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47533870 final-project-report

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47533870 final-project-report

  1. 1. A MINOR PROJECT REPORT ON Social Networking Website IN Asp.net Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Computer Science (2007-2011) MARWAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTRE JODHPUR Submitted To: Submitted by: Lect. AARTI CHOUDHARY GAURAV JAIN CSE. IV yr. Under Supervision of Prof. J. L. Kankriya (H.O.D. C.S.E.)GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 1
  2. 2. Certificate This is to certify that GAURAV JAIN student of B. Tech. IV Yr/VII Sem. fromMarwar Engineering College and Research Centre, Jodhpur (Raj.) have successfullycreated project on ASP.NET : ”GREEN WEB”.The project was developed under myconsideration and guidance.The implementation made by the students was checked time to time.Place: JODHPUR ____________________Date: ER. AARTI CHOUDHARY Associate Professor, MECRCGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 2
  3. 3. AcknowledgementI would like to express our heartiest thank to Mrs. Aarti Choudhary, senior professor,Marwar Engineering College & Research Center, Jodhpur for providing me this greatopportunity.I Express my deep sense of gratitude to Prof. J. L. Kankriya, head of the department(Computer Science & Engg. ) for showing the complete confidence in me.I express my sincere gratitude towards Mr. V.K. Bhansali, Director, MECRC forproviding us the excellent environment for project making.I am also thankful to my friends and classmates, who were always there to help me out,motivate me towards the fulfilment of this project.Last but not the least it is the staff of Department of Computer Application, MarwarEngineering College Research Centre, to whom I am always indebted. I AM THANKFUL TO ALL OF THEM GAURAV JAIN B.Tech IV Year(C.S.E) MECRCGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 3
  4. 4. ABSTRACTSocial Networking - Its the way the 21st century communicates now. Social networking isthe grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or aneighbourhood subdivision. Although social networking is possible in person, especially inthe workplace, universities, and high schools, it is most popular online. This is because unlikemost high schools, colleges, or workplaces, the internet is filled with millions of individualswho are looking to meet other people.Social network is the mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people,groups, organizations, computers, URLs, and other connected information/knowledgeentities. The nodes in the network are the people and groups while the links showrelationships or flows between the nodes. Social network provides both a visual and amathematical analysis of human relationships.Social Networking Website project itself is a huge project comprising various features likeprofile updation, friend’s list organization and various other application to enhance the overalllook and feel of the website. However, in this project I am basically working on two essentialfeature or module ( PROFILE MANAGEMENT & FRIENDS ORGANIZATION ).PROFILE MANAGEMENT module maintain the profile of a user like name, like, dislikes,hobbies, status etc.FRIENDS ORGANIZATION module maintains the friend list, handles request and sendsrequest to the other user.Profiles and Friends lists are two key features on social network sites. The third is a publiccommenting feature (Testimonials, Comments, The Wall). This feature allows individualsto comment on their Friends profiles. These comments are displayed prominently and visiblefor anyone who has access to that profile.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 4
  5. 5. CONTENTS TOPICS PAGE NO. 1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................6 1.1 Objective of the Project.................................................................................7 – 9 2. THEORITICAL BACKGROUND..................................................................10 2.1 HTML...........................................................................................................10 – 14 2.2 XHTML........................................................................................................15– 18 2.3 ASP.Net.........................................................................................................19 - 35 3. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION......................................36 3.1 Overview of SRS...........................................................................................36- 37 3.2 Feasibility Study............................................................................................37 - 38 3.3 Operating Environment..................................................................................38 3.4 Hardware / Software Requirements................................................................39 4. DESIGNING PHASE.........................................................................................40 4.1 Flow Chart......................................................................................................40 - 42 4.2 Use case Diagram............................................................................................43 - 44 4.3 Data Flow Diagram.........................................................................................45 - 47 4.4 Entity Relationship Diagram...........................................................................48 - 49 4.5 Database Design..............................................................................................50 - 55 5. SNAPSHOTS OF PROJECT.............................................................................56 - 61 6. TESTING TECHNIQUES..................................................................................62 6.1 Validation Checks...........................................................................................62- 63 7. FUTURE RESEARCH......................................................................................64- 65 8. CONCLUSION...................................................................................................66 REFRENCES....................................................................................................67GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 5
  6. 6. CHAPTER - 1 INTRODUCTIONIn communities around the world, teenagers are joining social network sites (SNSs) likeMySpace, Facebook, and Bebo. Once logged into one of these systems, participants are askedto create a profile to represent themselves digitally. Using text, images, video, audio, links,quizzes, and surveys, teens generate a profile that expresses how they see themselves. Theseprofiles are sewn together into a large web through Friends lists. Participants can mark otherusers as Friends. If that other person agrees with the relationship assertion, a photo of each isdisplayed on the profile of the other. Through careful selection, participants develop aFriends list.Todays teenagers are being socialised into a society complicated by shifts in the public andprivate. New social technologies have altered the underlying architecture of social interactionand information distribution. They are embracing this change, albeit often with the clumsycandour of an elephant in a china shop. Meanwhile, most adults are panicking. They do notunderstand the shifts that are taking place and, regardless, they dont like what they’re seeing.This leaves educators in a peculiar bind. More conservative educators view socialtechnologies as a product of the devil, bound to do nothing but corrupt and destroy todaysyouth. Utterly confused, the vast majority of educators are playing ostrich, burying theirheads in the sand and hoping that the moral panics and chaos that surround the socialtechnologies will just disappear. Slowly, a third group of educators are emerging - those whobelieve that it is essential to understand and embrace the new social technologies so as toguide youth through the murky waters that they present. This path is tricky because it requireseducators to let go of their pre-existing assumptions about how the world works.Furthermore, as youth are far more adept at navigating the technologies through which thesechanges are taking place, educators must learn from their students in order to help them workthrough the challenges that they face.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 6
