPC ....................................... 196 2.12 Summary ........................................................................................... 202 3 Business Processes in SAP ERP ...................................................... 203 3.1 Introduction — Variant Configuration in Business Processes ............... 203 3.1.1 BOMs in Variant Configuration ............................................. 203 3.1.2 Order Engineering Workbench .............................................. 207 3.1.3 Variant Configuration and SCM-APO .................................... 213 3.1.4 Modeling for Variant Configuration with iPPE ....................... 216 3.2 Integration Aspects Along the Supply Chain ....................................... 219 3.2.1 A Classic Process for the Integration of Variant Configuration ............................................................ 219 3.2.2 Processes with Extended Integration Aspects ........................ 227 3.3 Planning and Variant Configuration .................................................... 232 3.3.1 Evaluations in the Variant Configuration Environment ........... 232 3.3.2 Variant Configuration and Planning — An Introduction to the Topic .......................................................................... 233 3.3.3 Pure Assembly Planning ........................................................ 234 3.3.4 Characteristics Planning and Standard Product Planning ....... 235 3.3.5 Characteristics Planning and Standard Product Planning with Long-Term Planning ...................................................... 241 3.3.6 Variant Planning and Planning with Planning Variants ........... 244 3.4 Summary ........................................................................................... 248 4 Customizing SAP ERP for Variant Configuration ........................... 249 4.1 Explicit Customizing of Variant Configuration ..................................... 249 4.1.1 Maintenance Authorizations ................................................. 250 4.1.2 Statuses ................................................................................ 251 4.1.3 Groups ................................................................................. 252 4.1.4 Configurable Objects ............................................................ 253 4.1.5 Configuration User Interface ................................................. 253 4.2 Classification System Customizing ...................................................... 254 4.3 Business Process Customizing Relevant for Variant Configuration ....... 260 4.3.1 Configurable Material Master ............................................... 260 4.3.2 Item Categories and Their Determination ............................. 263 4.3.3 Requirements Types and Requirements Classes and Their Determination ...................................................................... 265 4.3.4 Planning Strategies ............................................................... 268 4.3.5 Change Profiles in Order Change Management (OCM) .......... 270 4.4 Summary ........................................................................................... 272
  6. 6. Contents 5 Special Features of Product Configuration in SAP CRM ................ 273 12 5.1 Product Configuration in Different Channels ...................................... 273 5.2 Configuration of Products versus Services ........................................... 274 5.3 Procedure for Integrated Production in SAP ERP ................................ 275 5.3.1 Sales Configuration versus Production Configuration ............. 276 5.3.2 Replication of the Master Data from SAP ERP ....................... 276 5.4 Creating a Product Model Using the PME .......................................... 279 5.4.1 Essential Properties and Differences Compared to Modeling in SAP ERP ........................................................... 279 5.4.2 Calling the PME .................................................................... 280 5.4.3 Product Models versus Knowledge Bases .............................. 280 5.4.4 Version and Status Management ........................................... 281 5.4.5 Classes, Characteristics, and Values ....................................... 282 5.4.6 Object Dependencies in the PME ......................................... 283 5.4.7 Transport of Knowledge Bases .............................................. 290 5.5 IPC User Interface .............................................................................. 290 5.5.1 Java Server Pages and the J2EE Engine .................................. 290 5.5.2 XCM (Extended Configuration Management) ........................ 290 5.6 Special Functions of the IPC User Interface ........................................ 291 5.6.1 Images and Other Objects .................................................... 291 5.6.2 Import-Export of Configuration Results ................................. 292 5.6.3 Pricing Overview .................................................................. 293 5.6.4 Better Handling of Restrictable Characteristics ...................... 293 5.6.5 Search/Set ............................................................................ 294 5.6.6 Displaying Long Texts (as of SAP CRM 2006s) ....................... 295 5.6.7 Messages Controlled by the Configurator (as of SAP CRM 2006s) ......................................................... 295 5.6.8 Configuration Comparison (as of SAP CRM 2006s) ................ 296 5.7 UI Designer (as of SAP CRM 7.0) ........................................................ 297 5.8 Summary ........................................................................................... 299 6 Enhancements in SAP Industry Solution DIMP ............................. 301 6.1 Overview ........................................................................................... 301 6.2 DIMP — Discrete Industries and Mill Products .................................. 302 6.3 Special Requirements of the Mill Industry .......................................... 303 6.3.1 Sales Order Processing and Production Scenarios .................. 304 6.3.2 Production Discrepancies — Planned Configuration and Actual Configuration ...................................................... 304 6.4 Product Configuration Enhancements in Mill Products ....................... 305 6.4.1 Fast Entry of Characteristics — Simplified Entry of Configurable Document Items .............................................. 306 6.4.2 Inheritance in Item Documents — Global and Local Items .... 309 6.4.3 Copying Default Values from the Customer Material Information Record .............................................................. 310
  7. 7. Contents 6.4.4 Working with Sales Order Versions ....................................... 310 6.4.5 Variant Configuration in Connection with Make-to-Stock Production ........................................................................... 312 6.4.6 Order Combination with Configurable Products .................... 313 6.5 Summary ........................................................................................... 314 7 Enhancements and Add-Ons in the SAP Partner Environment ..... 315 7.1 Sybit Model Tester (Company: Sybit GmbH) ....................................... 317 7.1.1 Manual Testing: CU50 .......................................................... 317 7.1.2 Sybit Model Tester ................................................................ 318 7.1.3 Summary .............................................................................. 322 7.2 Sybit Configuration Visualizer (Company: Sybit GmbH) ...................... 322 7.2.1 Problem ............................................................................... 323 7.2.2 Sybit Configuration Visualizer ............................................... 323 7.2.3 User View ............................................................................. 324 7.2.4 Modeler View — The Visualization Modeling Environment .... 325 7.2.5 System View ......................................................................... 327 7.2.6 Summary .............................................................................. 328 7.3 VCPowerPack (Company: AICOMP Consulting) .................................. 329 7.3.1 How VCPowerPack Works .................................................... 330 7.3.2 VCPowerPack — CoreVC ...................................................... 330 7.3.3 VCPowerPack — SmartVC ..................................................... 330 7.3.4 VCPowerPack — Industry Solutions ...................................... 331 7.3.5 Project Acceleration ............................................................. 332 7.3.6 Summary .............................................................................. 332 7.4 it.cadpilot (Company: itelligence AG and ACATEC Software GmbH) .... 332 7.4.1 CAD and SAP — Two Configuration Worlds? ........................ 333 7.4.2 Structure of Modern 3D CAD Systems .................................. 333 7.4.3 Controlling CAD Systems ...................................................... 334 7.4.4 Super BOM in Variant Configuration ..................................... 335 7.4.5 Automatically Creating CAD Data from Variant Configuration ............................................................ 335 7.4.6 Architecture ......................................................................... 335 7.4.7 CAD Configuration ............................................................... 337 7.4.8 Advantages of a CAD Configuration Integrated into SAP ERP ............................................................................... 338 7.4.9 Application Scenarios ........................................................... 339 7.4.10 A Look Ahead ....................................................................... 341 13 7.5 top flow-Framework and top flow-Variant Engine (company: top flow GmbH) ................................................................ 342 7.5.1 Optimizing the Configuration Dialog Box .............................. 342 7.5.2 Functional Enhancements ..................................................... 346 7.5.3 New Object-Dependency Logic Options ............................... 347 7.5.4 Process Optimization with the top flow Variant Engine ......... 348 7.5.5 Solution Map for the top flow Variant Engine ....................... 350
  8. 8. Contents 14 7.6 Product Model Validation with ConfigScan (companies: Fysbee SAS and eSpline LLC) ................................................................................ 350 7.6.1 Business Scenarios that Motivate the Need for Change ......... 351 7.6.2 Anti-Patterns in Common Use .............................................. 352 7.6.3 How ConfigScan Addresses these Issues ................................ 353 7.6.4 ConfigScan Validation Suite — The Basics ............................. 355 7.6.5 Working with the Test Editor ................................................ 356 7.6.6 Summary .............................................................................. 359 7.7 Managing Variant Configuration (company: eSpline LLC) .................... 359 7.7.1 Managing the LO-VC Model Lifecycle ................................... 361 7.7.2 Managing the LO-VC Transactional Processes ....................... 366 7.7.3 Summary .............................................................................. 370 7.8 Summary ........................................................................................... 372 8 Project Lead Reports on Projects and Project Structures .............. 373 8.1 “We’re Implementing SAP!” — A Project Lead’s Experience Report ..... 373 8.1.1 The Marketing Pitch and What Will Follow — Clarify the Prerequisites for Your Work ................................. 374 8.1.2 Analyze Your Business Processes and Improve Them ............. 376 8.1.3 How Many Instances Would You Like to Have? .................... 377 8.1.4 The Regional versus Global Approach ................................... 378 8.1.5 Dealing with Modifications to the Standard System .............. 379 8.1.6 The Compromises You Can or Cannot Accept ....................... 380 8.1.7 Finding the Appropriate External Support ............................. 382 8.1.8 Communicate Changes Effectively ......................................... 384 8.1.9 Communicate Necessary Compromise Effectively .................. 384 8.1.10 Train Your Employees ........................................................... 385 8.1.11 Problems After Going Live .................................................... 387 8.1.12 Changing Mass Data ............................................................. 388 8.1.13 Changing Business Models .................................................... 389 8.2 Roles in a Variant Configuration Team ................................................ 390 8.2.1 Expertise and Experts ............................................................ 390 8.2.2 Putting Together and Structuring the Project Team ............... 394 8.3 ASAP for Variant Configuration Projects ............................................. 395 8.3.1 Project Preparation ............................................................... 396 8.3.2 Business Blueprint ................................................................ 397 8.3.3 Realization ........................................................................... 397 8.3.4 Final Preparation .................................................................. 398 8.3.5 Go-Live and Support ............................................................ 399 8.3.6 Golden Client Approach ....................................................... 399 8.3.7 Specific Features of IPC Scenarios ......................................... 401 8.4 Summary ........................................................................................... 403
