2. Communication Skills: Introduction, Definition, The Importance of
Barriers to communication:
Perspectives in Communication
Factors affecting our perspective - Past Experiences, Prejudices, Feelings,
3. Definitions of Communication
Word communication comes from Latin word “Communicare” – to share
Process of sharing information, knowledge, and ideas between a sender &
It is the transfer of information from one person to another that is from sender to
It is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or emotions by two or more persons.
- Newman & Summer.
It is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to
another. - Keith Davis
4. Role & Scope of Communication
Communication plays an important role in following:
Managing Complex situations within organizations
Establishing cooperation and better understanding
Effective management of organization
Success of Management largely depends on strategy of communication
Developing positive company image and tool to information
To increase company profit and better customer interaction
Effective communication is tool to motivation and leadership
Scope of communication
We need communication in order to interact with one another and without communication social
interaction may not be possible. Following examples give entire range of social and professional
relationships for interactive communication:
• In personal and social life
• In business management and politics
• In industrial organizations, In decision making
• In publicity & in religion
• In international relations
5. Importance of Communication
Communication facilitates planning and is important for coordination and getting the
work done. Planning based on information and information made available with the
help of systematic communication.
It helps in decision making, with proper communication managers comes closer to
the other members and is easy to identify real problems and take appropriate decision.
It facilitates coordination, in industries work completion always done by dividing it
into several interrelated departments or sections. So work is coordinated.
Communication is important for coordination between members at all levels. It is
necessary for creating unity for completion of purpose and action.
Participation for proper exchange of ideas clears understanding of intentions and
improve such relationships.
It helps for improving motivation of employees by sharing of information on matters.
Information sharing and consultation improves motivation of workers
6. Communication process
The process of communication include following parts:
It starts with formation of Idea or selection of message to communicate. Ideation generally
determined by the sender’s knowledge, experience and abilities, and the purpose of
It is process of changing the information in some form of logical and coded message. It is
based on purpose and relation between sender and receiver. In formal situation, encoding
involves - selecting a language, selecting medium of communication, and form of
communication. Selecting the right language is essential for effective encoding. if receiver
does not decode or understand the message, communication fails. Therefore use of official
language in formal business, academics and professional situation is required. There are three
basic options for sending messages that is speaking, writing and using non-verbal signs or
symbol. Nonverbal clues play a significant role in oral communication e.g. body movement,
facial expression. Writing involved selection of correct written form i.e. letter, notice, report,
It refers to flow of message over the selected channel. It depends on medium selected, medium
free from interference i.e. without noise and disturbance. To use the proper time, place and
proper way is important when you want to communicate effectively. The channels may
include newspapers, radio, TV, telephone, mobile etc.
It is the process of converting a message into a thought and understanding it properly. Here
thought is transferred and not its meaning, receiver has to assign meaning for message in order
to understand it. Decoding process involves interpretation and analysis of the message.
Decoding in written communication refers to reading and understanding a written message,
Oral includes listening and understanding. So decoding is most important for successful
It is last step of communication. It is action or reaction of the receiver to the message. With the
help of this sender comes to know whether message received or understood by the receiver. It
is the key to effective communication.
The environment in which the communication takes place is called context. The completeness
of process of communication properly occurs at physical contexts like fixed auditorium hall,
seminar hall, etc.
9. Barriers to communication
Types of Barriers to communication
Barriers in communication defined as any
obstacle or hurdle which prevent the smooth flow
of information between various channels of
Psychological or emotional barriers
10. Physiological Barriers
These are restrictions of human mind and body i.e. problem in perception, memory and
attention. Individual body problems: Health issue, hearing problems, poor eye sight, etc.
Types of Physiological barriers:
1. Vision impairment: Light sensitivity, Blurring, difficulty in noticing in details. A
visually disabled person can’t see body language & facial expression of speaker.
2. Hearing impairment: Hereditary problems.
3. Speech disorders:
Apraxia – Person looses the capability to form words.
Dysarthria: Muscle of mouth, face & respiratory system are weak & unable to work at
full capacity result in person losses ability to speak on clear & understandable
Stuttering: Condition that affect fluency of the communication.
4. Memory: Memory lost with time and forgetting information leads to breakdown in
11. Physical Barriers
It can immediate disrupt communication. E.g. disruption in giving presentation.
Effectiveness of communication is affected due to disturbance created by the noise.
A physical noise by other people or objects like radio, loudspeaker, etc. affect
Conveying a message at wrong time.
Long distance always create problems in conveying the message correctly.
If the message transmitted is weak and unclear it causes misunderstanding.
12. Cultural Barriers
There may be misunderstanding of meaning during intercultural communication.
Without language communication doesn’t take place. For effective communication, simple
and perfect language is important. Peoples use some signs and symbols to communicate
more effectively. The people having different cultural background and having conversation
there may be chances of misunderstanding so care should be taken.
