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ParaphrasingforPSYC206

How to approach Paraphrasing, Summarizing and Quoting sources.

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ParaphrasingforPSYC206

  1. 1. Paraphrasing, Quoting & Summarizing How to use and credit sources using APA Style
  2. 2. What needs to be cited? Any ideas, quotations, diagrams, images, video, or audio in your work that are not your own. There are three ways to include (or cite) a source in your text: ● Summary - captures main ideas in shorter form and in your own words ● Paraphrase - all the main points in the same order, but in your own words and without elaboration ● Quotation - exact words of author in quotation marks
  3. 3. What does not have to be cited? •Common knowledge •Facts found in numerous places •Your own original ideas and language
  4. 4. Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism Handbook. Los Angeles: Pyrczak, 2001.
  5. 5. How do you cite correctly? Quotation ● Use: Put quotes around the borrowed language ● Credit: Included in text or at end of quote in parentheses put author, year and page* *Additional rules in handout Paraphrase ● Use: Your own words to rephrase or summarize ● Credit: At end of paraphrase in parentheses put author, date and page (preferred)
  6. 6. Citing in-text – quotes (less than 40 words) •Use exact language of the original and put in quotation marks. •Author, year and page included in text or in parentheses at end of quotation after punctuation. “Critics have made several arguments against the common core. Some say the standards are being crammed into classrooms by the federal government in a power grab of questionable legality. They and others say that the common core is a national curriculum in disguise, that claims about its rigor are inflated, or that it sets unrealistic expectations.” (Ujifusa, 2013, p.1)
  7. 7. Block Quote (more than 40 words: use indentation) Implementation of the common core will require significant investment in teaching training: Many in education contend that the common standards demand significant changes in pedagogy, and, in some cases, teachers' content knowledge. In math, for instance, students are being asked to demonstrate their understanding not only of procedures, but also of their conceptual underpinnings. In English/language arts, they're expected to marshal evidence from what they read to support arguments and build their muscle with informational texts. (Gewertz, 2013, p.1) Gewertz, C. (2013). Standards Worrying Teachers. Education Week, 32(22), 1.
  8. 8. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing should sound like you, using vocabulary and sentence structures that the reader will recognize as your work. The justification for paraphrasing is generally to add clarity thereby making your writing easier to read. Therefore a good paraphrase is a complete restatement of the original text but in language of your own which fits better with your purpose and style.
  9. 9. Use a signal phrase - 1 A signal phrase signals to the reader that cited material follows. Signal Phrases can be a single word, phrase, or sentence. They should appear before a quote, paraphrase, or summary. They often include verbs; be sure your word choice fits the context of the source and any opinion you want to express about the quote. According to Caplan (2005), "very few people have 20/20 vision. Being able to see well is crucial to success in some sports" (p. 593).
  10. 10. Signal Phrases - 2 Common Signal Phrases ● Author argues that ● Author states that ● Author believes that ● Author claims that ● Author implies that ● Author reports that ● Author suggests that ● According to author, ● In his/her book, <Title>, <author> maintains that ● The main point of author’s argument is Examples: According to Dr. Clotile Galbraith, Associate Professor of Education at Stevenson University... Dr. C Galbraith (personal communication, November 18, 2013) distinguishes between/among . . .
  11. 11. Citing in text - paraphrase As the Common Core debate heats up, we’ve heard a lot from policy makers, politicians, and even TV talk show hosts about the challenges posed by the new standards and whether they’ll help or hurt education. With all the chatter, the voices of the professionals who are actually responsible for implementing the Common Core have been all but drowned out in the mainstream media. Long, C. (2013, May 10). Six ways the common core is good for students. NEA Today. Retrieved from http://neatoday.org/2013/05/10/six-ways-the-common-core-is-good-for-students/
  12. 12. Is it a legitimate paraphrase? As the Common Core debate heats up, we’ve heard a lot from policy makers, politicians, and even TV talk show hosts about the challenges posed by the new standards and whether they’ll help or hurt education. With all the chatter, the voices of the professionals who are actually responsible for implementing the Common Core have been all but drowned out in the mainstream media. There is a great deal of debate from all corners about the Common Core standards and their effects but educators who have to implement these changes are lost in the din. (Long, 2013, para. 1) Long, C. (2013, May 10). Six ways the common core is good for students. NEA Today. Retrieved from http://neatoday.org/2013/05/10/six-ways-the-common-core-is-good-for-students/
  13. 13. Is it a legitimate paraphrase? As the Common Core debate heats up, we’ve heard a lot from policy makers, politicians, and even TV talk show hosts about the challenges posed by the new standards and whether they’ll help or hurt education. With all the chatter, the voices of the professionals who are actually responsible for implementing the Common Core have been all but drowned out in the mainstream media. In the public uproar over the Common Core, there’s a lot of blather from wonks, baby-kissers, and talking heads about whether it’ll be the greatest thing since sliced bread or the end of the world, but pooh-bahs in the field toiling to make it real get no attention. (Long, 2013, para. 1) Long, C. (2013, May 10). Six ways the common core is good for students. NEA Today. Retrieved from http://neatoday.org/2013/05/10/six-ways-the-common-core-is-good-for-students/
  14. 14. Is it a legitimate paraphrase? As the Common Core debate heats up, we’ve heard a lot from policy makers, politicians, and even TV talk show hosts about the challenges posed by the new standards and whether they’ll help or hurt education. With all the chatter, the voices of the professionals who are actually responsible for implementing the Common Core have been all but drowned out in the mainstream media. Long (2013) asserts in the ongoing heated debate amongst “policy makers, politicians, and even TV talk show hosts” over whether the implementation problems with the Common Core standards will help or hurt, the professional educators with hands-on responsibility cannot be heard. (para. 1) Long, C. (2013, May 10). Six ways the common core is good for students. NEA Today. Retrieved from http://neatoday.org/2013/05/10/six-ways-the-common-core-is-good-for-students/

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