  9. 9. Contents 15 9 Customer Reports on the Introduction of SAP Variant Configuration ............................................................. 405 9.1 Progress of the Project at Getriebebau NORD .................................... 406 9.1.1 Initial Situation ..................................................................... 407 9.1.2 Measures .............................................................................. 408 9.1.3 Results ................................................................................. 411 9.1.4 Conclusion ........................................................................... 413 9.2 Configurable Materials at Krones AG .................................................. 414 9.2.1 Project .................................................................................. 415 9.2.2 Results ................................................................................. 415 9.2.3 Conclusion ........................................................................... 418 9.3 Progress of the Project at Hauni Maschinenbau AG ............................ 419 9.3.1 Personnel Resources ............................................................. 420 9.3.2 Result ................................................................................... 421 9.3.3 Conclusion ........................................................................... 423 9.4 Variant Configuration at the Felix Schoeller Group ............................. 423 9.4.1 Project .................................................................................. 424 9.4.2 Results ................................................................................. 425 9.4.3 Extending Variant Configuration Using the IPC ..................... 429 9.4.4 Conclusion ........................................................................... 430 9.5 SAP at Hülsta and in the Hüls Corporate Group .................................. 431 9.5.1 Initial Situation ..................................................................... 431 9.5.2 Preparation ........................................................................... 432 9.5.3 Project Objectives and Results .............................................. 432 9.5.4 Conclusion ........................................................................... 439 9.6 Product Configuration at Baldor Electric ............................................. 439 9.6.1 Starting Point of the Project .................................................. 440 9.6.2 Key Characteristics of the Project .......................................... 441 9.6.3 Basics of the Variant Model .................................................. 446 9.6.4 Conclusion ........................................................................... 447 9.7 Summary ........................................................................................... 448 10 Challenges in Variant Configuration .............................................. 449 10.1 Performance Optimization ................................................................. 450 10.1.1 Performance Bottlenecks — Occurrence and Influencing Factors ...................................... 450 10.1.2 Reasons for Performance Bottlenecks .................................... 452 10.1.3 Performance Analysis ............................................................ 455 10.2 Change Management ......................................................................... 457 10.2.1 Engineering Change Management (ECM) .............................. 457 10.2.2 Order Change Management (OCM) ...................................... 468 10.3 Complex System Configurations ......................................................... 474 10.3.1 System Configuration — Definition ....................................... 474
  10. 10. Contents 16 10.3.2 Dynamic Modification of the BOM Structure ........................ 475 10.3.3 Interlinked Configuration Structures in LO-VC ...................... 480 10.3.4 Composition Problems in SCE Advanced Mode .................... 483 10.4 Summary ........................................................................................... 489 11 Configuration Workgroup .............................................................. 491 11.1 Introduction to the CWG ................................................................... 491 11.2 Tasks and Objectives .......................................................................... 492 11.3 History ............................................................................................... 494 11.4 Organizational Structure .................................................................... 496 11.5 CWG Conferences .............................................................................. 497 11.6 CWG Portal ........................................................................................ 498 11.7 CWG Sandbox System ........................................................................ 500 11.8 Summary ........................................................................................... 501 12 Outlook for SAP Business ByDesign .............................................. 503 12.1 SAP Business ByDesign ...................................................................... 503 12.2 Product Configuration in Medium-Sized Businesses ........................... 504 12.3 Make to Order in SAP Business ByDesign ........................................... 506 12.3.1 Extending the Product Concept ............................................ 506 12.3.2 Make to Specification ........................................................... 508 12.3.3 Lightweight Product Variants ................................................ 509 12.4 Product Configuration in SAP Business ByDesign ................................ 509 12.4.1 Product Model ..................................................................... 510 12.4.2 Product Properties ................................................................ 511 12.4.3 Integration of a Configurator ................................................ 512 12.4.4 Process Automation .............................................................. 513 12.5 Summary ........................................................................................... 514 Appendices ........................................................................................... 515 A Database Tables of Variant Configuration ..................................................... 517 B APIs of Variant Configuration ....................................................................... 521 C User Exits of Variant Configuration ............................................................... 523 D Comprehensive Examples of Variant Functions ............................................. 525 E The Authors ................................................................................................. 531 Index .......................................................................................................... 533
  11. 11. 1 Basic Principles of Variant Configuration 58 SAP Business Suite SAP CRM (or SAP ERP) Web application for interactive configuration CRM 5.0 (or ECC 6.0) Application Platform 7.00 AP Configuration Engine VirtualMachine Container SAP NetWeaver Technology Platform Figure 1.14 AP Configuration Engine in SAP Business Suite IPC Product Configurator Usually, in all scenarios in which you apply the SCE or the AP Configuration Engine, you use the general term IPC Product Configurator. 1.3 How Do Business Processes Benefit from Variant Configuration? Those who use SAP Variant Configuration as a core module of the business process solution for product configuration make a future-oriented investment in the infra-structure of the enterprise. However, investments in infrastructure measures must be accompanied by business benefits. The following section briefly discusses the factors that can turn the use of Variant Configuration into a profitable investment. We also reference concrete examples. 1.3.1 Prerequisite for the Usage of Variant Configuration An essential prerequisite for the usage of product configuration is a product structure which can be described using formal parameters and which features a certain com-plexity. If you only sell vanilla ice cream with chocolate topping, product configura-tion will hardly bring any benefit. Initially, it is not important whether the product parameters only describe different properties of certain standard products or whether they have major influence on the design of a special product instance. The following example shows that the search and configuration are often interconnected.
  12. 12. How Do Business Processes Benefit from Variant Configuration? 1.3 Combination of Search and Configuration Let’s take the example of the “white goods”: Fridges are usually not manufactured indi-vidually for customers, but are provided in different sizes and colors and with different features. Nevertheless, properties such as the width, height, energy efficiency category, or freezer compartment quality play a decisive role in the selection of a fridge. Find-ing the appropriate fridge from a large set of differently equipped devices can be ap-proached 59 as a configuration task. You often structure a product range according to descriptive properties and then determine the final attribute of a product in the configuration. When you buy a car, you first select the brand and the model. Then you specify model-specific options in a configuration task. Some enterprises decide to map their entire product range in a comprehensive configuration model. Sometimes, the configuration model then becomes very comprehensive. Occasionally, the technical parameters that characterize a product group do not meet the criteria according to which the product is used. Transition from Technical Parameters to Application Criteria A manufacturer of carbide cutting tools, such as drill bits, offers thousands of individual products. To simplify the selection, the usage scenario of the tools was modeled as a configuration task based on application-oriented parameters. After the customer has answered some questions, for example, about the material that is supposed to be pro-cessed using the tool, the system determines a small selection of suitable cutting tools. 1.3.2 Factors for the Usage of Variant Configuration The formal description of product parameters forms the basis for the automation of frequently recurring processes that require a vast expertise if they are executed man-ually. Specialists who are engaged in the sale, planning, production, or purchasing of parameterized products are supposed to be relieved from these time-consuming routine tasks. System users with limited product knowledge are supposed to be sup-ported by the system to execute the process steps correctly. The goal of cost reduction is closely linked with automation. A comprehensive imple-mentation of Variant Configuration usually requires considerable investments. An incremental implementation, for instance, for specific product lines, and careful value assessment and gradual optimization have proven themselves in many cases. It is very useful to follow best practice approaches — as far as they can be transferred to the actual application case. Nevertheless, you are required to continually make adaptations to concrete product structures.