Traits of person & behavior differences:
Peoples comfortable with their own language, but different peoples from different origin and
traits may have difficulty to express in other language. Due to this misunderstanding may
occurs. Cultural difference cause behavior and personality difference like body language,
thinking leads to miscommunication.
Peoples are categorized in cultural groups, if culture is similar good communication takes
place, in case of dissimilar group it affects the understanding of the message. Religion also
creates differences in opinions.
13. Language Barriers
Communication does not take place when sender / receiver does not use same language and
words. If the spoken words are not understood, the entire communication process is useless.
Different languages: Different peoples use different language creates communication
problem in conveying ones ideas or feelings to other.
Words: Words and symbols affect communication because their meaning changes with the
change in context in which they are used.
Pictures: The models, pictures, maps should have proper caption under them, so reader do
not get confused and easily understand the meaning.
Actions: the different types of gestures like lip movement, movement of eyes, smiles affect
communication & by using the same in proper way communication can be improved.
Limited vocabulary: Limited vocabulary is the major problem in communication. During
speech if you are loss forward your communication will be very ineffective & leave poor
impression on audience.
14. Gender Barriers
Different speaking functions used by males and females may affect communication.
The gender barriers may be inherent, sometime knowledge difference and different
communication patterns and styles used by men’s and women’s may affect
15. Interpersonal Barriers
Following are the some interpersonal barriers to communication:
Lack of desire to participate in the communication process is a significant barrier.
Reluctance to explore: Here people have unwillingness to explore different ideas,
opinions creates barrier.
Negative emotions like fear, anger, irritation in mind affect the communication.
Low self esteem: Not having courage to express ideas, thoughts and feelings due to
self confidence restricts the communication.
Not listening to others may also affect communication process.
16. Psychological or emotional Barriers
Psychological barriers created in mind.
The psychological state of sender or receiver creates an obstacle for effective
Feelings, anger, anxiety, emotional disturbances proves to be a barrier to
Types of psychological barriers that affect communication:
Lack of attention
Lack of trust in the management
Failure to communicate
Closed mind and filtering nature.
17. Perspective in communication
Communication perspective evaluates the production of message, its circulation
among different individuals and how the message are being interpreted by them.
The various actions, communications stimulate the human sensory organ.
When human being pays attention & identifies the stimuli, the process of perception
The message are then converted into action and then behavior.
Components of perception:
18. Components of perception
The information is received with the help of stimulus, the senses like eyes ears respond to
them. Physical senses like seeing touching, hearing are helps to individual for
understanding the stimuli like feelings, actions, information, etc.
People may not pay attention toward all things. Some stimuli attended very firstly and
some are ignored. Keeping the concentration helps the analyzing the stimuli & also react
in a specific manner.
Recognition of stimuli is important in learning & understanding. Perception consist of two
stages i.e. receiving the stimuli and converting it into action.
It is also called evaluation, in this individual evaluates the stimuli before transmitting it
19. 5. Behavior
It is response of an individual to change in stimuli.
The response is of two types i.e. overt & 10 covert. The perception’s overt behavior is
evident from the individual physical activities. While the cover behavior witnessed
through mental evaluations, self-esteem and thought processes
On the basis of that reward are given & peoples are motivated.
The term satisfaction refers to the fulfillment of needs or desire.
The gap between performance and expectation signifies the degree of satisfaction.
If performance matches expectations, it leads to satisfaction.
20. Factors affecting perspective in communication
It refers to the ability to recognize interpret and provide meaning to the information
provided in visual form.
Visual perception is most important in effective reading strategies, if student Have
difficulties in reading the suggestions are practice visualizing various different objects.
Without language communication does not take place, for effective communication simple
and perfect language is important.
The people having different cultural backgrounds and having conversation there may be
chances of misunderstanding so there should be taken.
21. Past experiences
In the process of interpreting any information past experiences of people plays a vital
role. Sometimes past experiences may play a very beneficial role in implementation
The People's feelings and attitudes about other peoples are group are referred as
prejudices. Peoples always carry such free judicious with them.
When there is past experience of an individual with the other individual, the person
start to analyze to other people's, if one has bad experience with the other people, he
also start to think that other people are have the same nature.
The growth, proper communication and success of an organization is affected with
Feelings plays an important role in effective communication. When people freely express
their feelings and communicate it may develop positive sign and ensure that the messages
are expressed in right manner.
How a person feel about another person may also affect the communication.
Feelings keep on changing the day, time, location also may affect the better
For effective technical communication a good and comfortable environment is needed.
The people interact differently depending upon the environment for example the way we
communicate with our boss and friends, the way someone talk to the stranger first time.
Thus it can be said that the communication is being affected by the environment, where
we are, what is going on and how things are working.
So judge and provide suitable and comfortable environment for good and effective