MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Gender Matters:
Why we need to take women and
men i...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Introduction
“despite a widespread recognition in
d...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Boserup (1970) Woman's Role in Economic Development...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Women in Development (WID), 1970s
The convergence o...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Women in Development (WID) – Critiques
Assumed wome...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Gender and Development (GAD), 1980s and 90s
The GAD...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Gender and Development (GAD), 1980s and 90s
One of ...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Gender and Development (GAD) – Critiques
GAD has fa...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Men, Masculinities and Development
The perceived fa...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Men, Masculinities and Development – Critiques
It i...
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
http://www.saferworld.org.uk
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
Thank you!
Matt Maycock
Matthew.maycock@glasgow.ac....
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Gender matters 1st may, Glasgow Centre for International Development, Unviersity of Glasgow

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Gender matters 1st may, Glasgow Centre for International Development, Unviersity of Glasgow

  1. 1. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Gender Matters: Why we need to take women and men into consideration when we conceptualise peaceful and effective development Matt Maycock and Julie Brethfeld
  2. 2. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Introduction “despite a widespread recognition in development agencies that gender matters, this all too often translates into the token, partial and selective incorporation of gender awareness into public/international policy, so evident in anti-poverty programmes” Molyneux (2004, abstract)
  3. 3. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Boserup (1970) Woman's Role in Economic Development Boserup investigated the impact of development projects on women in the Global South. Boserup ’s study challenged the argument that benefits of Development automatically trickle down to women and other disadvantaged groups Boserup’s study put gender on the development agenda. This was subsequently criticised for its oversimplification of the nature of women’s work and roles. (Beneria and Sen in Visvanathan 1997)
  4. 4. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Women in Development (WID), 1970s The convergence of Women’s issues and Development problems led to the growth of the “Women in Development” (WID), which emphasised women’s economic and productive roles WID advocates argued that: • the benefits of Development had not reached women • in some economic sectors women’s position was undermined • women should be integrated into the design and implementation of development programs through legal and administrative changes
  5. 5. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Women in Development (WID) – Critiques Assumed women were not already integrated into economic production Influenced by American feminism: accepted existing social and political structures (Mohanty, 1984) Assumed women all had common problems and interests; De-emphasized the family and community contexts affecting women’s activities; Often resulted in separate projects for women separate from broad development programs. Non-confrontational, thus failed to transform the fundamental status of women. Tends to see development as an activity of a government-to-government nature and consequently generally refrains from criticizing governments.
  6. 6. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Gender and Development (GAD), 1980s and 90s The GAD perspective sought to move beyond gender dichotomies and unilateral focus that had characterised WID. GAD practitioners studied gender divisions of labour rather than women and production. Gender is verb not a noun, it is performed and socially constructed (Butler, 1990) Gender is shaped not only by a multiplicity of interacting time-and place-contingent influences (culture, mode of production, legal and political institutions, etc…), but is further mediated by men’s and women’s insertion into other socially generated categories such as class, age and “race” (Moser 1993:3). Intersectionality (Crenshaw, 1989)
  7. 7. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Gender and Development (GAD), 1980s and 90s One of the key aims of this approach was to reveal and potentially alter, through appropriate development methods and practices, the power relations implied by gender as a socially constructed identity (Chant 2000:8). It also called for the integration of a gender perspective at all levels of development activity (2000:8) and aimed to promote men’s role as potential supporters of women Feminist anthropologists influencing GAD, contended that there was nothing `natural’ about the gender inequalities that take different forms in different cultures (cf. Strathern 1980, Moore 1988).
  8. 8. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Gender and Development (GAD) – Critiques GAD has faced criticism from gender theorists (cf. Jackson, 2001; Chant 2000), among others, who are unconvinced that GAD has provided any alternative to the shortcomings of WID. In the literature and reports of development agencies and NGOs, the terms ‘gender’ and ‘women’ are often used interchangeably as if one were synonymous with the other (Kaufman 2003:3) On a more practical level, the complicated concept of gender as performed, relational and contested is less easily incorporated into development planning than the ‘add on’ WID approach that preceded it. GAD often requires action beyond the limited time and resources of development agencies
  9. 9. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Men, Masculinities and Development The perceived failure of GAD to adopt a truly relational and integrated approach has meant that development agencies are becoming increasingly interested to ‘bring men in’ to work on gender (White 2000:33). Analyses of men as gendered beings (Connell, 1995), their perceptions of the relationships they have with women and with other men have been largely missing from the GAD agenda. Various contributions to GAD debates have emphasised the importance of a male-inclusive approach (Chant 2003; Jackson 2001) and drawn attention to the ways in which GAD practice and policy, based on hegemonic gender ideologies, has negated the diversity of men and masculinities.
  10. 10. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Men, Masculinities and Development – Critiques It is important that an agency-centred approach to the analysis of gender and power does not go too far in legitimising non- equitable hierarchies of power. Turning attention to men may allow the ‘reinscription’ of patriarchal explanations which lie conveniently close to hand (White 2000:35). There is a concern that there is an emerging assumption that women in development have been ‘done’ and all that is needed now is to ‘bring men in’ (White 2000:35). Incorporating men will not solve the problematic of gender discourse as ‘sex-dressed’ (2000:37).
  11. 11. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. http://www.saferworld.org.uk
  12. 12. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
  13. 13. MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Thank you! Matt Maycock Matthew.maycock@glasgow.ac.uk Julie Brethfeld jbrethfeld@saferworld.org.uk

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