  7. 7. 1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECTSocial networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace connect millions of peopleworldwide through a range of features including fairly static profile information, such as jobhistory and likes/dislikes, and more dynamic content like what people are doing and howpeople are feeling at various points throughout the day. This dynamic content is updatedmanually and represented using plain text (e.g., “Meeting new friends at the gym”). Whilethis sort of input provides the ultimate flexibility, the requirement for manual input places abarrier between a person’s dynamic status and its representation on a users profile page. As aresult, the minutiae that provide texture to our daily lives is filtered from a person’s onlineself, and as a result friends are less connected.Social Networking Website project itself is a huge project comprising various features likeprofile updation, friends list organization and various other application to enhance the overalllook and feel of the website. However, in this project I am basically working on two essentialfeature or module ( PROFILE MANAGEMENT & FRIENDS ORGANIZATION ).PROFILE MANAGEMENT module maintain the profile of a user like name, like, dislikes,hobbies, status etc.FRIENDS ORGANIZATION module maintains the friend list, handles request and sendsrequest to the other user.Social Networking - Its the way the 21st century communicates now. Social networking isthe grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or aneighbourhood subdivision. Although social networking is possible in person, especially inthe workplace, universities, and high schools, it is most popular online. This is because unlikemost high schools, colleges, or workplaces, the internet is filled with millions of individualswho are looking to meet other people.Social network is the mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people,groups, organizations, computers, URLs, and other connected information/knowledgeGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 7
  8. 8. entities. The nodes in the network are the people and groups while the links showrelationships or flows between the nodes. Social network provides both a visual and amathematical analysis of human relationships. Fig. 1.1GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 8
  9. 9. A social network service focuses on building and reflecting of social networks or socialrelations among people, e.g., who share interests and/or activities. A social network serviceessentially consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and avariety of additional services. Most social network services are web based and provide meansfor users to interact over the internet such as e-mail and instant messaging. Although onlinecommunity services are sometimes considered as a social network service in a broader sense,social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas onlinecommunity services are group-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas,activities, events, and interests within their individual networks.Social network sites (SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic and industryresearchers intrigued by their affordances and reach. This special theme section of theJournal of Computer-Mediated Communication brings together scholarship on theseemergent phenomena. In this introductory article, we describe features of SNSs and propose acomprehensive definition. We then present one perspective on the history of such sites,discussing key changes and developments. After briefly summarizing existing scholarshipconcerning SNSs, we discuss the articles in this special section and conclude withconsiderations for future research.Profiles and Friends lists are two key features on social network sites. The third is a publiccommenting feature (Testimonials, Comments, The Wall). This feature allows individualsto comment on their Friends profiles. These comments are displayed prominently and visiblefor anyone who has access to that profile. These three features - profiles, Friends lists, andcomments - comprise the primary structure of social network sites, although individual sitesprovide additional features for further engagement. While SNSs allow visitors to wanderfrom Friend to Friend and communicate with anyone who has a visible profile, the primaryuse pattern is driven by pre-existing friend groups. People join the sites with their friends anduse the different messaging tools to hang out, share cultural artifacts and ideas, andcommunicate with one another.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 9
  10. 10. CHAPTER - 2 THEORITICAL BACKGROUND 2.1 HTMLTo publish information for global distribution, one needs a universally understood language, akind of publishing mother tongue that all computers may potentially understand. Thepublishing language used by the World Wide Web is HTML (from Hyper Text MarkupLanguage).HTML gives authors the means to: • Publish online documents with headings, text, tables, lists, photos, etc. • Retrieve online information via hypertext links, at the click of a button. • Design forms for conducting transactions with remote services, for use in searching for information, making reservations, ordering products, etc. • Include spread-sheets, video clips, sound clips, and other applications directly in their documents.HTML was originally developed by Tim Berners-Lee while at CERN, and popularized by theMosaic browser developed at NCSA. During the course of the 1990s it has blossomed withthe explosive growth of the Web. During this time, HTML has been extended in a number ofways. The Web depends on Web page authors and vendors sharing the same conventions forHTML. This has motivated joint work on specifications for HTML.It is a platform independent language that can be used on any platform such as Windows,Linux, Macintosh, and so on. To display a document in web it is essential to mark-up thedifferent elements (headings, paragraphs, tables, and so on) of the document with the HTMLtags. To view a mark-up document, user has to open the document in a browser. A browserunderstands and interpret the HTML tags, identifies the structure of the document (which partare which) and makes decision about presentation (how the parts look) of the document.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 10
  11. 11. GETTING STARTED :HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) documents are written in plain text (ASCII) withspecial markup codes embedded right in the text. This means HTML files contain nothing butprintable characters and HTML markup codes. This is unlike a word file which can containspecial characters for formatting functios.What distinguishes an HTML file from any other plain – text file is the presence of markupcodes. Markup codes are typed into document and control the formatting and layout of ourfinished document. The markup codes that are typed into a document are enclosed withinthese angle brackets: “< >”. The angle brackets and the markup codes together constitue atag. When we are talking about an HTML document we refer to it as a “source” document.Here is an example of the “source” of a simple HTML document:<HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> Simple HTML document </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> This is very simple html document. </BODY></HTML>CREATING A SIMPLE HTML DOCUMENT :The essential tags that are required to create a HTML document are:<HTML>.............</HTML><HEAD>.............</HEAD><BODY>.............</BODY>  HTML Tag <HTML>The <HTML> tag encloses all other HTML tags and associated text within your document. Itis an optional tag. We can create an HTML document that omits these tags, and our browsercan still read it and display it. But it is always a good form to include the start and stop tags.The format is:<HTML> Your Title and Document (contains text with HTML tags) goes here</HTML>GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 11
  12. 12. Most HTML tags have two parts, an opening tag and closing tag. The closing tag is the sameas the opening tag, except for the slash mark e.g </HTML>. The slash mark is always used inclosing tags.An HTML document has two distinct parts HEAD and BODY.The Format is:<HTML> <HEAD>....................................... </HEAD> <BODY>....................................... </BODY></HTML>  HEAD Tag <HEAD>HEAD tag comes after the HTML start tag. It contains TITLE tag to give the document a titlethat displays on the browsers title bar at the top.The Format is: <HEAD> <TITLE>Your title goes here </TITLE></HEAD>  BODY Tag <BODY>The BODY tag contains all the text and graphics of the document with all the HTML tags thatare used for control and formatting of the page.The Format is:<BODY> Your Document goes hereGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 12
  13. 13. </BODY>An HTML document, web page can be created using a text editor, Notepad or WordPad. Allthe HTML documents should have the extension .htm or .html. It require a web browser likeInternet Explorer or Netscape Navigator/Communicator to view the document.Example: It is my first web pageFollow the steps to create and view in browser:Step-1: Open text editor NotepadStep-2: Enter the following lines of code:<HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>My first Page </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY>WELCOME TO MY FIRST WEB PAGE </BODY></HTML>Step-3: Save the file as myfirstpage.htmlStep-4: Viewing document in web browserGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 13