  13. 13. 1 Basic Principles of Variant Configuration The greatest benefit by far in a successfully implemented usage of product configu-ration 60 is the increase in productivity in the entire enterprise. This is revealed in the reduction of lead times, for example, or in error-free quotations and sales orders, shorter response times, minimization of the complaint rate, and the increase of cus-tomer satisfaction. Let’s briefly summarize the benefits that Variant Configuration offers for enterprises: EE Automation of recurring processes EE Documentation of expert knowledge EE Cost reduction EE Increase in productivity Furthermore, external factors make the use of variant configuration appealing. The increasing desire for individualization of products requires manufacturing enterprises to implement individual, customized customer requests. Dealing with this task is of high significance to maintain market position, unique attributes, and not least the price level in international competition. You must ensure a high product complexity and variant diversity both during order acquisition and in order fulfillment. The option to select from a variety of products is often not sufficient. Customers want to order customized products and system solutions beyond the standard offer. Here, they accept only minor losses with regard to price and delivery time. The qual-ity and service of these products must correspond to the quality and service of the products from mass production. This means vendors must respond individually to customer inquiries and be able to submit quotations that are technically clarified and definite with regard to calculation. They must ensure that they can manufacture with optimized costs and quality and deliver on time. Let’s briefly summarize the requirements that enterprises must face in production: EE Product variety and complexity EE Individual design EE Unchanged service and quality These requirements for individualization and high variability are opposed to the enterprise-internal need for standardization and modularization. Product configuration makes a considerable contribution to solve this ostensible con-flict of goals. It enables you to control the high number of variants in a manageable set of master data. Not every variant is independent and fully defined in the logistic systems. Rather, they are mapped based on a parameterized configuration model.
  14. 14. How Do Business Processes Benefit from Variant Configuration? 1.3 Thanks to the versatile combinability of standard components, you can manage a high level of product complexity. The formal recording and documentation of expert knowledge additionally enables a person-independent use of knowledge that is provided by “old timers.” Such stra-tegic considerations can be essential for an enterprise to survive, but you must also consider this aspect from the other side: Only if product experts recognize benefits in the use of a product configuration, will they give the necessary support for an implementation. Because product experts are relieved from routine tasks, they can accelerate the innovation cycle. The systematic mapping in product configuration facilitates the systematic development of the product portfolio. Interactive product configuration can supplement the classic product catalog and consequently bring the customer closer to the product selection. This ranges from pure product information to self-service scenarios. Many car buyers use the car con-figurators that are available on the Internet to inform themselves about the currently available extras. Like so many other vendors, the manufacturer of carbide cutting tools, mentioned in Section 1.3.1, Prerequisite for the Usage of Variant Configu-ration, has connected its online product configurator to electronic purchase-order 61 processing. 1.3.3 Exemplary Consideration on the Master Data Volume As you can see, the mere reduction of master data by using a classification and vari-ant configuration procedure that is based on it only represents a minor aspect of the potential benefit. Nevertheless, you can avoid a great deal of maintenance effort with by applying product configuration, whereas you must also take into account the increased maintenance effort of the product model, of course. To give you an idea of the effects of the implementation of product configuration, the following illustrates the dimension of saved master data based on a real-life example. As described in Section 1.1.4, Core Problem of Variant Diversity, the product range of the condenser example that can be described with only seven characteristics spans a scope of more than 40 million variants. You can exclude most of them owing to invalid combinations of characteristic values.
  15. 15. 1 BasicPrinciplesofVariantConfiguration Data Volume With and Without Confi guration Let’s assume that just under 1% of the 40 million variants, that is, clearly below 400,000 variants, constitutes a feasible condenser product, and only 1/40th of it, that is, approxi-mately 62 10,000 variants, represents an actually occurring product version, for which you require a product master record in case each product version is modeled by a separate product. For each product you must provide further master data, for instance, the sales price or the BOM. If product confi guration is used, you would require only one single product master re-cord, a rather small confi guration model, and a variant BOM. Figure 1.15 shows a comparison of the master data volume for this example: The gray area corresponds to the master data volume in the case of an explicit defi nition of each valid variant, and the white dot in the middle corresponds to the master data volume when you use product confi guration. Figure 1.15 Volume With and Without Confi guration (White/Gray) Without doubt, the explicitly defi ned master data volume is controllable in this example. However, it is diffi cult to differentiate the many different products, and changes to the product portfolio usually require complex mass changes to the mas-ter data. 1.4 Summary This basic principle chapter approached variant confi guration with SAP in three steps. In the fi rst step, you gained the basic understanding of product confi guration tasks. So you should be familiar with important terminology and essential confi gura-tion elements, such as characteristics, confi guration rules, and component structures. You should also be able to classify the product confi guration in the logistic scenarios and understand the core problem of variant diversity that grows exponentially with the number of product options. And you should be able to easily and clearly differ-entiate procedural and declarative approaches.
  16. 16. Summary 1.4 In the second step, you learned about the SAP-specific concepts and learned that Variant Configuration LO-VC is a core component of SAP ERP. You also got to know the components of the Internet Pricing and Configurator (IPC), and learned that the IPC enables CRM scenarios with product configuration and without access to SAP ERP. The Hello World example of the configurable box familiarized you with the handling of a configurable material (KMAT). So you can reproduce it in an SAP ERP system at any time and you understand that SAP Variant Configuration provides you with a comprehensive set of tools you can use to solve even the most complex con-figuration tasks. And you learned that the implementation of SAP Variant Configura-tion is a worthwhile investment in your enterprise workflows if you utilize the best practices that have been developed and tested. In addition, you learned about the SAP user group, the Configuration Workgroup, as a central syndicate of all those who use SAP Variant Configuration. In the third step, you read about why you use SAP Variant Configuration as a central solution for product configuration tasks. Hopefully, it became clear to you that the central problem of managing a large number of product variants is only one of many reasons. With this understanding, it should be easier for you to assess the future-oriented investment in a business process solution including SAP Variant Configura-tion. You can now competently participate in decision processes and general tasks that must be performed in a project in the area of SAP Variant Configuration. Carefully reading the following chapters of this book will enable you as a competent product configuration expert to focus on specific topics. You can select these specific topics according to your personal requirements. Equipped with the necessary basic knowledge, it will be easy for you to deepen this knowledge and use it in practice. We hope you enjoy it. 63
  17. 17. This chapter introduces you to the essential aspects for a complete product model in Variant Configuration. Those who are new to this topic will get a good overview, and experienced users will enhance their knowledge and find valuable material to reference. 65 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration This chapter introduces all modeling steps in Variant Configuration in detail. As you can see, this chapter is by far the most comprehensive chapter in the book — even though the descriptions are restricted to keep things in proportion. As a result, the chapter is not exhaustive in any respect, but will provide you with enough informa-tion for you to understand the modeling steps. The chapter begins with an overview of the topic and introduces the individual steps. These steps are then discussed in detail in the individual sections. The result is a complete Variant Configuration model that consists of all essential elements. We’ll cover the tools from the classification system that meet the requirements of a value assignment interface; we’ll introduce the class node as a possible element for configurable Bills of Materials (BOMs). You’ll also learn that the configurable prod-uct requires a material master, BOMs, and routings. In addition, you’ll learn about a control tool for the configuration: the configuration profile. Object dependencies make up a large part of the descriptions in this chapter, which are required to control the configuration in the value assignment interface (mainly in sales and distribution) and to ensure that the product is manufactured or procured as requested. Finally, we’ll cover the model of the configurable product from the view of pricing, costing, material variant matching, and the IPC. 2.1 Overview of the Modeling and Integration of Variant Configuration Let’s start with a discussion of when you should use Variant Configuration. We’ll assume that your enterprise manufactures and distributes products in different vari-ants. This doesn’t necessarily mean you must use Variant Configuration. If the num-ber of variants is manageable, you don’t have to use Variant Configuration. The
