1. EUROPEAN SATELLITE NAVIGATION COMPETITION
Section A: Technical aspects
Developing cognitive radio receivers for 802.22 /WRAN (wireless Radio
Area network) using GNSS (Galileo).
The need for effective utilization of the radio spectrum has become an important
area of research in the field of wireless communications. Today, wireless devices
use fixed bands in the spectrum allocated by standardizing committee like the LTE 1
and FCC2. FCC has conducted various studies on the under utilization of the
allocated spectrums3 .One such frequency band is the TV signal band (VHF and UHF
band). FCC has come up with the 802.22 standard for development of broadband
services in these bands. We propose a product that will enable the deployment of
WRAN technology in the future. As a first step, the company will develop efficient
and robust ‘cognitive receivers’ which can be plugged into a computer to operate in
a WRAN network for fixed users. Future prospects include using such receivers in
handheld and portable devices.
Improvement on existing solution
The current limitation of wireless technologies like Wi-fi , Wimax is the short area
coverage . A number of routers, base stations and repeaters are required for
expansion of the network. A “cognitive receiver” offers solutions for wide area
deployment of networks at a respectable data rates.
The technical specifications of WRAN networks have already been decided by FCC.
Some important specifications are
• A VHF/ UHF band network (US :54-72 MHz ,76-88Mhz ,174-216 MHz, 470-806
• Cell radius: 17 – 33 Km.
Long Term Evolution
Federal communication Commission
2. • Point to multipoint network topology
• Use of GPS mandatory
• For fixed and mobile users (802.22 PHY standard for mobile users)
• 6 MHz bandwidth , 1.5 Mbps downlink /384 Kbps uplink
An important aspect of our product is the antenna efficiency and size. For fixed
users, our device will use the TV antenna of the user to set up a WRAN network .In
case the user doesn’t have an antenna, customized antennas will be sold with our
receivers . As the size of the antenna is not critical for fixed users, these antennas
will be designed to work at lower frequencies of the TV band spectrum.
For mobile users, the antenna size has to be small. This is possible by
developing “cognitive receivers” for higher frequency of the TV band spectrum.
Advantages of our product
• Will work in a large dedicated data network area coverage( upto 100 Km
• Lower cost of setup ( few base stations and repeaters compared to 802.11
• Deeper penetration of data networks (internet) in developing countries.
• An alternative wireless solution to fixed data networks.
This product will make internet more ubiquitous due to its long range wireless
capability. It can provide internet speeds similar to ADSL and cable modem in less
populated areas. In cities, it can provide lower speed access to internet like those
available on 3G and GPRS 4 technology. An impending problem of large usage of
bandwidth by 3G phones will be solved by using dedicated WRAN networks for
establishing data communication networks.
The use of GNSS
Galileo GNSS will be an essential entity of 802.22 wireless communication
standards. A WRAN base station and its community of users will share a common
General Packet Radio Service
Proposed by Mayur Sarode and Trinath Chigurpatti Page 2
3. clock. Galileo GPS provides accurate timing signals along with latitude and
longitude of the user. These parameters will improve the robustness of the cognitive
receiver in following ways
• Accurate synchronization with the base station
• To detect if the CPE(customer premises equipment) is within or outside the
protected contour of a licensed spectrum
• The base station will be equipped with GPS which will communicate with a
centralized database to give information about available free channels and
guard bands in the area
• Using Galileo GNSS to monitor the inflow and out flow of users in within a
Making the product a reality!
For proof of concept, USRP 5 boards and open source Gnuradio software packages
can be used to develop software for efficient spectrum sensing. After establishing
for robustness of the software, specialized RF front ends will be developed using
this software to market a WRAN compatible plug and play device with a personal
computer. Development of antenna’s first for fixed users and then for mobile users
will also be undertaken . For deploying WRAN network base stations, third parties
network service providers can be approached or developed in house. Existing GSM 6,
mobile networks infrastructure, can be considered for WRAN setup.
Has the idea been tested already?
A lot of research is being conducted in the field of cognitive radios . FCC is in the
process to set the standards for spectrum sensing. There is a large open source
community on web working on developing cognitive radio protocols. 7
As more and more of devices are communicating wirelessly, the spectrum available
to accommodate these devices are limited. Most of the frequency spectrum is
(Universal software radio peripheral) (www.ettusresearch.com)
Global System of Mobile
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4. underutilized. The future lies in’ cognitive radio technology’. Our company proposes
to build reconfigurable radio’s in the UHF/VHF 8 band which have previously been
licensed to television operators by following the 802.22 standard and specifications.