  14. 14. Fig. 2.1GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 14
  15. 15. 2.2 XHTML • XHTML stands for Extensible Markup Language • XHTML is a markup language much like HTML • XHTML was designed to carry data, not to display data • XHTML tags are not predefined. We must define your own tags • XHTML is designed to be self-descriptive  GUIDELINES OF XHTML : a) Start and end tags are compulsory <note> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> <heading>Reminder</heading> <body> Don’t forget me this weekend! </body> </note> b) Attribute value in double tags (“.....”) <note date=”12/11/2007”> <to>Tove</to> <from>Jani</from> </note> c) XHTML Tags are Case Sensitive. The tag <Letter> is different from the tag <letter> <Message>This is incorrect</message> <message>This is correct</message> d) XHTML Elements Must be Properly Nested <b> <i> This text is bold and italic </i> </b> e) Empty elements must also be closed. Empty elements must either have an end tag, or the start tag must end with />.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 15
  16. 16. This is wrong:This is a line break<br> Check out this horizontal rule:<hr> What a cool image! <img src=”filename.gif”>This is correct:This is a line break<br></br> Check out this horizontal rule:<hr /> What a cool image! <img src=”filename.gif” />Important Compatibility Note:To make your XHTML compatible with today’s browsers, you should add an extra spacebefore the “/” symbol like this: <br /> or this<hr /> f) Attribute names must be in lowercase.This is wrong: <table WIDTH=”100%”> <div ALIGN=”center”>This is correct: <table width=”100%”> <div align=”center”> g) Attribute minimization is forbidden.This is wrong: <input checked> <option selected>This is correct: <input checked=”checked” /> <option selected=”selected” /> h) The id attribute replaces the name attribute. HTML 4.01 defines a “name” attribute for the elements applet, frame, iframe,img, and map. In XHTML the “name” attribute is deprecated. Use “id” instead.This is wrong:<img src=”filename.gif” name=”picture1” /> <a name=”namedanchor”></a>GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 16
  17. 17. This is correct:<img src=”filename.gif” id=”picture1” /><a id=”namedanchor”></a> i) The XHTML DTD defines mandatory elements. All XHTML documents must have a DOCTYPE declaration. The html, head andbody elements must be present, and the title must be present inside the head element.This is a minimum XHTML document template:<!DOCTYPE Doctype goes here> <html> <head> <title>Title goes here</title> </head> <body> Body text goes here </body> </html>Note: the DOCTYPE declaration is not a part of the XHTML document itself. It is not anXHTML element, and it should not have a closing tag. j) The <!DOCTYPE> is mandatory. The DOCTYPE declaration should always be the first line in an XHTMLdocument. The DOCTYPE defines the document type:<!DOCTYPE html public “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN”“http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/strict.dtd”  VERSIONS OF XHTML : 1. XHTML 1.0 Strict: Use this when we want really clean markup, free of presentational clutter. Use this together with Cascading Style Sheets.<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN”“http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd”>GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 17
  18. 18. 2. XHTML 1.0 Transitional: Use this when we need to take advantage of HTML’s presentational features and when we want to support browsers that don’t understand Cascading Style Sheets.<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd”> 3. XHTML 1.0 Frameset: Use this when we want to use HTML frames to partition the browser window intotwo or more frames.<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0Frameset//EN””http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-frameset.dtd”>  Document Type Definition (DTD)? A DTD specifies the syntax of a web page in SGML (Standard Generalized MarkupLanguage). A DTD is used by SGML applications, such as HTML, to specify rules that apply to themarkup of documents of a particular type, including a set of element and entity declarations. XHTML is specified in an SGML document type definition. An XHTML DTD describes in precise, computer-readable language, the allowed syntaxand grammar of XHTML markup.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 18
  19. 19. 2.3 ASP.NETASP.NET is a radical update of Microsoft’s Active Server Pages (ASP). ASP.NET is apowerful server based technology designed to create dynamic and interactive HTML pageson demand for our Web site or corporate intranet. Its design improves upon nearly everyfeature of classic ASP, from reducing the amount of code you need to write to giving youmore power and flexibility.ASP.NET is a key element in Microsoft’s .NET Framework, providing Web-based access tothe immensely powerful .NET development environment. It allows us to create Webapplications in a new, flexible way by placing commonly used code into reusable controls ofvarious kinds that can fire events initiated by the users of a site.ASP.NET branches out into many other technologies, such as Web services, ADO.NET,custom controls, and security. We will briefly touch upon its relationship with these fieldsthroughout to provide a solid, comprehensive understanding of how ASP.NET can benefit ourwork in a practical way.ASP.NET 3.5 itself is a fairly light update to the complete wholesale changes that occurred inASP.NET 3.0.By the end of we will be familiar with the anatomy of ASP.NET 3.5 and be able to createpowerful, secure, and robust Web sites that can collect and work with information in amultitude of ways to the benefit of both we and our users.One of the most eye-catching things about ASP.NET is the way we can use any programminglanguage based on the .NET Framework, such as C#, Jscript.NET, or VB.NET to create ourWeb applications. Within these applications, ASP.NET allows us to customize pages for aparticular user and makes it simpler to keep track of a particular user’s details as they movearound.ASP.NET makes storing information to a database or self-describing XML document fasterand easier. We can alter the layout of the page using a free Web page editor – Web Matrix –designed to be used with ASP.NET, rather than positioning everything manually within code,and even alter the contents of files on your machine, if we have the correct permissions. • ASP: A server-side technology for creating dynamic Web pages that only lets you use scripting languages. • ASP.NET: A server-side technology for creating dynamic Web pages that lets you use any fullfledged programming language supported by .NET • C#: This book’s chosen programming language for writing code in ASP.NETGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 19
  20. 20. WHAT IS A STATIC WEB PAGE?Static Web pages are often easy to spot; sometimes we can pick them out by just looking atthe content of the page. The content (text, images, hyperlinks, and so on) and appearance ofstatic Web pages is always the same – regardless of who visits the page, or how and whenthey arrive at the page, or any other factor.<html> <head> <title>A Welcome Message</title> </head> <body> <h1>Welcome</h1> Welcome to our humble website. Please feel free to view our <a HREF=”contents.htm”>list of contents</a>. <br> <br> </body></html> 1. A Web Author writes a page using only HTML and saves it within an .htm file on the Web server. 2. Sometime later, a user types a page request (URL) into a browser, and the request passes from the browser to the Web server. 3. The Web server locates the .htm page and converts it to an HTML stream. 4. The Web server sends the HTML stream back across the network to the browser. 5. The browser processes the HTML and displays the page.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 20
  21. 21. Fig. 2.2WEB SERVERS:Web servers are software that manage Web pages and make them available to client browsers– via a local network or over the Internet. In the case of the Internet, the Web server andbrowser are usually on two different machines, possibly many miles apart. However, in alocal situation we can set up a machine that runs the Web server software, and then use abrowser on the same machine to look at its Web pages.It makes no difference whether we access a remote Web server (a Web server on a differentmachine from our browser) or a local one (Web server and browser on the same machine),since the Web server’s function – to make Web pages available to all – remains unchanged. Itmay be that we are the only person with access to our own machine nevertheless theprinciples remain the same.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 21