  18. 18. 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration following sections discuss the two options: production without and with Variant Configuration. 2.1.1 Multivariant Product without Variant Configuration If the number of variants is manageable, you map each of the individual variants with a separate material master. The classification enables you to describe the vari-ant 66 to facilitate searches and evaluations. For planning, production, costing, and further tasks, you require a BOM and a routing for each variant. You can simplify the creation of BOMs for similar variants by combining them in variant BOMs. This procedure is also possible for the creation of routings. 2.1.2 Multivariant Product with Variant Configuration If the number of possible variants is too large, you can no longer use the procedure described above. A frequently encountered example of Variant Configuration is buy-ing a car. Need for Variant Configuration If you look at a catalog for a model and expand all options regarding engine, chassis, color, extras, and so on, the number of possible combinations easily reaches millions and billions; this is a point where you can no longer use one material master for each variant. In this case, you combine all millions and billions of variants in one material number. If you want to order and buy such a product (a car in this example), you’ll require the material number of the multivariant model. To clarify which of the possible variants you want, the dealer requires the properties that your variant is supposed to have (for exam-ple, engine, chassis, extras, and so on). For this purpose, the sales employee (or the cus-tomer if the Internet is used for the ordering process, for example) must be provided with a tool that fully supports him in describing his variant by the corresponding properties. All necessary information on costs, prices, times, dependencies, and so on must be available here. Furthermore, this tool should also include an immediate technical feasi-bility check. This tool is Variant Configuration. Variant Configuration must ensure that a sales order or purchase order with such a multivariant product is generally complete and consistent when it is saved. Using a multivariant and configurable product should be as easy for the user as using a prod-uct without Variant Configuration. You must also ensure a manageable production or procurement process. Traditionally, the production is customer-specific in this case. That means the pro-duction or procurement process is triggered by the sales order. For this purpose, the model of the configurable product should automatically provide all required infor-mation, for example:
  19. 19. Overview of the Modeling and Integration of Variant Configuration 2.1 67 EE Determine all required parts EE Trigger all resulting requirements EE Create procurement elements EE Production order including the appropriate processes and components, for example EE Purchase requisition and purchase orders for external procurement, for example This is the traditional way. Of course, other procedures should also be supported. It doesn’t necessarily have to be customer-specific production. You can also combine it with make-to-stock production (key word: material variants, make-to-stock produc-tion for configurable materials). The model of the configurable product doesn’t have to include the full range of variants. It often makes sense to use incomplete models. This applies particularly to engineering-to-order (ETO) processes. The model of a configurable product contains the following master data (see Figure 2.1): EE Material master The focus is on the material master, which contains the information that the material is configurable. In addition, the appropriate control parameters ensure that the material is managed properly in the supply chain processes. Most of the other objects refer directly to this material master. Material Variants Order BOMs Planning Engineering Change Management (ECM) Order Change Management (OCM) SCE Configurator ... Characteristics Values Variant Class Material Task List BOM Preisfindung (Konditions-sätze) Assign Dependencies Konfigurations - profil Beziehungs - wissen zuordnen Dependencies Precondition Selection Condition Procedures Actions Constraints Pricing (Condition Records) Configuration Profile Assign Dependencies Assign Dependencies Assign Dependencies Material Master Figure 2.1 Objects of the Variant Model and Their Dependencies
  20. 20. 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration EE Characteristics Characteristics are created to map the different variants of the configurable prod-uct. 68 You create such a characteristic for each property of the configurable product for which multiple variants are supposed to be available. The characteristics are created without prior reference to the material master. EE Variant class The characteristics are collected in a so-called variant class. Variant classes are specific classes that allow you to configure sales orders, for example, via the char-acteristics that are assigned to the class. The variant class is directly linked to the material master via the classification. EE Configuration profile You create a configuration profile for the configurable material master. Configu-ration profiles are always object-specific. They contain essential control settings for the configuration process and object dependencies for the sales configuration (also called interactive configuration or high-level configuration). EE Pricing In the standard version, pricing is set specifically for each material. In the default setting, the pricing condition records that are specifically available for Variant Configuration (so-called variant conditions) are material-specific, too. EE Material BOM The material BOM generally also requires a material master. Regarding content, the material BOMs in Variant Configuration are super BOMs. That means that they contain all possible required components. In addition to using the default options, a material BOM for a configurable material also enables you to assign classes and object dependencies. EE Routing The routing is created with reference to the material master as well. The link “material master – routing” is not as strict as the link “material master – BOM.” Similar to the BOM, it is also a super task list with regard to content. Also similar to the BOM, you can assign object dependencies here. These dependencies are then evaluated for a configurable material. EE Object dependencies Object dependencies control the value assignment in the Sales and Distribution document (SD document), for example. The BOM and routing explosion also uses object dependencies. Object dependencies address characteristics and their val-ues. You can also address the variant class, the material master, and objects from the BOM. You can assign object dependencies to the following levels:
  21. 21. Overview of the Modeling and Integration of Variant Configuration 2.1 EE Characteristics and values EE Configuration profiles EE BOM and routing elements The Variant Configuration model is supplemented by additional master data and settings. These include material variants, order BOMs, planning profiles, planning tables, and other planning settings. The Engineering Change Management settings also belong to the Variant Configu-ration model. Here, you can schedule the change of most of the model data of the Variant Configuration model including history in the so-called change management for master data, Engineering Change Management (ECM). Order Change Manage-ment (OCM) enables you to include changes to model data and changes to customer requirements in the production process during the process, especially in the case of long-term continuous production. The properties of this master data (see also Figure 2.1) cause mandatory dependen-cies regarding the maintenance sequence of the individual master data of the variant model. 1. Characteristic maintenance The characteristic maintenance doesn’t require model maintenance steps in Vari-ant 69 Configuration. 2. Class maintenance The class maintenance requires the existence of characteristics. 3. Material master maintenance Like the characteristic maintenance, the material master maintenance doesn’t require model maintenance steps in Variant Configuration (at least with regard to the steps described above). 4. Configuration profile The configuration profile requires the existence of the configurable material mas-ter, specific classes (of the variant classes), and the link “material master – variant class” (classification). 5. Pricing At least in the standard version, the pricing settings require the existence of the material master. 6. Bill of materials The BOM requires the existence of the material master. 7. Routing Before you create routings, the material master and BOM are usually already available. This is not mandatory, however.
  22. 22. 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration 8. Object dependencies The maintenance of the object dependencies requires that all objects that are addressed in the syntax have already been created. Otherwise you cannot release the object dependencies. These objects include: EE Characteristics with their values (mandatory) EE Material master EE BOM and objects at the item level (material master, class, and document) These descriptions indicate the necessary sequence of the modeling steps, which also defines the sequence of the sections. The first items in the list, namely, characteristic maintenance and class maintenance, refer to both master data and tools from the classification system. The modeling process could also be described starting with tools from the classification system or with the material master. The following sections first deal with tools from the clas-sification 70 system and then discuss material, material BOM, and routings as well as configuration profiles and object dependencies. 2.2 Tools from the Classification System Variant Configuration uses the tools of the classification system to map the variability of the configurable product. Variant Configuration mainly uses variant classes and class nodes but also other class types. This section focuses on the specific aspects that you must consider when using tools from the classification system in Variant Configuration. In this context, basic knowledge is mandatory. Tools from the classification system are used in Variant Configuration to model the value assignment interface via variant classes to facilitate the maintenance of BOMs using so-called class nodes and to limit the selection conditions for classified BOM items. This section explains these usages in detail. In general, you can divide the classification system into four basic functions: EE Characteristic management EE Class management EE Classification EE Search These four functions are the basis for the structure of this section. In this context, the description focuses on the special aspects from the point of view of Variant Con-figuration and the usages in Variant Configuration.
