2. There are no absolute answers about deviance
What people agree is deviant differs in various
societies and subcultures, and it may change over
Some things that were deviant are now widely
Change takes time and is accompanied by significant
4. Deviance is a violation of established contextual,
cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or
It can be minor (nose picking) or major (murder)
5. Deviance has a negative connotation, BUT
Deviance is not necessarily bad
It can foster social change
6. Labeling of something as deviant depends on many
– who commits the act
Notions of deviance vary across culture and time
Whether something is deviant depends on society's
response to the act
7. Social control is the regulation and enforcement of
The goal of social control is to maintain social order -
an arrangement of practices and behaviors on which
society's members base their daily lives.
The means of enforcing the rules are known as
8. Sanctions can be positive - rewards given for
conforming to norms
Sanctions can be negative - punishments for violating
Sanctions can be formal or informal
Informal sanctions - emerge in face-to-face social
Formal sanctions - ways to officially recognize and
enforce norm violations.
10. Functionalists are concerned with the way different
elements of a society contribute to the
whole. Deviance is a key component to a functioning
11. Emile Durkheim:
– The Essential Nature of Deviance
– Durkheim argued that deviance is a necessary part of a
• challenges societies norms - causes social change
• reaffirms currently held norms
• teachers others what the norms are
12. Robert Merton - Strain Theory
– Deviance is an inherent part of a functioning society.
– Strain Theory - socially accepted goals play a part in
determining whether a person conforms or deviates.
• Societal Goals - we are encouraged to achieve the
American Dream of financial success
• Institutional Means - The proper way to achieve a societal
13. Robert Merton – Strain Theory
– Modes of Adaptation:
14. Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay - Cultural Deviance
– Cultural Deviance Theory - conformity to the prevailing
cultural norms of lower-class society causes crime.
– Socioeconomic status correlated to race and ethnicity
results in higher crime rate.
– The mix of cultures and values created a smaller society
with different ideas of deviance, and those ideas were
transferred from generation to generation.
15. Sampson & Groves –
– Poverty, ethnic diversity, and family disruption in given
localities had a strong positive correlation with social
– Social disorganization is associated with high rates of
crime and delinquency - or deviance
16. Conflict theory looks to social and economic factors as
the cause of crime and deviance
17. Karl Marx: An Unequal System
– Conflict theory was greatly influenced by Karl Marx.
– Society falls into two groups:
– The wealthy who control the means of production - the
– The workers who depend on the bourgeois for survival -
– The bourgeois control government, laws, and authority
agencies to maintain and expand their positions.
18. C. Wright Mills: The Power Elite
– The Power Elite - a small group of wealthy and influential
people at the top of society who hold the power and
– The rules of society are stacked in favor of a privileged
few who manipulate them to stay on top.
– They decide what is criminal and what is not.
19. Crime and Social Class
– Crimes committed by the wealthy and powerful remain an
under-punished and costly problem within society.
– Those who hold power are the ones who make the laws.
– The powerful make laws that benefit themselves, and the
powerless suffer the consequences.
20. Symbolic interactionism is a theoretical approach used
to explain how societies come to view behaviors as
deviant or conventional
21. Labeling Theory
– Examines the ascribing of a deviant behavior to another
person by members of society
– What is considered deviant is determined by the
reactions of others to behaviors
– Primary Deviance - a violation of norms that does not
result in any long-term effects on the individual's self-
image or interactions with others.
– Secondary Deviance - occurs when a person's self
concept and behavior begin to change after his or her
actions are labeled as deviant by members of society.
– Master Status - a label that describes the chief
characteristic of an individual. Secondary deviance may
become one's master status.
23. Edwin Sutherland: Differential Association
– Individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to
them who provide models of and opportunities for
– Deviance is a result of differential socialization
– May explain why crime is multigenerational
24. Travis Hirschi: Control Theory
– Social control is directly affected by the strength of social
bonds and the deviance results from a feeling of
disconnection from society.
– Four types of social bonds that connect people to society:
• Attachment to others
• Commitment to investments we make in the community
• Involvement or participation in socially legitimate activities
• Belief in common values in society
26. Crime - is a behavior that violates official law and is
punishable through formal sanctions.
– There is a difference between what is deviant and what is
Legal codes - maintain formal social control through
laws, which are rules adopted and enforced by a
27. Violent crime
Types of Crimes
28. FBI's UCR - the FBI gathers crime data from law
enforcement agencies to create the Uniform Crime
Reports which is published annually. These reflect
only crimes known to the police.
29. BJS's NCVS -
The Bureau of Justice Statistics surveys 160,000
people in the U.S. about crimes they've experienced.
These are self-report studies - data gathered using
voluntary response methods.
The NCVS measures crime victimization, sometimes
unreported, and includes more detail than the UCR.
Public Perception of Crime
The UCR and NCVS can't measure all crimes, but
general trends can be determined.
30. Crime rates have been consistently falling since the
Public perception is that crime rates are increasing
Public perception is affected by the media and results
in increased fear of crime
31. Definition - an organization that exists to enforce a
The U.S. Criminal
32. The police are a civil force in charge of enforcing laws
and public order
Exist at the federal, state, and local level
– Federal: enforce federal law - FBI, ATF, DHS, etc.
– State - enforce statewide laws - highway patrol
– Local - limited jurisdiction
33. Definition - system that has the authority to make
decisions based on law.
Divided into federal, state, and local courts
– Federal courts - deal with federal matters. Judges are
selected by the President with the consent of
Congress. There are federal trial, appellate, and the
– State courts - appellate and courts of last resort in the
– Local courts - trial courts that handle criminal and civil
34. Definition - charged with supervisiong individuals who
have been arrested, convicted, and sentenced for a
Incarceration rates are increasing, and the US has the
highest incarceration rate in the world.
35. Jail - temporary confinement - for those awaiting trial
and sentenced to less than a year
Prison - houses those sentenced to longer than a year.
Parole - conditional release from a prison or jail under
Probation - supervised time as an alternative to prison