  22. 22. DYNAMIC WEB PAGE • CLIENT SIDE DYNAMIC WEB PAGE:In the client-side model, modules (or plug-ins) attached to the browser do all the work ofcreating dynamic pages. The HTML code is typically sent to the browser along with aseparate file containing a set of instructions, which is referenced from within the HTML page.However, it is also quite common to find these instructions intermingled with HTML code.The browser then uses them to generate pure HTML for the page when the user requests thepage – in other words, the page is generated dynamically on request. This produces an HTMLpage, which is sent back from the plug-in to the browser.1. A Web author writes a set of instructions for creating HTML and saves it within an .htmfile. The author also writes a set of instructions in a different language. This might becontained within the .htm file or within a separate file.2. Sometime later, a user types a page request into the browser, and the request is passed fromthe browser to the Web server.3. The Web server locates the .htm page and possibly a second file that contains theinstructions.4. The Web server sends both the newly created HTML stream and instructions back acrossthe network to the browser.5. A module within the browser processes the instructions and returns it as HTML withinthe .htm page – only one page is returned, even if two were requested.6. The HTML is then processed by the browser, which displays the page.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 22
  23. 23. Fig. 2.3  SERVER SIDE DYNAMIC WEB PAGE:With the server-side model, the HTML source is sent to the Web server with an extra set ofinstructions (that can be intermingled or sent separately). This set of instructions is again usedto generate HTML for the page at the time the user requests the page. Once again, the page isgenerated dynamically upon request. 1. A Web author writes a set of instructions for creating HTML and saves these instructions within a file. 2. Sometime later, a user types a page request into the browser, and the request is passed from the browser to the Web server. 3. The Web server locates the file of instructions. 4. The Web order to create a stream of HTML server follows the instructions in. 5. The Web server sends the newly created HTML stream back across the network to the browser. 6. The browser processes the HTML and displays the page.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 23
  24. 24. Fig. 2.4GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 24
  25. 25. ASP.NET SERVER CONTROLS ASP.NET server controls are also called Web Controls.ASP.NET Web Control Similar HTML Form Tag Purpose <asp:Label> <Span>, <Div>, simple text Display text Offer the user a list of items <asp:ListBox> <Select> from which to select. Offer the user a list of items <asp:DropDownList> <Select> from which to select in acompact format <asp:TextBox> <Input Type=”Text”> Accept typed input from user <asp:RadioButton> and Allow user to make one <Input Type=”Radio”> selection from a list of <asp:RadioButtonList> options. <asp:CheckBox> and Allow user to turn a feature <Input Type=”CheckBox”> on or off <asp:CheckBoxList> Send the user’s input to the <asp:Button> <Input Type=”submit”> server Table 2.1  <asp:Label>Lets start with a small but very useful control, the <asp:Label> control. This control providesan effective way of displaying text on our Web page in ASP.NET, similar to the HTML<span> tag. By having a control for text, we can manipulate its contents and visibility fromour ASP.NET code. <asp:Label> Attributes: i. Text: Sets the text that you want the label to displayGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 25
  26. 26. ii. Visible: Sets the visibility of the label on the page (true or false) iii. BackColor: Sets the background color of the label iv. ForeColor: Sets the foreground color of the label v. Height: Sets the height in pixels of the label vi. Width: Sets the width of the label<asp:Label> Examples:<html> <head> <title>ASP.NET Controls Demo</title> </head> <body> Demo of the asp:Label control<br /> <form id="frmDemo" runat="server"> <asp:Label id="lblGreeting1" runat="server">Text of asp:Label</asp:Label> </form> </body></html>  <asp:DropDownList>The three important differences between the ASP.NET control and the HTML form controlare:❑ The <asp:DropDownList> tag directly replaces the <select> tag❑ The <asp:ListItem> tag replaces the <option> tag❑ The id attribute replaces the name attribute<asp:DropDownList id="lstCities" runat="server"> <asp:ListItem>Madrid</asp:ListItem > <asp:ListItem >Oslo</asp:ListItem > <asp:ListItem >Lisbon</asp:ListItem > </asp:DropDownList >  <asp:ListBox>GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 26
  27. 27. The <asp:ListBox> server control resembles the dropdown list control, except that it doesntdrop down and is capable of multiple selections. The <asp:ListBox> has the followingsyntax:<asp:ListBox id="list1" runat="server" selection mode = "multiple"> <asp:ListItem>Madrid</asp:ListItem> <asp:ListItem>Oslo</asp:ListItem> <asp:ListItem>Lisbon</asp:ListItem> </asp:ListBox>  <asp:TextBox>This control is ASP.NETs version of the HTML <textbox> and <textarea> controls. In fact,textareas are simply textboxes that feature multiple lines, thus allowing us to input largerquantities of text. The TextBox control also provides the functionality of an HTML formpassword control. To enable these variations the <asp:TextBox> control needs some extraattributes:❑ textmode: Specifies whether we want the control to have one line (not set), many lines (setto multiline), or have a single line of masked content (set to password)❑ rows: Specifies the number of rows we want the textbox to have and will only work iftextmode is set to multiple❑ columns: Specifies the number of columns we want the textbox to have and will only workif textmode is set to multiple<asp:TextBox id="text1" runat="server">Default text here...</asp:TextBox> <asp:TextBox id="text1" runat="server" text="Default text here..."/>  <asp:RadioButtonList> and <asp:RadioButton>The <asp:RadioButtonList> control works in the same way as its HTML forms equivalent orthe Windows interface. Choice of one button excludes the selection of another button withinthe group. Note that the identifier for the whole group is set only once in the id attribute ofthe <asp:RadioButtonList> control:<asp:RadioButtonList id="radSample" runat="server"> <asp:ListItem id="option1" runat="server" value="Option A" /> <asp:ListItem id="option2" runat="server" value="Option B" /> <asp:ListItem id="option3" runat="server" value="Option C" />GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 27
  28. 28. </asp:RadioButtonList>  <asp:CheckBox> and <asp:CheckBoxList>Checkboxes are similar to radio buttons in that they present multiple choices from a group ofbuttons. However, <asp:CheckBox> is for a single option (say, for the answer to, "Do wewant to pay $5 more for quick shipping?") whereas with the <asp:CheckBoxList> control, auser can select more than one option (for the answer to, "Which free catalogs can we send:Sports, Clothing, or Shoes?"). Most ofthe same principles that we followed in the <asp:RadioButtonList> example apply tocheckboxes. The main difference is the syntax – radio buttons use <options> whereascheckboxes use <ListItems>.A solo <asp:CheckBox> has a single ID:<asp:CheckBox id="chkQuickShipping" runat="server" />An array of checkboxes can be contained inside an <asp:CheckBoxList> control. You need toset an id attribute for the <asp:CheckBoxList> control itself, and create a <asp:ListItem>control for each option inside the control as shown here:<asp:CheckBoxList id="chkCatalogs" runat="server"> <asp:ListItem id="itmSports" runat="server" value="Sports" /> <asp:ListItem id="itmClothes" runat="server" value="Clothes" /> <asp:ListItem id="itmShoes" runat="server" value="Shoes" /> </asp:CheckBoxList>STATE MANAGEMENTState management is used to maintain the information on the pages of the website.There are four different mechanisms for remembering information:❑ Cookies: Identifying previous visitors to a site by storing data on the client machine❑ Sessions: Remembering information for the duration that a user browses a site❑ Applications: Remembering information that exists for as long as the application runs❑ Caching: Storing data for as long as is necessary to improve performance • COOKIES:Cookies are used throughout the Web to store small pieces of information on the clientmachine. They are small text files that usually store persistent data, which is useful wheneverwe revisit a site. This can be data such as user preferences and login tokens, whether a userhas voted in an online poll, details of the last time we browsed a site, and so on. In short,GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 28
