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Aerodinamics Forces
Focus
1 Bernoulli’s Theorem
2 Aerodinamics Forces
3 Nondimensional Coefficients
4 Wind Tunnel
c www.mec...
Aerodinamics Forces
Bernoulli’s Theorem
Bernoulli’s theorem states that the sum of kinetic energy
1/2qV2 and potential ene...
Aerodinamics Forces
Bernoulli’s Theorem
T2
+ Velocity
- Pressure
- Velocity
+ Pressure
T1 TV
Td
c www.mechanical–enginerin...
Aerodinamics Forces
Bernoulli’s Theorem
The flows can be considered as two pipes, an upper one
T1 toward the ventral side o...
Aerodinamics Forces
Aerodinamics Forces
V
R
-P
F
j
c www.mechanical–enginering.name
Aerodinamics Forces
Nondimensional Coefficients
The component of the resultant parallel to airflow is the
drag R
CR = f (Re)...
Aerodinamics Forces
Center of pressure
C
R
-P
F
j
Xp
c www.mechanical–enginering.name
Aerodinamics Forces
Center of pressure
The point where the line of action of aerodinamics force F
encounters the body is c...
Aerodinamics Forces
NACA Profile 4412
c www.mechanical–enginering.name
Aerodinamics Forces
NACA Profile 4412
V
R
-P
F
i
i −Cp CR
3.6 0.00 0.007
0.0 0.28 0.012
−2.0 0.43 0.019
−4.0 0.58 0.028
−6....
Aerodinamics Forces
Wind Tunnel
V
V=0Laminar
Turbulent
c www.mechanical–enginering.name
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Aerodinamics

Bernoulli’s Theorem Aerodinamics Forces Nondimensional Coefficients Wind Tunnel

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Aerodinamics

  1. 1. Aerodinamics Forces Focus 1 Bernoulli’s Theorem 2 Aerodinamics Forces 3 Nondimensional Coefficients 4 Wind Tunnel c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  2. 2. Aerodinamics Forces Bernoulli’s Theorem Bernoulli’s theorem states that the sum of kinetic energy 1/2qV2 and potential energy (pressure p) is constant and which can be expresed as follows 1 2 qV2 + p = constant , (1) excluding the forces of gravity. c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  3. 3. Aerodinamics Forces Bernoulli’s Theorem T2 + Velocity - Pressure - Velocity + Pressure T1 TV Td c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  4. 4. Aerodinamics Forces Bernoulli’s Theorem The flows can be considered as two pipes, an upper one T1 toward the ventral side of the plate and a lower one T2 toward the dorsal side. In the dorsal part the airflow is forced to travel to rejoin the exiting streamlines with an increase in speed and a loss of pressure energy. In the ventral part, the trajectories are shorter, due to lower velocity, and the area Tv of local pressure is greater. c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  5. 5. Aerodinamics Forces Aerodinamics Forces V R -P F j c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  6. 6. Aerodinamics Forces Nondimensional Coefficients The component of the resultant parallel to airflow is the drag R CR = f (Re) = R 1 2 qSV2 , (2) with S the projected frontal area. The component normal to the flow is the downforce −P and its nondimensional coefficient −CP: CP = f (Re) = − P 1 2 qSV2 , (3) c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  7. 7. Aerodinamics Forces Center of pressure C R -P F j Xp c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  8. 8. Aerodinamics Forces Center of pressure The point where the line of action of aerodinamics force F encounters the body is called the center of pressure. It is located at a distance XP from the leading edge, which varies according to the angle of attack, so that the nondimensional ratio Xp/C, with chord C, varies from 0 to 0.5 for angles to attack from 0 ◦ to 90 ◦ . The curvature, in the plate, creates an angle j between the slope of the tailing edge and the chord line. c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  9. 9. Aerodinamics Forces NACA Profile 4412 c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  10. 10. Aerodinamics Forces NACA Profile 4412 V R -P F i i −Cp CR 3.6 0.00 0.007 0.0 0.28 0.012 −2.0 0.43 0.019 −4.0 0.58 0.028 −6.0 0.73 0.041 −8.0 0.88 0.056 −10.0 1.02 0.076 −12.0 1.15 0.096 −14.0 1.28 0.121 c www.mechanical–enginering.name
  11. 11. Aerodinamics Forces Wind Tunnel V V=0Laminar Turbulent c www.mechanical–enginering.name

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