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Psychological Disorders

  2. Abnormal behavior : -actions, thoughts and feelings that are harmful to the person or others. -experiencing discomfort enough not to function.
  3. Perspectives on Psychological Disorders • Medical perspective - the perspective that suggests that when an individual displays symptoms of abnormal behavior, the root cause will be found in a physical examination of the individual, which may reveal a hormonal imbalance, a chemical deficiency, or a brain injury. • Psychoanalytic perspective - the perspective that suggests that abnormal behavior stems from childhood conflicts over opposing wishes regarding sex and aggression.
  4. • Behavioral perspective - the perspective that looks at the behavior itself as the problem. • Cognitive perspective - the perspective that suggests that people’s thoughts and beliefs are a central component of abnormal behavior. • Humanistic perspective - the perspective that emphasizes the responsibility people have for their own behavior, even when such behavior is abnormal.
  5. •Sociocultural perspective - the perspective that assumes that people’s behavior—both normal and abnormal— is shaped by the kind of family group, society, and culture in which they live.
  6. Classifying Psychological Disorders Why create classifications of mental illness? What is the value of talking about diagnoses instead of just talking about individuals? 1. Diagnoses create a verbal shorthand for referring to a list of associated symptoms. 2. Diagnoses allow us to statistically study many similar cases, learning to predict outcomes. 3. Diagnoses can guide treatment choices.     The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual It’s easier to count cases of autism if we have a clear definition. Versions: DSM-IVTR, DSM-V (May 2013) The DSM is used to justify payment for treatment. It’s consistent with diagnoses used by medical doctors worldwide.
  7. The Five “Axes” of Diagnosis The DSM suggests describing someone not just with a label but with a five-part picture. Axis I: Is a clinical syndrome present? Using specifically defined criteria, clini cians may select none, one, o r more syndromes. Axis II: Axis III: Axis IV: Axis V: Is a personality Is a general Are What is the disorder or medical psychosocial global mental condition, or assessment of retardation such as environmental this person’s (intellectual diabetes, problems, such functioning? developmental arthritis, or as school or Clinicians disorder) hypertension housing assign a code present? also present? issues, also from present? Clinicians may 0-100. or may not also select one of these two conditions.
  8. Anxiety Disorders The occurrence of anxiety without an obvious external cause that affects daily functioning. Phobic Disorder: •Phobias - intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations.
  9. Specific Phobia A specific phobia is more than just a strong fear or dislike. A specific phobia is diagnosed when there is an uncontrollable, irrational, intense desire to avoid the some object or situation. Even an image of the object can trigger a reaction--“GET IT AWAY FROM ME!!!”--the uncontrollable, irrational, intense desire to avoid the object of the phobia.
  10. Some Fears and Phobias What trends are evident here? Which varies more, fear or phobias? What does this imply? Some Other Phobias Agoraphobia is the avoidance of situations in which one will fear having a panic attack, especially a situation in which it is difficult to get help, and from which it difficult to escape. Social phobia refers to an intense fear of being watched and judged by others. It is visible as a fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation is possible, such as public speaking, eating, or performing.
  11. Panic Disorder: A panic attack is not just an “anxiety attack.” It may include:  many minutes of intense dread or terror.  chest pains, choking, numbness, or other frightening physical sensations. Patients may feel certain that it’s a heart attack.  a feeling of a need to escape. Panic disorder refers to repeated and unexpected panic attacks, as well as a fear of the next attack, and a change in behavior to avoid panic attacks.
  12. GAD: Generalized Anxiety Disorder The experience of long-term, persistent anxiety and worry. ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder [OCD]  Obsessions are intense, unwanted worries, ideas, and images that repeatedly pop up in the mind.  A compulsion is a repeatedly strong feeling of “needing” to carry out an action, even though it doesn’t feel like it makes sense.
  13. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] About 10 to 35 percent of people who experience trauma not only have burned-in memories, but also four weeks to a lifetime of:  repeated intrusive recall of those memories.  nightmares and other reexperiencing.  social withdrawal or phobic avoidance.  jumpy anxiety or hypervigilance.  insomnia or sleep problems.
  14. Somatoform Disorders Psychological difficulties that take on a physical (somatic) form, but for which there is no medical cause. Hypochondriasis A disorder in which people have a constant fear of illness and a preoccupation with their health.
  15. Conversion Disorder: A major somatoform disorder that involves an actual physical disturbance, such as the inability to use a sensory organ or the complete or partial inability to move an arm or leg. Somatization Disorder A long-term (chronic) condition in which a person has physical symptoms that involve more than one part of the body, but no physical cause can be found.
  16. Somatoform Pain Disorder Pain that is severe enough to disrupt a person's everyday life.
  17. Dissociative Disorders Examples:  Dissociation refers to a separation of conscious awareness from thoughts, memory, bodily sensations, feelings, or even from identity.  Dissociation can serve as a psychological escape from an overwhelmingly stressful situation.  A dissociative disorder refers to dysfunction and distress caused by chronic and severe dissociation. Dissociative Amnesia: Loss of memory with no known physical cause; inability to recall selected memories or any memories Dissociative Fugue “Running away” state; wandering away from one’s life, memory, and identity, with no memory of these Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D.) formerly “Multiple Personality Disorder” Development of separate personalities
  18. Mood Disorders Major depressive disorder [MDD] is:  more than just feeling “down.”  more than just feeling sad about something. Bipolar disorder is:  more than “mood swings.”  depression plus the problematic overly “up” mood called “mania.”
  19. Schizophrenia: Psychosis refers to a mental split from reality and rationality. the mind is split from reality, e.g. a split from one’s own thoughts so that they appear as hallucinations. Schizophrenia symptoms include:  disorganized and/or delusional thinking.  disturbed perceptions.  inappropriate emotions and actions.
  20. Subtypes of Schizophrenia Paranoid • Plagued by hallucinations, often with negative messages, and delusions, both grandiose and persecutory Disorganized • Primary symptoms are flat affect, incoherent speech, and random behavior Catatonic • Rarely initiating or controlling movement; copies others’ speech and actions Undifferentiated • Many varied symptoms Residual • Withdrawal continues after positive symptoms have disappeared
  21. Personality Disorders A disorder characterized by a set of inflexible, maladaptive behavior patterns that keep a person from functioning appropriately in society. Antisocial Personality Disorder A disorder in which individuals show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society or the rights of others.
  22. Borderline Personality Disorder A disorder in which individuals have difficulty developing a secure sense of who they are. Narcissistic Personality Disorder A personality disturbance characterized by an exaggerated sense of self- importance. Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) A mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
  23. Avoidant Personality Disorder (AvPD) A person who displays a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to negative evaluation, and avoidance of social interaction. Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD) Formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people.
  24. Obsessive- Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) Also called anankastic personality disorder, is a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. In contrast to people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), behaviors are rational and desirable to people with OCPD.
  25. Childhood Disorder Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) A disorder marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and a great deal of inappropriate activity. Autism A severe developmental disability that impairs children’s ability to communicate and relate to others.
  26. Elimination Disorder Disorders that concern the elimination of feces or urine from the body. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Described in clinical literature as a severe and relatively uncommon disorder that can affect children.RAD is characterized by markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate ways of relating socially in most contexts.