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Ch05 Hand Toolsand Shop Equipment Rev

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Ch05 Hand Toolsand Shop Equipment Rev

  1. 1. Chapter Five Hand Tools and Shop Equipment
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>List the basic units of measure for length, volume, and mass in the two measuring systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different types of fasteners used in the automotive industry. </li></ul><ul><li>List the various mechanical measuring tools used in the automotive shop. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the proper procedure for measuring with a micrometer. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (Cont’d) <ul><li>List some of the hand tools used in auto repair. </li></ul><ul><li>List the common types of shop equipment and state their purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the use of common pneumatic, electrical, and hydraulic power tools found in an automotive service department. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the different sources for service information that are available to technicians. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Units of Measure <ul><li>United States Customary (USC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear examples : inch, foot, yard, mile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight examples : ounce, pound, ton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature example : Fahrenheit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure examples : pounds per square inch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torque example : foot pounds </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Units of Measure (Cont’d) <ul><li>Metric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear examples: meter, centimeter, kilometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight examples : grams, kilograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature example : Celsius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure examples : kilogram per square centimeter, bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torque example : Newton meters </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Bolt Identification <ul><li>Diameter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured across the threaded area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thread pitch (English system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of threads per inch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thread pitch (Metric system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The distance in millimeters between two adjacent threads </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bolt Identification (Cont’d)
  8. 8. Bolt Grade Markings <ul><li>Customary (inch) bolts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification marks correspond to bolt strength. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing numbers represent increasing strength. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metric bolts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification class numbers correspond to bolt strength. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing numbers represent increasing strength. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Grade Markings
  10. 10. Imperial Size Bolt Identification Example <ul><li>An Imperial size bolt that is identified as 3/8&quot; x 2&quot; x 24: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a shank diameter of 3/8 inch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is 2 inches long from the bottom of the head to the end of the shank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has 24 threads per inch. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Metric Size Bolt Identification Example <ul><li>A metric size bolt that is identified as </li></ul><ul><li>6mm x 30mm x 1.25mm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a shank diameter of 6 millimeters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is 30 millimeters long from the bottom of the head to the end of the shank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a distance of 1.25 millimeters between its threads. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Measuring Devices <ul><li>Machinist’s rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is usually used to measure items that don’t require extremely close tolerances, such as bolt lengths. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vernier caliper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is usually used to measure items that require a closer degree of accuracy, such as shim thickness. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Measuring Devices (Cont’d) <ul><li>Dial caliper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a version of a vernier caliper that is easier to read. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micrometer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used for measuring items that require very close tolerances, such as shaft thickness and bearing diameter. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Reading a Metric Micrometer
  15. 15. Measuring Devices (Cont’d) <ul><li>Dial indicator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used to measure radial or axial movement, such as a shaft’s runout or end play. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telescoping gauge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is commonly used to measure larger bore diameters, such as an engine cylinder. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Measuring Devices (Cont’d) <ul><li>Small hole gauge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used for measuring small bores, such as an engine valve guide. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feeler gauge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used to measure clearances, such as a spark plug gap. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Screw pitch gauge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used to determine thread pitch of a bolt or screw. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A Typical Set of Hand Tools
  18. 18. Hand Tools <ul><li>Wrenches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Box-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flare nut or line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metric or USCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allen </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Hand Tools (Cont’d) <ul><li>Ratchets and Sockets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six, eight, or twelve point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep and shallow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metric or USCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact or chrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swivel sockets </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Hand Tools (Cont’d) <ul><li>Screwdrivers </li></ul><ul><li>Pliers </li></ul><ul><li>Hammers and mallets </li></ul><ul><li>Punches and chisels </li></ul><ul><li>Files </li></ul><ul><li>Taps and dies </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Torque Wrenches <ul><li>Beam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not very accurate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Click” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the handle reaches the preset torque, the wrench clicks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A dial indicates the amount of torque exerted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital read out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is usually the most accurate design. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Hand Tool Safety <ul><li>Use the proper tool for the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the correct size wrench or socket. </li></ul><ul><li>Use box-end wrench or socket whenever possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Always pull on a wrench. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Power Tools <ul><li>Impact wrenches </li></ul><ul><li>Air ratchets </li></ul><ul><li>Drills </li></ul><ul><li>Blow guns </li></ul><ul><li>Grinders </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting tools </li></ul>
  24. 24. Power Tools (Cont’d) <ul><li>Drill press </li></ul><ul><li>Bench grinders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grinding wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire wheel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffing wheel </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Power Tools (Cont’d) <ul><li>Presses </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble lights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incandescent or fluorescent </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Service Information Sources <ul><li>Manufacturers’ service information </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Flat-rate manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Owner’s manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Lubrication guides </li></ul><ul><li>Aftermarket suppliers’ guides and catalogs </li></ul><ul><li>Hotline services </li></ul><ul><li>International Automotive Technicians Network </li></ul>
  27. 27. Steps for Using a Service Manual <ul><li>Select the appropriate manual for the vehicle being serviced. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the table of contents to locate the applicable section. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the index at the front of the section to locate the required information. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Steps for Using a Service Manual (Cont’d) <ul><li>Carefully read the information and study the illustrations and diagrams. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the required steps and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to all of the given specifications and safety precautions. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Lifting Tools <ul><li>Hydraulic floor jack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used to raise vehicle off the ground. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used with safety stands. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic jack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses air to raise vehicle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used with safety stands. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Lifting Tools (Cont’d) <ul><li>Safety stand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used to support a vehicle when raised. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic lift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is safest lifting tool. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is also called a hoist. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Lifting Tools (Cont’d) <ul><li>Engine hoist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is sometimes called a cherry picker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses hydraulic pressure to lift an engine from a vehicle. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Repairing the modern automobile requires the use of many different hand and power tools. </li></ul><ul><li>It is crucial to use the proper amount of torque when tightening fasteners on any part of a vehicle, particularly the engine. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Summary (Cont’d) <ul><li>Metric and SAE size wrenches are not interchangeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Carelessness or mishandling of power tools can cause serious injury. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary source of repair and specification information for any vehicle is the manufacturer’s service manual. </li></ul>