  23. 23. ToolsfromtheClassificationSystem 2.2 2.2.1 Characteristic Management Characteristics can map fi elds in the value assignment screen of the confi guration. In this context, you create a characteristic for each property for which variability exists, from which a selection is to be made in the confi guration. A characteristic is consequently a fi eld in the value assignment interface of the confi guration. In the traditional usage of the classifi cation system, characteristics enable you to describe additional properties of the object for a group of objects, that is, the objects of a class. You also use this form in the two usages of the classifi cation system (class node and classifi ed BOM items), which are introduced in Section 2.7, Object Depen-dencies 71 for BOM and Routing. The characteristic master is formatted in various tabs. These are as follows (see Fig-ure 2.2): EE Basic data EE Descriptions EE Values EE Additional data EE Restrictions When maintaining these tabs, you must take some factors into account. Let’s fi rst have a look at the header view (see Figure 2.2). Figure 2.2 Views of the Characteristic Master
  24. 24. 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration The characteristic name must be assigned externally, that is, by the user, and entered into the Characteristic field. The name must start with a letter. In addition to letters, the name can contain numbers and underscores. Although you can also use hyphens, within Variant Configuration you should avoid using them, because this makes the writing of object dependencies more complex. The name of the characteristic is not the internal key of the characteristic. Therefore, you can change the name of the characteristic retroactively. This is still possible even when the characteristic has been assigned to classes or when it has been classified or configured. There is only one exclusion criterion for the modification of characteristic names: the usage of the characteristic name in object dependencies. The same applies to class names. In general, you can create and change characteristics using Engineering Change Man-agement. 72 For this purpose, enter a change number into the Change Number field in the header. Refer to Section 10.2, Change Management, in Chapter 10 for more information on Engineering Change Management. Basic Data Tab For characteristics, you have to maintain the fields in the Basic data tab. All other tabs are optional (see Figure 2.2). The following list illustrates which fields you can, and sometimes must, maintain: EE Description In the Basic data tab, you must enter the description in the logon language. Descriptions are generally language-dependent. You can also maintain long texts (see the first button next to the Description field), which you can call via the [F4] help during the configuration. EE Characteristic group You can assign a characteristic group. Characteristic groups are created in Custom-izing. They consist of only a key and a description. Characteristic groups don’t have a functional meaning and are solely used for searches and to implement plain, single-level structures. EE Characteristic status Like almost all SAP objects, characteristics must have a status, which you maintain in the Status field. The Customizing may already prompt a characteristic status. The characteristic status is not relevant for the classification and configuration. It is exclusively evaluated in the class maintenance. EE Authorization group The characteristic can have an authorization group, which you maintain in the Auth.Group field. This authorization group is also only relevant for the character-istic maintenance and not for the classification and configuration.
  25. 25. Tools from the Classification System 2.2 73 EE Data type The characteristic must have a data type. Data Types in Variant Configuration In Variant Configuration, you can only use the CHAR character format and the NUM numerical format without any restrictions. Without any restrictions refers to the unre-stricted usage of these formats in object dependencies. All other formats are subject to restrictions when they are used in object dependencies. Consequently, they are rarely used in Variant Configuration. You can query date and time formats in object dependencies, but you cannot use them in bills. All other formats cannot be used in object dependencies at all. This includes the currency format and all user-specific formats. For the character format, you have to define the number of characters for the lan-guage- independent key of the characteristic values. This number is limited to 30. You can only use longer keys if you implement modifications. You can use the corre-sponding checkbox to enable the case sensitivity for keys of the characteristic values. This should be avoided within Variant Configuration if possible (this is not always possible), because it represents a source of error for the writing of object dependen-cies. Except for this, object dependencies are not case-sensitive. You can also use templates for character formats. However, this option is rarely used, because you mainly use fixed lists of allowed values in Variant Configuration. For numerical formats, the Format section looks different than shown in Figure 2.2. Here, you must specify a number of digits, some of which you can define as decimal places. The decimal point does not count as a character. You can also use units of measurement. However, you have to define them in Customizing first and cannot address them in object dependencies. In addition, you can allow for negative values and an exponential presentation of numeric values. The numerical format usually also allows for interval values. These interval values cannot be addressed in object dependencies, so you shouldn’t use them in Variant Configuration. Next to the Format section in Figure 2.2 is the Value Assignment section. This section includes settings for the value assignment type and required characteristic. EE Value assignment type Characteristics can have a single value (one value at most) or multiple values (any number of values). You can also use single-value and restrictable charac-teristics. Here, you can easily restrict the list of allowed values using constraints within object dependencies. Moreover, these characteristics also consider each value assignment a restriction. After the value assignment, the list of the allowed
  26. 26. 2 CreatingaProductModelforSAPVariantConfiguration 74 values is consequently restricted to the value that was used for the value assign-ment. Only the confi gurator of the IPC can use restrictable characteristics with multiple values. EE Required characteristic It can be mandatory to enter a value for a characteristic. Such characteristics are called required characteristics . If a characteristic is only supposed to be a required characteristic under certain conditions, you mustn’t select this checkbox. This is then dynamically controlled via object dependencies. Descriptions and Values Tabs All other tabs of the characteristic master can be maintained optionally. This applies to Descriptions tab, for example (see Figure 2.3). The menu of the characteristic maintenance also enables you to change the language to create the description of the characteristic and of the characteristic values. Figure 2.3 Descriptions Tab The Values tab enables you to defi ne a list of allowed values, a check table, a check function module, or a catalog (see Figure 2.4). EE For the CHAR character format, you can only specify single values. You can main-tain descriptions for the characteristic maintenance, and you can translate the descriptions into other languages using the respective button, Description for Value, or the conversion in the menu. EE In addition to single values, you can also enter interval values as the allowed values for the NUM numerical format — irrespective of whether the checkbox for interval values is selected in the basic data. You cannot assign descriptions to characteristic values for the numerical format. Figure 2.4 Values Tab
  27. 27. ToolsfromtheClassificationSystem 2.2 EE You can assign documents and long texts to characteristic values. They are available in the confi guration as you know it from the classifi cation or search in the clas-sifi 75 cation system. Additional Data and Restrictions Tabs In the Additional data tab (see Figure 2.5), you can create so-called reference charac-teristics using a reference to a table fi eld. Reference characteristics enable you to elegantly access information in database fi elds in object dependencies. One problem is that you can usually access character-istics but not database fi elds in object dependencies. You could solve this problem via function modules in combination with variant functions. This procedure is described later on in this chapter. Another option is the use of reference characteristics, which are links to a fi eld of a database table or structure. As a result, you only address a characteristic in the object dependencies but access the database fi eld. In the stan-dard version of the classifi cation system, you can only access the table whose entries are supposed to be classifi ed — and this usually only with read access. In contrast, you can easily access numerous database tables in Variant Confi guration. You have read access and sometimes even write access to all of the tables and structures listed as follows. Read and Write Access with Reference Characteristics Read access means the content is evaluated in the context of object dependencies; write access means you can change the content of the fi elds. Figure 2.5 Additional Data Tab Let’s take a closer look at this option and start with the confi guration in the SD document.
  28. 28. 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration During the configuration in the SD document, you have read and write access to the following tables: EE SDCOM: SD communication structure EE VCSD_UPDATE: Update structure for some VBAP fields EE SCREEN_DEP: Structure for changing the behavior of characteristics for the value assignment During the configuration in the SD document, you have read access to the following tables only: EE VBAK: Header of the sales and distribution document EE VBAP: Item of the sales and distribution document EE VBKD: Commercial data EE MAEPV MAAPV: Material master fields EE VEDA: Contract data EE VBPA_AG, VBPA_WE, VBPA_RE, VBPA_RG: Contract partner (sold-to party, ship-to 76 party, bill-to party, and payer) Let’s take a look at the configuration in the purchasing document. During this con-figuration, you have read and write access to the following tables: EE MMCOM: MM communication structure EE SCREEN_DEP: Structure for changing the behavior of characteristics for the value assignment During the BOM and routing explosion, you have read and write access to the follow-ing tables: EE STPO: Fields of the BOM item EE PLPO: Fields of the operation in the routing EE PLFH: Fields of the assignment of production resources and tools EE PLFL: Fields of the sequence detail screen In the Additional Data tab, you can assign a document. Similar to the characteristic values, this document is provided in the configuration via the input help and can be displayed if necessary. The settings for the Procedure for Value Assignment section enable you to define that a characteristic is not ready for input or not displayed at all during the configuration.