  29. 29. cookies contain that allows a Web server to identify users based on their visiting history.Cookies are designed so that only the site that created them can read them. If we look at the<drive>Documents and Settings<UserName>Cookies folder on our hard drive, wellnotice that many cookies reside on our system. Fig. 2.5  How Do Cookies Work?Cookies are linked to the request-response mechanism of HTTP and are passed back andforth along with other data between the client and the server. Let’s look at what happenswhere a site uses cookies to remember whether a user wants a certain popup when they visit asite. In Figure 1, Stage 1 is about a user visiting a page on the site. Stage 2 is when thecontents of that site are sent to the browser. These contents happen to include a popup. AtStage 3, anyone browsing the site could check a box on a form that states, “Do not show theadvert popup again.” When they click a button to submit their request, they send data back toGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 29
  30. 30. the server. Finally, the server sends a small cookie to the client machine. Figure 2 representswhat happens when the user requests the page again.: Fig 2.6  When to Use CookiesCookies are great for storing small pieces of identification data but not completeauthentication details. They can be configured to expire after any length of time, but mostcookies on our system are likely to last a long time. After we log on to Amazon.com for thefirst time, we will be presented with a personalized front page on every subsequent trip to thesite. Because cookies are stored on the client, it takes the burden off the server.Cookies, however, can be blocked at the client end, so we cant rely on our users being able to(or even choosing to) use them. Also, cookies should never be used to store sensitiveinformation, since cookies can be tampered with – all we have to do is open a cookie, changeGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 30
  31. 31. its contents, and save it again, and the Web site that created the cookie may not be able to usethat cookie any more. • SESSIONS:A session can be thought of as the total amount of time we spend browsing a site. Forexample, in an online store, we first visit the site, log on, buy some stuff, and then leave. Auser session pertains to the interactions that occur when a single user browses a site.Information in a session is accessible only for as long as the session is active. We could, forexample, store the name of the currently logged-in user in the Session object specific to thatuser, and any of the pages in the site could then take this value and display it. Sessions areuseful for features such as shopping baskets or any application that stores information onwhether or not a user is logged in. They are tied in to a specific instance of a browser, soanother instance of the browser on the same machine would not be able to access the samedata.Its a bit tricky to evaluate when a session ends, since when a browser closes, this informationis not usually sent to the server So, we can specify a timeout value for sessions. The defaultvalue is usually 20 minutes.  How Do Sessions Work?When a session starts, we can store data that will exist during that session. This could besimple text information about a user or an object such as an XML file. A 120-bit sessionidentifier identifies each session. This session identifier is passed between ASP.NET and theclient either by using cookies or by placing the identifier in the URL of the page (a techniquethat can be used for clients that have cookies turned off). Lets look at a session identifier –the following is an example of embedding a session identifier in the URL of a page:http://www.mysite.com/(vgjgiz45ib0kqe554jvqxw2b)/Default.aspxThe extra data in the URL is only the session identifier – the actual data stored in the sessionis stored on the server. As a session can hold a variety of objects ( a string, an ArrayList, evena DataSet object), only the identifier is passed between the client and the server.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 31
  32. 32. Fig 2.7The Session object has quite a few methods that you can use:❑ Session.Add: Adds a new item to the Session object❑ Session.Remove: Removes a named item from the session❑ Session.Clear: Clears all values from the session but leaves the session active❑ Session.Abandon: Ends the current sessionPerhaps the simplest way to add data to a session is to use the following syntax:Session["ItemName"] = ContentsExamples :Session["Name"] = "Chris" Session["Email"] = txtEmailAddress.Text Session["ShoppingBasket"] = HashtableOfBasketItems  When to Use SessionsGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 32
  33. 33. Sessions are used to maintain information about users across a series of pages in a site. TheSession object can store any object we choose and therefore, is a very flexible way toremember information. If we need to remember any information relating to a user session, theSession object is the right choice for us. We can also react to session-wide events, whichgives us even more flexibility.However, extreme flexibility comes with a price – we must take care not to store too muchinformation in the Session object, because well quickly find it can be a drain on serverresources. Store only essential data in a session. • APPLICATIONS:One step up from the session is the application. From the time an ASP.NET application is firstloaded, to when the application is restarted, which could be due to a configuration change orthe restarting of the Web server, we can store information related to that application in theApplication object. When the application is restarted, any information stored in theApplication object will be lost, so we need to decide carefully what to store in the applicationstate.Its best to only store small amounts of data in the application state to minimize memoryusage on the server. Small bits of data that change frequently but dont need to be savedwhen the application is restarted are best kept in the Session object.  How Do Applications Work?Applications are a bit simpler than sessions, since they run entirely on the server. When theapplication is running, we can use the same method of storing data in an application object asused with sessions All us need to do is enter an identifier and a value that can be of any type,even a dataset.  When to Use ApplicationsApplications are very powerful and flexible, just like sessions. We can store any object inapplication state. Also, we can react to events raised (such as the Start and End of theapplication, as well as a global Error event) and add custom event handler code so that wecan store information globally, and have it accessible by any code in the application.The two main disadvantages of applications are that they too can drain our servers resourcesand since they dont exist after the application ends, they shouldnt be used to store anythingwe need to keep. • CACHING:GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 33
  34. 34. In addition to Application state, ASP.NET provides another way to share objects across anapplication – the Cache object. Any object, from XML data to a simple variable can be storedin the Cache object.However, the Cache object also has some additional features, notably the ability to store dataabout dependencies.So, what are dependencies? Well, imagine we wanted to store the contents of a Hashtable inthe cache. For example, this Hashtable could hold a set of dates corresponding to the dateswhen a soccer team is playing a match. We could save this to the cache with a dependency setto the value of a global variable; this could be a DateTime field representing when the list ofdates was last updated. If the contents of that variable change (if a new match is scheduled),the cached hashtable would immediately expire and need to be regenerated to display the newdate.ASP.NET allows us to have dependencies between items placed in the cache and files in thefile system. If a file targeted by a dependency changes, ASP.NET automatically removesdependent items from the cache. This allows for the development of fast applications wheredevelopers do not have to worry about stale data remaining in the cache.To add an object to the cache, all us need to do in the simplest case is:Cache["MyCachedThing"] = ThingToBeCached;An example of this would be:Cache["TeamNickname"] = txtNickname.Text;  When to Use CachingGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 34
  35. 35. Caching is often considered more of a performance-enhancement tool than a way to storeapplication data. When we find ourself spending many precious server resources accessingthe same data repeatedly, use caching instead! Caching data can bring huge performancebenefits, so whenever we find that we need to frequently access data that doesnt oftenchange, cache it in the Cache object and our applications performance will improve.The trick with caching is to use the highest possible value that wont negatively impact therequired behavior of the page. Taking the example we looked at earlier to both extremes(caching match dates), specifying that the cache never expires (or has a very long duration)would mean that newly added dates would not be visible to visitors to the site unless theapplication was restarted. On the other hand, using a very small length of time before thecache expires would mean that the performance improvements gained by using caching arereduced, since the code has to keep going back to the database to get new data. CHAPTER - 3GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 35