With a wide network area and data rate speed similar to ADSL 9 and cable modem, a
large market is foreseen in providing fixed and mobile internet access. Our product
will also be an economical solution to connect users at rural and remote places to
the internet grid.
Section B: Commercial aspects
Appropriate business sector
The business sector of the product is in the field of telecommunications and mobile
phones. This product will expand the reach of internet to remote and rural area.
This will increase E trade and commerce.
The product has the opportunity to make profits in developing countries (Africa,
India and china), where internet access is limited. Figure 1 shows the projected
growth of mobile broadband in the near future.
Appropriate field of application for potential future adaptions.
Potential future adaptations include embedded cognitive receivers in mobile phones
and handheld devices. WRAN network planning is another area where large return
on investment can be expected. The data speed of WRAN networks is comparable
to present data rate as shown in Fig.2 with an advantage of large network area.
Hence a large market exists in mobile internet.
Ultra High frequency/Very High frequency
Asymmetric Digital subscriber Line
*Ovum ,Strategy analytics ,Ericsson ; ** Data compiled from T-mobile services
Proposed by Mayur Sarode and Trinath Chigurpatti Page 4
5. Figure 1* Figure 2**
Target market Customers
The company will initially target customers in developing countries and rural areas
of developed countries. Due to limited resources of ADSL and cable internet which
are mostly restricted to large cities, WRAN networks will be a solution and will boost
the existing infrastructure of the data networks. The 8022.22 cognitive receivers for
fixed equipment will have high market value in developing countries due to an
alternative wireless solution to ADSL and cable internet.
After generating revenues from these services, mobile users will be targeted next.
The main challenge lies is incorporating a WRAN receiver in handheld devices. In
the developed countries, a large market potential exists in establishing dedicated
long range data networks for mobile phones.
To make 802.22 technologies ubiquitous and profitable to our company, a
partnership with mobile service providers (T-mobile, Vodafone) and incumbent TV
broadcasters (NTSC, ATSC, PAL, DTV and DVB-T)10 is important
The product will have a high market value as it conforms to the industry standards.
The cognitive receiver will be designed in according to the standards set by FCC
.Hence market acceptance and interoperability will not be an issue.
NTSC: National Television Service Committee ;ATSC : Advanced Television Systems Comité;
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6. To our knowledge there is one company (www.wifiwirelessinc.net) which provides
cargo management solutions using the 802.22 standard. Other than this company,
presently there are no direct competitors in this segment of market.
To realize this product, at least a year of research and development by a small team
of engineers (2-3) is required. This can be conducted independently or at the
Technical university of Eindhoven as a part of the master’s curriculum. The cost of
developing the product involves purchasing USRP test beds (atleast 2) and
manufacturing cost of receiver. Using third party to deploy base stations for WRAN
network will also influence the cost of the receiver.
The final cost of the product depends on the whether WRAN base stations are
deployed in-house or in collaboration with a network provider. The goal of the
company will be to keep the manufacturing cost of the receiver as low as possible.
USRP kit + computer +peripherals 4000 Euros
(antennas ,cables, connectors)
Rent Office space 400 Euros pm
Final product Will be made competitive with existing
Time before product launch
Our company wishes to be financed either by Galileo masters award under the main
prize event or by T –systems. The ground based communication infrastructure of T-
systems will allow us to test our cognitive receivers and create WRAN networks on
The return on investment for investors will be high as it will create a new market for
fixed and mobile internet. No investment on procuring licensed spectrum is required
as FCC has opened the spectrum for development of cognitive radios.
Atleast one year is needed to conduct the proof on concept and on development on
cognitive front end. Another year will be required to comply the products with FCC
standards for mass deployment of the technology. It will take around 1.5 -2 years to
develop and launch the product in market.
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7. Section C: Legal aspects
The IEEE 802.22 standard is proposed by FCC for TV spectrums in the United States
of America. The standard has to be modified (the bandwidth and frequency ranges)
to make it more suitable for a market of a particular country. The protection from
interruption to incumbent service providers and convincing them about non
interference caused by the cognitive radio receivers will be a challenge. Onsite
testing will play an important role on the success of the product.
The 802.22 standard is mainly targeted for rural and fixed equipment users. Our
company will carry out innovation to make it suitable for mobile users. Presently,
802.22 PHY supports mobility upto 114 Km/hr. This idea is not patented but
the technology when developed has the potential to be patented.
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