  29. 29. ToolsfromtheClassificationSystem 2.2 This can be useful for characteristics to which you only assign values via object dependencies and/or that have a mere technical character. You can change this behavior using procedures via the SCREEN_DEP structure. It can be helpful to reserve characteristics exclusively for Variant Confi guration. This can be done in the Restrictions tab by entering class type 300 or 200. 2.2.2 Class Management Variant classes and class nodes are class types that have been created especially for Variant Confi guration. Class types are confi gured in Customizing. In the standard version, class type 300 (for confi gurable material masters, general maintenance task lists, and networks) and class type 301 (for confi gurable model ser-vice specifi cations) are defi ned as variant classes. This can be done using the indicator with the same name in Customizing as the class types. As a result, you can access this class type when creating the confi guration profi les. The system then generates the value assignment interface for the confi guration. Class types 200 (for material mas-ters) and 201 (for documents) are provided as class nodes in the standard version. Similar to the variant classes, this is also a checkbox. When you select this option, the class maintenance provides the Additional Data tab. With the Additional Data tab, you can allow for including such classes as items in BOMs of confi gurable materials (see Figure 2.6). 77 Figure 2.6 Additional Data Tab in Class Nodes
  30. 30. 2 Creating a Product Model for SAP Variant Configuration A class that is used as an item prevents you from having to include all materials that are classified in this class in the BOM — including the corresponding selection con-ditions. 78 A class that is used as an item in the BOM is replaced by exactly one mate-rial item in the BOM explosion. However, this requires the configuration of some settings, which are described in detail in Section 2.7, Object Dependencies for BOM and Routing, in the context of object dependencies for BOMs. The Additional Data tab displays a low-level code, which is analogous to the one for material masters. In addition, you can use the Required Component and Multiple Selection check-boxes to configure these to be generated in scenarios in which you need to be able to manually respond to the respective inconsistency messages. This is important in the following cases: EE If no appropriate material can be found in the class for the BOM explosion EE If more than one appropriate material is found in the class for the BOM explosion Variant classes collect characteristics that are supposed to be provided as a value assignment interface for the configuration. In this context, the maintenance of such classes is identical to the maintenance of common material classes, that is, to the maintenance of classes of class type 001. As already mentioned, the difference between the class maintenance of class nodes (class types 200 and 201) and common classes (class types 001 and 017) is that additional data can be set for class nodes. In the Variant Configuration classes, you can use the following functions or elements: EE Class-specific characteristic adaptation (characteristic overwrite) EE Class hierarchies EE Multiple classification EE Organizational areas EE Documents The Always display document checkbox (for permanent display in the search of the classification system in this case) is not relevant for the document that is assigned to the class in the Document tab. The configuration profile, however, provides a similar option including start logo function. 2.2.3 Classification The classification of class nodes is similar to the classification of common classes. You assign the material masters or documents to the class nodes using the transac-
  31. 31. Tools from the Classification System 2.2 tions for classification (Transactions CL20N and CL24N) or master data maintenance (Transactions MM01, MM02, and similar; Transactions CV01N and CV02N). Usually, you cannot configure these material masters. Moreover, class nodes have characteris-tics to which values are assigned during the classification. Because this classification is supposed to replace a class node with exactly one material master, you shouldn’t assign objects with the same value to class nodes. You can use the settings in the basic data to avoid this. You assign variant classes to the configurable material via the classification. In addi-tion to transactions (Transactions CL20N, CL24N, MM02, MM02, etc.), you can also implement the assignment using the maintenance transaction of the configuration profile (Transaction CU41). In retrospect, it doesn’t matter which transaction you use – it’s always an assignment of material to class, which holds true even for the maintenance transaction of the configuration profile (not profile-specific). You assign the configurable material to the variant class via the classification. Usu-ally, no values are assigned during this process. Instead of the material, the item in the sales order, for example, is supposed to be assigned a value or configured. Nevertheless, the system provides a value assignment interface when you assign the configurable material. This only serves to restrict the allowed values for each charac-teristic. The functions are the same as the functions for the class hierarchies or batch classification. Therefore, you speak of object hierarchies for configurable materials or materials that are subject to management in batches. As already mentioned, you can also use the standard classification of material mas-ters (class type 001) in Variant Configuration. If such traditionally classified material masters are included as items in configurable BOMs, you don’t necessarily have to maintain selection conditions. For further details, refer to Section 2.7, Object Depen-dencies 79 for BOM and Routing. 2.2.4 Search The classification provides several options for searching for objects in the classifica-tion system. You can use the following transactions: EE CL30N for object searches in classes or class hierarchies EE CL31 for searches in class types EE CT12 for the determination of the where-used list for characteristics or character-istic values You can also use these search functions in Variant Configuration. For example, the object search in classes (Transaction CL30N) displays the configured objects in addi-tion to the configurable material masters that are classified in variant classes. As you
  32. 32. 2 CreatingaProductModelforSAPVariantConfiguration can see in Figure 2.7, confi gured objects can be material variants or items of SD documents such as sales orders. Customizing settings for the class type of the variant classes enable you to navigate directly to the classifi ed material masters and confi g-ured 80 objects from the search result. You can also implement similar settings directly from the search result using the Environment menu item. Figure 2.7 Object Search in Classes In addition to using the Where-Used List for Characteristics/Characteristic Values (Transaction CT12) for the initial usage, you can also use it for the object search. If you start the where-used list for a specifi c characteristic value of a characteristic in the classifi cation and confi guration, the system will display a search result including the objects to which this value is assigned as the classifi cation and confi guration (see Figure 2.8). This kind of object search only works for one characteristic value. However, there are no restrictions regarding class, class type, or object category. In Variant Confi gu-ration, this where-used list transaction is not only relevant for the object search. All usage types of characteristics or individual characteristic values are evaluated in Variant Confi guration. This plays a signifi cant role if you want to change the variant model by adding or deleting characteristic values.
  33. 33. MaterialMaster,BOM,andRouting 2.3 81 Figure 2.8 Where-Used List in the Characteristic/Characteristic Value Environment in Variant Confi guration 2.3 Material Master, BOM, and Routing Variant Confi guration also uses the traditional material master, the material BOM, to map the confi gurable product. Besides the BOM, the production process also requires information from the routing. You have to take into account some factors when maintaining this master data if you want to do this for confi gurable products. These factors are introduced in the following sections but without referring to object dependencies. Basic knowledge is required here. In addition to the tools from the classifi cation system, the material master, BOM, and routing of the confi gurable material must be mentioned as the master data of the variant model. 2.3.1 Material Master of the Configurable Material Let’s fi rst have a look at what exactly a confi gurable material master is. It is character-ized by the following features: E One material number for numerous variants The confi gurable material master is a material master, that is, a material number