  36. 36. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION 3.1 OVERVIEW OF SRSA Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is a complete description of the behavior ofthe system to be developed. It includes a set of use cases that describe all the interactions theusers will have with the software. Use cases are also known as functional requirements. Inaddition to use cases, the SRS also contains non-functional (or supplementary) requirements.Non-functional requirements are requirements which impose constraints on the design orimplementation (such as performance engineering requirements, quality standards, or designconstraints).  General Outline of a SRS1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Product Overview 1.2 Purpose 1.3 Scope 1.4 Reference 1.5 Definition And Abbreviation2 OVERALL DESCRIPTION 2.1 Product Perspective 2.2 Product Functions 2.3 User Characteristics 2.4 General Constraints 2.5 Assumptions and Dependencies3 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS 3.1 External Interface Requirements 3.1.1 User Interfaces 3.1.2 Hardware Interfaces 3.1.3 Software Interfaces 3.1.4 Communications Protocols 3.1.5 Memory Constraints 3.1.6 Operation 3.1.7 Product functionGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 36
  37. 37. 3.1.8 Assumption and Dependency 3.2 Software Product Features 3.3 Software System Attributes 3.3.1 Reliability 3.3.2 Availability 3.3.3 Security 3.3.4 Maintainability 3.3.5 Portability 3.3.6 Performance 3.4 Database Requirements 3.5 Other Requirements4 ADDITIONAL MATERIALS  Software requirements analysis may be divided into five areas of effort: 1. Problem Recognition 2. Evaluation and Synthesis 3. Modelling 4. Specification 5. Review3.2 FEASIBILITY STUDYA feasibility study is carried out in order to present management with alternatives, solutionsto a problem in an area of the organization the solutions are evaluated in the light of theireconomic, technical and operational implications in an attempt to establish whether or not itis worthwhile for the organization to commit for the resources to the project.Feasibility is the test of the system. It helps in deciding whether it is viable to go through theproject or not. Feasibility study studies the system and tells the system whether to develop thesystem or not. In layman’s terms it can be described as the test of the system and if the systempasses in the test then it is viable to develop the project otherwise not or we can sayfeasibility study check’s whether project is profitable or not.The feasibility study consists of the following points:-Technical Feasibility:GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 37
  38. 38. Types of hardware and software are assessed to determine whether they can support the taskrequired. The Remedy Management system requires the following:-Economical Feasibility:- • The costs of different hardware/software configuration need to be examined. • Manual/computer boundaries should be considered as some tasks may benefit more then others from computerizations. • The relative costs and benefits of in-house or management consultancy development should be considered. • Hidden costs such as user time for requirements acquisition, testing and training should not be omitted; the most frequently missed cost is the cost of maintaining the system once it is installed. • Set against the costs should be a quantifiable assessment of the expected benefits, for example reduced labour costs, and improved customer service for predicted increase in orders. • The proposed software. was found to be economically feasible, and would certainly be beneficial to implement it.Operational Feasibility:- • Organizational, political and human aspects are considered in order to ensure that the proposed system will be workable when implemented. The impact the proposed system will have on jobs should be assessed; The likely reaction of employees and union representatives to job and other proposed changes should be considered; The current software is manual so it is very difficult to manage the complete working of the college. The proposed system is computerized and user friendly with all validation checks in order to avoid wrong from the user.3.3 OPERATING ENVIRONMENTWith the help of the feasibility study the system is developed in MySQL, CSS, HTML,XHTML, ASP.NET, C# and run under Windows 95/98 and later versions.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 38
  39. 39. 3.4 HARDWARE / SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS • Hardware: • Intel Pentium IV MHz or above. • A 512 MB RAM. • A 10 GB of free Hard disk space for compact install. • Microprocessor Pentium III 900 MHz Processor. • 104 Keys Enhanced Keyboard. • 2 Button Scroll Mouse. • 14” or more Color Monitor • Software: • Front End : Visual Studio .Net • Back End : SQL Server 2005 • Operating System : Windows 9X/ME/ XP/NT/Vista/Win7. • Markup Language : HTML, XHTML. • Style Sheets : CSSGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 39
  40. 40. CHAPTER – 4 DESIGNING PHASEHOW THIS PROJECT WORKS? 4.1 FLOW CHART:A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process. The flow chart symbolsare linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction.A typical flowchart from older to computer science textbooks may have the following kindsof symbols:Start and end symbolsRepresented as circles, ovals or rounded rectangles, usually containing the word "Start" or"End", or another phrase signaling the start or end of a process, such as "submit enquiry" or"receive product".Arrows Showing whats called "flow of control" in computer science. An arrow coming from one symbol and ending at another symbol represents that control passes to the symbol the arrow points to.Processing steps Represented as rectangles. Examples: "Add 1 to X"; "replace identified part"; "save changes" or similar.Input/Output Represented as a parallelogram. Examples: Get X from the user; display X.Conditional or decisionGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 40
  41. 41. Represented as a diamond (rhombus). These typically contain a Yes/No question or True/False test. This symbol is unique in that it has two arrows coming out of it, usually from the bottom point and right point, one corresponding to Yes or True, and one corresponding to No or False. The arrows should always be labeled.A decision is necessary in a flowchart. More than two arrows can be used, but this is normally a clear indicator that a complex decision is being taken, in which case it may need to be broken-down further, or replaced with the "pre-defined process" symbol.A number of other symbols that have less universal currency, such as: • A Document represented as a rectangle with a wavy base; • A Manual input represented by parallelogram, with the top irregularly sloping up from left to right. An example would be to signify data-entry from a form; • A Manual operation represented by a trapezoid with the longest parallel side at the top, to represent an operation or adjustment to process that can only be made manually. • A Data File represented by a cylinder.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 41
  42. 42. Start SSTART Login N No Is Valid User Yes U User’s Home Page Applications Sign OutGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 42
  43. 43. End Fig 4.1 4.2 USE CASE DIAGRAM:A Use Case Diagram is “a diagram that shows the relationships among actors and use caseswithin a system.”Use case diagrams depict: • Use cases. A use case describes a sequence of actions that provide something of measurable value to an actor and is drawn as a horizontal ellipse. • Actors. An actor is a person, organization, or external system that plays a role in one or more interactions with your system. Actors are drawn as stick figures. • Associations. Associations between actors and use cases are indicated in use case diagrams by solid lines. An association exists whenever an actor is involved with an interaction described by a use case. Associations are modeled as lines connecting use cases and actors to one another, with an optional arrowhead on one end of the line. The arrowhead is often used to indicating the direction of the initial invocation of the relationship or to indicate the primary actor within the use case. The arrowheads are typically confused with data flow and as a result I avoid their use. • System boundary boxes (optional). You can draw a rectangle around the use cases, called the system boundary box, to indicates the scope of your system. Anything within the box represents functionality that is in scope and anything outside the box is not. System boundary boxes are rarely used, although on occasion I have used them to identify which use cases will be delivered in each major release of a system. • Packages (optional). Packages are UML constructs that enable you to organize model elements (such as use cases) into groups. Packages are depicted as file foldersGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 43
