O slideshow foi denunciado.

What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior?

423 visualizações

Publicada em

Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães - Apresentação para a Disciplina "Técnicas de Levantamento e Análise de Dados" (Professor José Afonso Mazzon). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração da Universidade de São Paulo (PPGA-USP), São Paulo, 19 de Junho de 2015.

Publicada em: Educação
  • Seja o primeiro a comentar

What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior?

  1. 1. Motivation Argument Conclusions References Mixed Randomized-Repeated Designs or What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? An Experiment with Referees at the Journal of Public Economics by Raj Chetty, Emmanuel Saez, and László Sándor Journal of Economic Perspectives, v.28, n.3, 2014, p.169-188 Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães Antonio Sergio da Silva Técnicas de Levantamento e Análise de Dados Universidade de São Paulo (USP) June 19th, 2015 Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  2. 2. Motivation Argument Conclusions References SECTIONS Motivation Argument Conclusions References Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  3. 3. Motivation Argument Conclusions References MOTIVATION Figure 1 Submissions Per Year - Top Journals in Economics Source: Card & Dellavigna (2013). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  4. 4. Motivation Argument Conclusions References MOTIVATION Figure 2 Publications Per Year - Top Journals in Economics Source: Card & Dellavigna (2013). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  5. 5. Motivation Argument Conclusions References MOTIVATION Figure 3 Publications Divided by Submissons in Previous 2 Years Source: Card & Dellavigna (2013). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  6. 6. Motivation Argument Conclusions References MOTIVATION Figure 4 Papers’ Lenght and Number of Authors - Top Journals in Economics Source: Card & Dellavigna (2013). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  7. 7. Motivation Argument Conclusions References MOTIVATION Figure 5 Survival Function - Papers Refereed Source: Hamermesh (1994). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  8. 8. Motivation Argument Conclusions References MOTIVATION What do we know? Facts: 1. Submissions per year increased (Card & Dellavigna, 2013). 2. Papers’ lenght increased (Card & Dellavigna, 2013). 3. More authors per paper (Hamermesh, 2013). 4. Dramatic slowdown of the publication process (Ellison, 2002). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  9. 9. Motivation Argument Conclusions References MOTIVATION Why should we care about referee reports? A few opinions: "Refereeing is a ... formal service to the research of others. As you become known, you will receive an increasing stream of requests to referee. ... At most schools this sort of service is expected, desired and even rewarded” (Hamermesh, 1992, p.177). "You are performing a valuable service to the profession. It is worth doing well. It also is good for your spirit when you have done something worthwhile for society” (Choi, 2002). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  10. 10. Motivation Argument Conclusions References MOTIVATION The Reviewer’s Dilemma Individual costs from submitting a high-quality referee report quickly.. ..but aggregate gains to the authors of the paper and to society from the knowledge produced. Question 1: why should anyone bother to write a referee report? Question 2: is there any way to make the process more efficient (and fast)? Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  11. 11. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Experimental Design: Period: 02/05/2010 to 10/26/2011 (20 months). All referees for the Journal of Public Economics were randomly assigned to one of four groups ("Control", "Social", "4 Week" and "Cash"). Each observation corresponds to a single referee invitation (referees invited multiple times contribute with multiple observations). Reminder emails one week prior to each group’s deadlines. Cash incentives were withdrawn six months before the end of the experiment. Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  12. 12. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Table 1 Treatment Groups - Journal of Public Economics Source: Chetty et al. (2014). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  13. 13. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Figure 6 Timeline of Interventions and Outcomes Source: Chetty et al. (2014). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  14. 14. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Table 2 Fraction of Referees Who Accept Review Invitation by Treatment Group Source: Chetty et al. (2014). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  15. 15. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Figure 7 Pre-Experiment Review Times by Treatment Group Source: Chetty et al. (2014). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  16. 16. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Figure 8 Post-Experiment Review Times by Treatment Group Source: Chetty et al. (2014). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  17. 17. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Four Sets of Outcomes: 1. Shortening the deadline from six to four weeks reduced median review times from 48 days to 36 days. 2. Providing a cash incentive for reports sent within four weeks reduced median review times by an additional 8 days. 3. The "Social"treatment reduced median review times by 2.5 days. 4. Social incentives had much larger effects for tenured professors. Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  18. 18. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Lessons for the Peer Review Process: 1. Shorter deadlines are extremely effective in improving the speed of the review process. 2. Cash incentives can generate significant improvements in review times and also increase willingness to submit reviews. 3. Social incentives can also improve referee performance. Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  19. 19. Motivation Argument Conclusions References ARGUMENT Lessons for Prosocial Behavior: 1. Attention matters: reminders and deadlines have significant impacts on behavior. 2. Monetary incentives can be effective in increasing some forms of prosocial behavior (contrarily to other evidence, such as Gneezy & Rutschini, 2000; Squazzoni, Bravo, & Tákacs, 2013). 3. Social incentives can be effective even when other policy instruments are ineffective. Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  20. 20. Motivation Argument Conclusions References CONCLUSIONS My Impressions: Very innovative attempt to address a relevant question through the use of a mixed ramdomized-repeated design. Clear-cut implications, both for academics and policy-makers. Main flaw: authors did not explore other potencial uses of this design (e.g., interactions and interaction contrasts) (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007, chap.7). Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  21. 21. Motivation Argument Conclusions References REFERENCES Card, D., DellaVigna, S. (2013). Nine facts about top journals in economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 51(1), 144–161. http://doi.org/10.1257/jel.51.1.144. Chetty, R., Saez, E., Sándor, L. (2014). What policies increase prosocial behavior? An experiment with referees at the Journal of Public Economics. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(3), 169–188. http://doi.org/10.1257/jep.28.3.169. Ellison, G. (2002). The slowdown of the economics publishing process. Journal of Political Economy, 110(5), 947–993. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/341868. Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  22. 22. Motivation Argument Conclusions References REFERENCES Gneezy, U., Rustichini, A. (2000). A fine is a price. The Journal of Legal Studies, 29(1), 1–17. http://doi.org/10.1086/468061. Hamermesh, D. S. (1992). The young economist’s guide to professional etiquette. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 6(1), 169–179. http://doi.org/10.1257/jep.6.1.169. Hamermesh, D. S. (1994). Facts and myths about refereeing. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(1), 153–163. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2138156. Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  23. 23. Motivation Argument Conclusions References REFERENCES Hamermesh, D. S. (2013). Six decades of top economics publishing: who and how? Journal of Economic Literature, 51(1), 162–172. http://doi.org/10.1257/jel.51.1.162. Squazzoni, F., Bravo, G., Takács, K. (2013). Does incentive provision increase the quality of peer review? An experimental study. Research Policy, 42(1), 287–294. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2012.04.014. Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S. (2007). Experimental designs using ANOVA. New York: Thompson Brooks/Cole. Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)
  24. 24. Motivation Argument Conclusions References Thank You Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães matheus.albergaria.magalhaes@gmail.com http://www.sites.google.com/site/malbergariademagalhaes Matheus Albergaria de Magalhães & Antonio Sergio da Silva What Policies Increase Prosocial Behavior? (Chetty, Saez & Sándor, 2014)

×