  34. 34. 533 $count_part, 128 $del_default, 128, 157 BOM Æ s. Bill of materials, 34 Enterprise Resource Planning Æ s. ERP, 30 MTS Æ s. Make to stock, 37 $PARENT., 126 $part_of, 128 $ROOT., 125 $SELF., 125 $set_default, 128, 157 $set_pricing_factor, 129, 181, 183 $subpart_of, 128 $sum_part, 128 ?= assignment of default value, 141 // character string link, 140 A A2A Æ Application to application, 513 ABAP function module, 52, 416 ABAP programming language, 50, 392 Abstracter data type (ADT), 487 Action, 57, 117 Actual characteristics, 304 Actual configuration, 304 Actual value assignment, 304 ACWG Æ American Configuration Workgroup, 494 Adaptable Custom Solution (ACS), 212 Advanced mode, 56 Advanced Planning and Optimization (APO), 213, 304 Aggregation, 487 Aggregation characteristic, 489 ALE Æ Application Link Enabling, 251 Alternative Dates, 464 American Configuration Workgroup (ACWG), 494 America’s SAP User’s Group (ASUG), 491 Analysis tool, 133 AP Application Platform, 57 AP Configuration Engine, 57, 273, 274, 451 APO Æ Advanced Planning and Optimization, 304 Application group, 308 Application Link Enabling (ALE), 251 Application programming interface, 521 Application to application (A2A), 513 AP Pricing Engine, 274 ASAP Implementation Roadmap, 395 Assemble to order (ATO), 38 Assembly processing, 474 Assignment of default values, 128 ASUG Æ America’s SAP User’s Group, 491 Asynchronous, 438 ATO Æ Assemble to order, 38 Authorization group, 72 Authorization object C_LOVC_DEP, 250 C_TCLS_BER, 260 Avenue from VC, 364 Avenue Migration, 365 Avenue Orchestrator, 360 Avenue Remodel, 365 Avenue to VC, 365 Avenue XML, 364 B B2B Æ Business to Business, 44 B2C Æ Business to Consumer, 44 Backward chaining, 43 BAdI, 212 Balancing, 487 Baldor Electric, 439 Batch classification, 304 Batch selection criteria, 305 Bill of materials, 34, 203 application, 206 configurable bill of material, 35 explosion, 95 filter, 95 maximum BOM, 35 minimum BOM, 485 super BOM, 35 Index
  35. 35. Index usage, 205 BOM, 34, 453, 458 BOM application, 95 BOM relationship has part, 486 part of, 480, 486 BOM structures, 407 BO Æ Business Object, 504 Building block, 485 Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI), 366 Business object, 504 Business to Business (B2B), 44 Business to Consumer (B2C), 44 C Cable, 303 CCE Æ Core Constraint Engine, 512 Change master, 459 master record, 459 number, 458, 459, 471 request, 459 type, 461 Changeable material variants, 303 Change number type, 459 Changing mass data, 388 Characteristic, 34, 68, 452, 458 characteristic value, 34, 453 disallow a characteristic value, 152 display, 308 group, 72, 164 name, 72 planning, 237, 267 status, 72 Characteristics-dependent planning, 304, 313 Character string link, 127 Class hierarchy, 51 Classification, 78 Classification system, 51 Classified materials, 173 Class network, 51 Class node, 52, 77, 169, 201, 258, 416, 453 Cloth, 303 Coaching project, 408 Coil, 303 534 Company philosophy, 381 Component condition, 284 Component formula, 284, 289 Component list in planned and production order, 226 Component structure, 34 component decomposition, 34 composition problem, 36, 475 composition problems, 483 decomposition problem, 483 dynamic modification of the BOM structure, 475 interlinked component structure, 480 interlinked configuration structure, 475 top-down approach, 483 Condition, 284 CONDITION, 148, 150 Condition technique, 55 Condition type, 179 VA00, 179 VA01, 179 Configit A/S, 366 ConfigScan Validation Suite, 350, 361 Configurable assembly, 96 general maintenance task list, 231 model service specification, 229 Purchased material, 416 standard network, 228 Configuration browser, 97 configuration result, 32 high-level configuration, 53, 450, 459 interactive configuration, 32, 42 low-level configuration, 53, 450, 459 model, 32 profile, 45, 51 result, 454 scenario, 93, 99 settings, 97, 192 step, 42 task, 30 user interface, 253 Configuration process order BOM, 477 sales order, 477 Configuration profile, 68, 199, 459, 477 and PMEVC, 138
  36. 36. Index 535 of the configurable component as a filter, 226 Configuration rules, 34 declarative, 481 declarative approach, 41, 43 procedural approach, 41, 42 simple rule, 41 Configuration structure, 97 bottom-up approach, 483 Configuration supporting point, 239 Configuration UI, 253 Configuration Workgroup (CWG), 54, 491 Board of Directors, 497 bylaws, 492, 496 CWG-Conference, 497 CWG Portal, 498 CWG-Portal, 492 CWG Review, 499 CWG Sandbox, 500 directors, 497 Executive Committee, 497 membership, 496 president, 497 registered association, 496 Configurator, 34 Configurer, 418 Configure to order (CTO), 38, 276 Confirmation, 226 Constraint, 43, 51 Constraint net, 51, 147, 487 Constraints, 117, 137, 411 Constraints and class nodes, 172 Consultant role IPC expert, 392 Master data expert, 393 Modeler, 392 Pricing expert, 393 Project lead, 394 Solution architect, 391 VC expert, 391 Context-sensitive input help in PMEVC, 134 Copy control, 222 Core Constraint Engine (CCE), 512 Coupling of variant table and database table, 143, 145 CRM Æ Customer Relationship Management, 44 CTO Æ Configure to order, 38 Customer Relationship Management, 44, 273 Customer service, 231 Customizing of material master, 260 CWG Æ Configuration Workgroup, 54, 499 D Database table, 143, 145, 411 AUSP, 259 database table and variant table, 129 ESLL, 229 PLPO, 177, 228, 231 STPO, 175 TB31, 254 VBAK, 158, 220 Data loader of the IPC, 198 Data type, 73 DDB Æ Dynamic database, 456 Decision table, 144 Declarative approach, 41 Declarative modeling, 283 Decoupling point, 304 Default value dynamic, 157 Delta list, 57, 278 Dependency editor, 168 Dependency net, 147 Dependency type, 115 action, 57, 453 constraint, 51, 481 monitoring rule, 487 precondition, 51, 115 procedure, 51, 116 reevaluating rule, 487 selection condition, 51, 52, 115 Deutschsprachige SAP-Anwendergruppe (DSAG), 491 DIMP Æ Discrete Industries and Mill Products, 301 Discrete Industries and Mill Products (DIMP), 301 Distribution lock, 251 Document, 76, 458 Drag-and-drop in PMEVC, 135 DSAG Æ Deutschsprachige SAP-Anwendergruppe, 491
  37. 37. Index Dynamic assignment of values, 156 Dynamic database, 456 E ECC Æ ERP Central Component (R/3), 44 ECM history requirement, 465 ECM Æ Engineering Change Management, 69 Emcien, Inc., 367 EmcienMatch, 367 EmcienMix, 367 Engineering change Management, 416 Engineering Change Management (ECM), 69, 457 Engineer to Order (ETO), 38, 207, 416, 421 Enterprise resource planning (ERP), 30 Equipment, 231 ERP, 30 ERP Central Component (R/3), 44 eSpline LLC, 316, 359 ETO Æ Engineer to Order, 38 Experience report, 373, 394 Experts, 390 Extended Configuration Management (XCM), 429 External procurement, 225 F False, 150 Films, 303 Filter, 226 Finish to order, 304 Fixed assignment of values, 156 Formula, 284 Forward chaining, 42 Function, 130, 163 Function formula, 284 Function module, 163, 412 Function modules and object dependencies, 129 Fysbee SAS, 316, 361 G Global object dependencies, 120, 166 536 Gold VC Client, 361, 442 Group, 252 H Header material, 416, 428 Hierarchy allowed, 259 High-level configuration, 95, 276 I Industry solution, 301, 302, 303 INFERENCES, 148, 151 Info structure S138, 232 Inheritance, 51 In-house production, 225 Initiating object records for OCM, 267, 471 in list queries, 127 Inspection characteristic, 229 Inspection plan, 231 Inspection type, 229 Instance, 519 Instantiation, 479 dynamic, 476 dynamic instantiation, 36 manual, 477 material variant, 479 Integrated Product and Process Engineering, 216, 219 Integrated product engineering, 219 Interaction Center, 273 Interface design, 96 Internet Pricing and Configurator, 44, 55, 429, 451, 503 invisible, 159 IPC_CONFIGURATION_UI, 254 IPC database, 198 IPC Æ Internet Pricing and Configurator, 429 iPPE Æ Integrated Product and Process Engineering, 216 Item category, 87, 223, 263, 306 AGC, 224 TAC, 224, 264 TAM, 264 Item category determination, 263 Item category group, 223