  44. 44. and can be used on any of the UML diagrams, including both use case diagrams and class diagrams. I use packages only when my diagrams become unwieldy, which generally implies they cannot be printed on a single page, to organize a large diagram into smaller ones. Log In Registe rUser My New User Friends Find Friend LogFriend In In Log Request Compose Message Inbox Groups Pictures Sign Out BrowseGuest Profile Contact UsersGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 44
  45. 45. Fig 4.2 4.3 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD):In the late 1970s data-flow diagrams (DFDs) were introduced and popularized for structuredanalysis and design (Gane and Sarson 1979). DFDs show the flow of data from externalentities into the system, showed how the data moved from one process to another, as well asits logical storage. A data flow diagram is a graphical representation of the "flow" of datathrough an information system. A data flow diagram can also be used for the visualization ofdata processing (structured design). It is common practice for a designer to draw a context-level DFD first which shows the interaction between the system and outside entities. Thiscontext-level DFD is then "exploded" to show more detail of the system being modeled.There are only four symbols: 1. Ovals representing external entities, which are sources or destinations of data. 2. Rectangles representing processes, which take data as input, do something to it, and output it. 3. Arrows representing the data flows, which can either, be electronic data or physical items. 4. Open-ended rectangles representing data stores, including electronic stores such as databases or XML files and physical stores such as or filing cabinets or stacks of paper.There are several common modeling rules that are followed when creating DFDs:GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 45
  46. 46. 1. All processes must have at least one data flow in and one data flow out. 2. All processes should modify the incoming data, producing new forms of outgoing data. 3. Each data store must be involved with at least one data flow. 4. Each external entity must be involved with at least one data flow. 5. A data flow must be attached to at least one process.The Level 0 DFD is also called Context Level DFD. It depicts the overview of the entiresystem. The major external entities, a single process and the output stores constitute the level-0 DFD. Though this diagram does not depict the system in detail, it represents the overallinputs, process and output of the entire system at a very high level.The Level -0 DFD is expanded into Level-1 DFD. It should be noted that information flowcontinuity is maintained between level 0 and level 1. The process represented at DFD level 1further refined into lower levels. This further refinement is continued until an easilyimplementable program component is reached.Data flow diagrams illustrate how data is processed by a system in terms of inputs andoutputs. Fig 4.3DFD PrinciplesGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 46
  47. 47. • The general principle in Data Flow Diagramming is that a system can be decomposed into subsystems, and subsystems can be decomposed into lower level subsystems, and so on. • Each subsystem represents a process or activity in which data is processed. At the lowest level, processes can no longer be decomposed. • Each process (and from now on, by process we mean subsystem and activity) in a DFD has the characteristics of a system. • Just as a system must have input and output (if it is not dead), so a process must have input and output. • Data enters the system from the environment; data flows between processes within the system; and data is produced as output from the systemLEVEL 0 Adminsn Admin Details GREEN WEB User Id, Personal Details Password Others User Regisn Details NOTE: Admin Details = Login Details + UpdateLEVEL 1 Login DetailsPersonal Details LoginLogin Details Regisn VerifyGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 47
  48. 48. Register User Details Updat e Data Base Information Fig 4.4 4.4 Entity Relationship Diagram:Data models are tools used in analysis to describe the data requirements and assumptions in the system from a top-down perspective. They also set the stage for the design of databases later on in the SDLC.There are three basic elements in ER models:Entities are the "things" about which we seek information. It is a representation of almost any composite informationAttributes are the data we collect about the entities.Relationships provide the structure needed to draw information from multiple entities.In computer science, an entity-relationship model (ERM) is a model providing a high-leveldescription of a conceptual data model. Data modeling provides a graphical notation forrepresenting such data models in the form of entity-relationship diagrams (ERD). The firststage of information system design uses these models to describe information needs or thetype of information that is to be stored in a database during the requirements analysis. Thedata modeling technique can be used to describe any ontology (i.e. an overview andGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 48
  49. 49. classifications of used terms and their relationships) for a certain universe of discourse (i.e.area of interest). In the case of the design of an information system that is based on adatabase, the conceptual data model is, at a later stage (usually called logical design), mappedto a logical data model, such as the relational model; this in turn is mapped to a physicalmodel during physical design. Sometimes, both of these phases are referred to as "physicaldesign". There are a number of conventions for entity-relationship diagrams (ERDs). Pass F_nameEmail P_details Subscrib es User Send_Re c-eive Creat es Account_Profil- Msg esU_name Friend ImgGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 49
  50. 50. Pass Email DOB Img Mail F_request Scrap Fig 4.5 4.5 DATABASE DESIGN: Database design is a design of database and it contains information about files used in the system. In database design the tables constructed, fields in the tables their data types and in the other part it tells about the extensions of the file used in the development. Friend Invitation Invitation_id acc_id Date Friend_id Table 4.1Snap Shot:GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 50
  51. 51. Friends acc_id friend_id creat_date id Table 4.2Snap shot:GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 51
  52. 52. Groupmember id groupid acc_id creatdate Table 4.3Snap shot:GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 52
  53. 53. Groups groupid name createdata acc_id description body Logo_url Table 4.4Snap shot:GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 53
  54. 54. Messages message_id sentbyid subject body creatdate messagereceivedid messagestatus Table 4.5 Pictures Id acc_idGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 54
  55. 55. url Createdata Table 4.6 Table 1 id name address city country phone dob email img username Table 4.7UNDERSTANDING DATABASESUnderstanding some basics about databases is crucial to using data in our pages. We dontneed to be a database expert, but there are certain things we will need to know in order towork with data in .NET. For a start, we need to understand how data is stored. All types ofdata on a computer are stored in files of some sort. Text files, for example, are simple filesand just contain plain text. Spreadsheets, on the other hand, are complex files containing notonly the entered text and numbers, but also details about the data, such as what the columnscontain, how they are formatted, and so on.Databases also fall into the category of complex files. When using Microsoft Access, we havean MDB file – this is a database file, but we cant tell anything about the data from the fileitself. We need a way to get to the data, either using Microsoft Access itself, or as we aregoing to do, using the .NET data classes. Before we can access the data, we need to knowhow it is stored internally.All of us are familiar with the term data. In fact, unknowingly we come across data in ourday to day life everyday. The age of a person, price of potato, number of students in a school,pin code of a city, etc. are some examples of data. In our life we have to remember so muchof data. But it is easier for us to remember all information for a few individuals. For example,you may be in a position to tell accurately the age, height, complexion, income, educationalGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 55