  38. 38. Index 537 J Java programming language, 55, 392 K KBIF Æ Knowledge Base Interchange Format, 494 KB object Æ Knowledge-base object, 197 KBO Æ knowledge-base object, 56 KB Æ Knowledge base, 56 KMAT, 46 Knowledge base, 276, 454, 484 Knowledge Base Interchange Format (KBIF), 364, 494 Knowledge-Base Object (KBO), 56, 197 L Length orientation, 303 Local object dependencies, 119, 166, 167 Logistics information system, 232 LO-VC-compatible mode, 56 LO-VC Variant Configuration, 44, 451 Low-level configuration, 276 M Maintenance Authorizations, 250 Maintenance plan, 231 Maintenance task list, 45 Make to order (MTO), 37, 424 Make-to-order production, 313 Make to specification, 508 Make to stock (MTS), 37, 425 Make-to-stock production, 313 Managing Variant Configuration, 359 Manufacturing step, 312 Mass customization, 33 Master data change management, 457 Material, 46, 458 Material BOM, 68 changeable, 303 Material master, 67 Material master customizing, 262 Material variant, 69, 186, 509 Material variant matching, 186, 192 Maximum BOM, 35 Mdata, 128 Message interface, 513 Middleware (SAP CRM), 198 Mill industry, 302 Mill products, 301 Minimum BOM, 485 MMCOM, 183 MMCOM-VKOND, 183 Model service specification, 45, 229 MRP group, 224 type, 85 MTO Æ Make to order, 37, 424 MTS Æ Make to stock, 425 Multiple bills of materials, 86 Multiple BOM, 205 Multiple classification, 257 N Network, 416 Not specifiable, 285 O Object characteristic, 75, 175, 201, 416 Object dependencies, 51, 68, 118, 459 basic data, 168 declarative, 119 procedural, 119 status, 120 wizard in PMEVC, 137 wizard in the PME VC, 135 Object dependency type constraint, 453 procedure, 453 Object management record, 464 OBJECTS, 148 Object search in classes, 79 OCM Æ Order change management, 69, 226, 270, 311 On-demand solution, 504 Operation list in the production order, 226 Operative environment, 241 Order bill of materials, 69, 87, 204, 208, 222 BOM, 421 combination, 314
  39. 39. Index routing, 89, 222 type, 221 Order Change Management, 69, 226, 270, 311, 457, 469 Order Engineering Workbench, 207 Organizational area, 94, 260 Overall change profile, 270 Overall profile, 470, 473 P Paper, 303 Pattern Matching System, 456 Pfunction, 163 Pipes, 303 Planned configuration, 304 Planned independent requirement, 239 Planned order, 240 Planning, 69, 232 profile, 233 table, 233 variant, 244, 245, 267 Planning strategy, 471 Plant maintenance, 231 PME, 55 PMEVC — Modeling Env‑ironment for Variant Configuration, 49 Product Modeling Environment (Java PME), 55, 484 PMEVC, 134, 198 PMS Æ Pattern Matching System, 456 Portal solution, 423 Postponement, 304 PP-Read Master Data, 226 Precondition, 115, 152, 411 Precondition and variant table, 154 Preconditions, 416 Pricing, 54, 55, 68 Pricing procedure, 179 Problem-solving processes, 387 Procedural approach, 41, 42 Procedural modeling method, 283 Procedure, 51, 116, 156, 175, 411, 416 Procedure and class node, 171 Procurement type, 85 Product, 30 configurable, 511 configurable product, 32 configuration, 32 538 designer, 219 model, 510 property, 510, 511 specifiable, 507 specification, 31, 507 specified, 507 variant, 32, 509 variant structure, 216 Product costing with quantity structure, 184 Production finish-to-order, 304 Production configuration, 276 Production order, 226, 468 Production order change management, 457 Production rule system, 42 Production scenario Assemble to order, 38 Configure to order, 38 engineer-to-order, 38, 477 make-to order, 37, 506 make-to-specification, 508 Make to stock, 37 Production tolerances, 304 Product Modeling Environment Æ PME, 55 Product property format Boolean, 511 code, 511 decimal number, 511 free text, 511 integer, 511 quantity, 511 Project system, 228 Property default value, 511 Punch-out approach, 445 Purchase order, 229 Q Quality management, 229 R Read PP Master Data, 469 Reassignment, 313 Reference characteristic, 54 Release key, 460, 471
  40. 40. Index 539 Required characteristic, 74 dynamic, 155 Requirements class, 265, 470 planning, 222 type, 224, 265 Restrictable, 73 Restrictable characteristics, 137, 140 RESTRICTION, 148, 149 Restrict values, 288 Routing, 36, 68, 458 simulatively exploded routing as a template, 190 Running dot notation, 488 Runtime version, 56, 197, 277, 454, 484 S S138 Æ Info structure S138, 232 SaaS Æ Software-as-a-Service, 504 Sales characteristics, 422 Sales configuration, 276 Sales Configuration Engine (SCE), 55, 457 advanced mode, 56, 483 LO-VC-compatible mode, 56 Sales order, 469 bill of materials, 204, 208, 416 change management, 311 production, 304 routing, 208, 212 stock segment, 223, 224 Sales Pricing Engine (SPE), 55 Sales types, 434 Sample model, 393 SAP APO, 304 SAP Apparel and Footwear Solution, 391 SAP Business ByDesign, 30, 503 SAP CRM, 44, 56 CRM 5.0, 57 SAP Custom Development, 212, 403 SAP Customer Relationship Management, 274 SAP Engineering Construction, 302 SAP enterprise solutions, 503 SAP ERP, 30, 451 ECC 6.0, 57 ERP Central Component (R/3), 44 SAP for Aerospace and Defense, 302 SAP for Automotive, 302 SAP for High Tech, 302 SAP for Industrial Machinery Components, 302 SAP for Mill Products, 303 SAP NetWeaver BW, 232 SAP NetWeaver technology platform, 57 SAP Note 68033, 241 173756, 233 174758, 233 844816, 274 844817, 254 854170, 254 901689, 457 917987, 455 997111, 457 1081650, 455 1121318, 457 SAP philosophy, 382 SAP PLM, 391 SAP Vehicle Management System, 391 Scenario order bill of material, 101 planned/production order with BOM explosion, 111 planned/production order without BOM explosion, 99 sales order (SET), 107 SCE Æ Sales Configuration Engine, 55, 457 Schedule line category, 224, 268 SCM Æ Supply Chain Management, 213 SCREEN_DEP, 159 SDCOM-VKOND, 179 SD document categories, 220 Selection condition, 115, 155, 411, 416 Service, 229 Service order, 231 Service-oriented architecture (SOA), 504 Service products, 274 Simple bill of materials, 86 Simple BOM, 204 Simulative environment, 241 Single-level BOM explosion, 426 SKEY, 124 SOA Æ Service-oriented architecture, 504 Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), 361, 504 Solution for medium-sized businesses, 503 Specifiable, 285 Specified, 127, 283
  41. 41. Index SPE Æ Sales Pricing Engine, 55 Standard network, 45, 228 Standard product planning, 237 Standard work breakdown structure, 228 Start logo, 94 Strategy, 85, 224 group, 224 Super BOM, 35 Supply Chain Management, 213 Switch framework, 301 Syntax element function, 163 inv, 160 invisble, 159 pfunction, 163 System configuration, 55, 474, 475 T Table, 129, 130 Table constraint, 259 Table constraint wizard in PMEVC, 139 Table formula, 284 Technical characteristic, 422 Test Case Editor, 356 Test-Driven Development, 354 Test-Driven Modeling, 355 Trace, 132 Trace function, 455 Transaction C223 — Change Production Versions, 388 CA75 — Replace Production Resources and Tools, 388 CA85 — Replace Work Centers, 388 CA95 — Change Reference Operation Sets, 388 CA95 — Replace Reference Operation Set/Reference Rate Routing, 388 CAVC_TEST, 521 CC01 — Create Change Master, 459 CC03 — Display Change Master, 466 CEWB — Engineering Workbench, 388 CFM1 — Create Integration Model, 214 CFM2 — Activate Integration Model, 215 CL02 — Class, 48 CL20N — Assignment of Objects to Classes, 257 540 CL24N — Assignment of Objects to a Class, 257 CLGT — Set Up Tables for Search, 259 CLMM — Change Classification, 388 CMOD — User Exits, 254 CN08 — Process Network Parameter from Sales Order, 228 COCM1 — Procurement Elements Initiating Object Records, 472 COCM — Initiating Object Records, 471 CS20 — Change BOM Data, 388 CS40 — Assignment of Configured Material, 189 CS40 — Assignment of Configured Material, 246 CS62 — Change Order BOM, 416, 421 CSKB — Start Order Browser, 207 CT04 — Characteristics, 47 CT12 — Where-Used List for Characteristics/Characteristic Values, 458, 467 CU05 — Dependency Where-Used List, 467 CU50 — Configuration Simulation, 468 CU51E — Result-oriented order BOM, 407 CU51 — Order BOM, 207 CU51 — Technical Postprocessing, 416, 421, 477 CU60e — Upload Spreadsheet to Variant Table, 442 CU61 — Create Variant table, 454 CU62 — Change Variant Table, 454 CUMODEL, 130 MCB — Standard Analysis Variant Configuration, 232 MCSZ — Copy Management, 232 MDP1 — Create Planning Table, 238 MDPH — Planning Profile, 238 MDPV — Type Matching, 246 MM01 — Create Material, 46 MM17 — Change Material Master Data, 388 MM50 — Extend Materials, 388 MS02 — Long-Term Planning Single-Item, Multi-Level, 243 MS31 — Create Long-Term Planning Scenario, 243 MS66 — Copy Simulative Dependent
  42. 42. Index 541 Requirements, 241 OMO1 — Activate Update, 233 OVRP — Update Group Change Item Level, 233 PCFG — Role Maintenance, 254 PMEVC — Modeling Environment, 49, 53, 253, 443 ST05 — Performance Analysis, 457 STAD — Business Transaction Analysis, 457 SU03 — Maintain Authorizations, 484 UPS03 — Uniform Packaging Service, 442 VA01 — Create Sales Order, 451 Transaction Tax Engine (TTE), 55 TTE Æ Transaction Tax Engine, 55 Type matching, 246 type_of, 128 Type of building block, 484 Types, 433 U User exit, 392, 523 User interface design, 164 V Valuation for a single batch, 313 Variability, 407 Variable in constraints, 148 Variant, 32 bill of material, 52, 86, 205 class, 45, 68, 77, 458 class and PMEVC, 138 Class type, 257 condition key, 54 condition record, 179 conditions, 411 configuration, 33 configurator LO-VC, 44, 50, 503 diversity, 38 function, 52, 129, 161 model browser, 130 parts, 169 routing, 52 table, 51, 129, 137, 411, 416, 454, 459, 513 table and procedure, 158 Variant planning, 244 Variants class, 480 LO-VC configuration, 477, 480 VCSD_UPDATE, 158 Versioning, 211 Versioning of order BOMs, 209 Virtual Machine Container (VMC), 57 VMC Æ Virtual Machine Container, 57 W WBS bill of materials, 204 Web Channel, 273 Where-used list for characteristics/ characteristic values, 80 Workflow system, 416 X XCM Æ Extended Configuration Management, 429 XCM scenario, 253

×