  56. 56. qualification, residential address, etc. of your close friends. But it is too difficult for you tomemorise all these information for a large number of individuals. Let us consider the exampleof National Open School (NOS). Every year about one lakh students take admission in NOS.If you are asked to memorise records of date of birth, subjects offered and postal address ofall these students, it will not be possible for you.CONNECTING TO DATABASE1. Select the Data Explorer tab, and click the Add Database Connection button – the one thatssecond in from the right, and will be the only one highlighted if we havent already got adatabase connection open:2. Select Access Database from the window that appears and press OK.3. Enter the following into the Data File text area (use a central location for the database, sothat we can reuse it later in the book):C:BegASPNET11dataNorthwind.mdb4. Press OK to connect to the database. This is the Northwind database, one of the sampledatabases that ships with Microsoft Access. CHAPTER – 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSGUEST HOME PAGEGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 56
  63. 63. CHAPTER - 6 TESTINGSome of the testing objectives are:- 1. Testing is the process of executing a program with the indent of finding errors. 2. A good test case is one that has the high probability of finding the undiscovered errors. 3. A successful test is one that uncovers all the undiscovered errors.If testing is done successfully (according to the objectives as stated above), it will uncover allthe errors in the software. As a secondary benefit, testing demonstrates that softwarefunctions appear to be working according to specification, that behavioral and performancerequirement appear to be met. In addition, data collected as testing is conducted provide agood indication of software reliability and some indication of software quality as a whole.But testing cannot show the absence of errors and defects, it can show only that softwareerrors and defects are present. It is important to keep this statement in mind that testing isbeing conducted.6.1 VALIDATION CHECKFor Security point of, there are two type of validation checks. One is forserver site and another is for client site. 1. SERVER SITE VALIDATION CHECKThe existential checks for the server side is very important, in which it checks whether theentered value exist or not. After filling any transaction form the user clicks the submit button.At that place if user is existing user then he simply feed his user id, and password. Siteautomatically checks their necessary checks and display the user transaction acknowledgmentbut if he is not existing user or valid user and want to enter in my site for transaction then henever enter in site without feeding all login information about himself. 2. CLIENT SITE VALIDATION CHECKClient site validation check is very useful which restrict the user to giving the NULL valuefor any field in the form. If user enters the NULL value then the validation checks gives themessage for error. The error message is displayed until filling of all option of form.GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 63
  64. 64. Validation Checks during Login to System:The snapshot below shows validation checks during Login. If the Username and password ata login time do not match with the data in the database corresponding to the criteria then amessage will be display that “Invalid User !! Please Renter UserName And Password”. CHAPTER – 7GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 64
  65. 65. FUTURE SCOPEThe work described above and included in this special theme section contributes to an on-going dialogue about the importance of social network sites, both for practitioners andresearchers. Vast, uncharted waters still remain to be explored. Methodologically, SNS(SocialNetworking Websites) researchers ability to make causal claims is limited by a lack ofexperimental or longitudinal studies. Although the situation is rapidly changing, scholars stillhave a limited understanding of who is and who is not using these sites, why, and for whatpurposes, especially outside the U.S. Such questions will require large-scale quantitative andqualitative research. Richer, ethnographic research on populations more difficult to access(including non-users) would further aid scholars ability to understand the long-termimplications of these tools. We hope that the work described here and included in thiscollection will help build a foundation for future investigations of these and other importantissues surrounding social network sites.In May 2007, Facebook launched the Facebook platform, which allowed third-partydevelopers to author and market applications to Facebook’s 20 million active users. One yearand 50 million additional users later, more than 20,000 Facebook applications have beendeveloped, with 95 percent of the user base having run at least one application. In January2008, Facebook banned the application Secret Crush after it was reported to have led users toinstall Zango adware.Approximately nine months after Facebook launched its platform, MySpace followed suit,and recently Google released an application program interface (API) for orkut, Google’ssocial networking site.Future social networking sites will become more important because platforms will expandfurther. “Killer apps” will include mobility, presence, and location awareness, with the goal ofmaking our physical life more convenient through your virtual network; we’ll have atravelling social network in our back pocket. Not only we will be able to know which of thefriends in our network is online, but we’ll also be able to know which are nearby. Cell tower triangulation and global positioning systems will be able to pass along ourlocation to whomever we allow. Location-aware services could match local businesses andentertainment to our interests based on our profile. Business travellers could more easilyrendezvous with coworkers and clients at conferences and trade shows. The thrill of onlinedating could be heightened through the creation of location-specific communities, so weGAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 65
  66. 66. wouldn’t only meet someone online, but we could also chat with a prospective mate in thesame room.Social sites will also be smarter, mining user information across the web. Social bookmarkingsite functionality such as Digg will be married with social networks and enhanced with self-learning technology such as Pandora or StumbleUpon and tagging functionality such asFlickr. The result is a more constant and refined stream of relevant information, whichactually educates and informs the community in a much more efficient manner than occurstoday.From our iPhone, we’ll be able to get movie recommendations from those in our network.We’ll also be able to read reviews that our friends found helpful and find show times for thetheatres in our vicinity, and then we’ll be able to check the location of our friends todetermine how quickly they can meet us. CHAPTER - 8GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 66
  67. 67. CONCLUSIONFinally I would like to conclude that in the 6 weeks while i was working on this project welearned many new technologies, concepts and have also learn about working in a team.My project Social Networking Website is based and is under the ASP.Net technology.This insulates the application from technical implementation and enhancement to supportfuture technologies in a transparent manner without having the major impact on theapplication. This also enables the easy portability of application to other operating system anddatabases.This project followed the maintenance SDLC, which involved the steps of the  REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS  DESIGN  CODING  TESTING  IMPLEMENTATION  MAINTENANCEThus we were able to understand in greater details the various software engineeringprocesses, and were able to apply them to our live project.With this enduring and simulating experience we admit that the people of this website hasreally enlightened me. With due regards, i want to express our heart-felt thanks to all for theirsupport and cooperation towards the completion of our project. REFERENCES:GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 67
  68. 68. A wide variety of information sources are available on the internet. It is a great pleasure forme to write foreword for this project. 1. Imar Spaanjaars, “Beginning ASP.NET 3.5 with Visual C# and .NET”, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2008. 2. K.K.Agarwal and Yogesh Singh, “Software Engineering”, New Age International Publishers, 3rd Edition, 2008. 3. Henry F. Korth, “Database Management System”, 4th Edition, 2004. 4. Java Script – referring from www.w3schools.com. 5. Student guide, “Designing and Creating a website”GAURAV JAIN MECRC Page 68