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Ap a rt history term 3 test 2

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Ap a rt history term 3 test 2

  1. 1. AP Art History Term 3 Test 2
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, No. 43 from Los Caprichos </li></ul><ul><li>C. 1798, Francisco Goya </li></ul><ul><li>He chiefly created formal portraits and Rococo genre pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Velazques and Rembrandt to develop a more Romantic style </li></ul><ul><li>Shows a slumbering personification of Reason, behind whom lurk dark creatures of the night </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Los Caprichos, a folio of 80 etchings </li></ul><ul><li>Created after the reinstitution of the Inquisition in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>The collection of 80 show the follies of Spanish life that Goya and his friends considered huge </li></ul><ul><li>He hoped they would reawaken reason </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Family of Charles IV </li></ul><ul><li>1800, Goya </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledges the influence of Velazquez’s Las Meninas by placing the painter behind the easel on the left </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic rather than idealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Some view it as a cruel expose of the sitters as common and inept </li></ul><ul><li>He was the principal court painter </li></ul><ul><li>The candid representation was refreshingly modern </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Third of Mary 1808 </li></ul><ul><li>1814, Goya </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on victims and antiheroes, the most prominent of which is the Christ-like figure in white </li></ul><ul><li>An indictment of the faceless and mechanical forces of war itself, blindly destroying defenseless humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred when France under Napoleon conquered Spain and planned to kill the royal family </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish populace rose up and a day of bloody street fighting ensued </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Elohim Creating Adam </li></ul><ul><li>1795, William Blake </li></ul><ul><li>Combines printing with painting and drawing </li></ul><ul><li>Taught by Reynolds </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate of unfettered imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Deeply concerned with problem of good & evil </li></ul><ul><li>One work out of a series of 12 prints </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpturesque volumes and muscular physiques of figures reveal the influence of Michelangelo </li></ul><ul><li>Invites direct comparison to Creation of Adam </li></ul><ul><li>Creation presented in negative terms </li></ul><ul><li>A giant worm, symbolizing matter, encircles Adam who lays on the ground like the Crucified Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Elohim (God) appears desperate </li></ul><ul><li>The creation is tragic because it submits the spiritual human to the fallen state of material existence </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges the viewer to recognize his fallen nature </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Haywain </li></ul><ul><li>1821, John Constable </li></ul><ul><li>Friends with Wordsworth </li></ul><ul><li>Planar authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Where he grew up </li></ul><ul><li>British countryside </li></ul><ul><li>This work was awarded a gold medal by Charles X and was presented in the Royal Academy </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Burning of the House of Lords and Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Mallord William Turner, Oct. 16th, 1843 </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the sublime </li></ul><ul><li>Almost apocalyptic </li></ul><ul><li>He witnessed the event and recorded what he saw in quick sketches that became the basis for this work </li></ul><ul><li>The exaggerated scale and plunging perspective of Westminster Bridge intensify the drama of the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Turner stood from across the Thames River </li></ul><ul><li>He emphasizes the helplessness of mankind in the face of nature's power </li></ul><ul><li>The fire’s terrifying force embodies the Romantic fascination with the sublime </li></ul><ul><li>His work inspired later French impressionists </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Houses of Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Begun 1835, Charles Barry and A.W.N. Pugin </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most famous Gothic revival buildings </li></ul><ul><li>This design created in a competition to replace the Parliament’s Westminster Palace </li></ul><ul><li>Built in the English Perpendicular Gothic style, consistent with the neighboring Westminster Abbey </li></ul><ul><li>Barry created the basic plan </li></ul><ul><li>For Pugin, Gothic was not a style but a principle </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Oxbow </li></ul><ul><li>1836, Thomas Cole </li></ul><ul><li>Great Romantic landscape painter </li></ul><ul><li>This work resulted from an extensive sketching trip, and was painted for exhibition at the National Academy of Design in NY </li></ul><ul><li>Considered one of his “view” paintings </li></ul><ul><li>View from the top of Mount Holyoke onto the Connecticut River </li></ul><ul><li>Such ancient geological formations constituted America’s “antiquities” </li></ul><ul><li>He contrasts the 2 sides of American landscape: its dense wilderness and its congenial pastoral valleys </li></ul><ul><li>The storm suggests that the wild will give way to the civilized </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Forever Free </li></ul><ul><li>1867, Edmonia Lewis </li></ul><ul><li>She went to Oberland </li></ul><ul><li>Had a career in Boston, but all of her artistic career was in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>She made sculptures for wealthy whites </li></ul><ul><li>Shows language of neoclassicism </li></ul><ul><li>Used for a political and social theme </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the emancipation of African-American slaves after the Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>She tries to break stereotypes of black women with this work </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Great Wave </li></ul><ul><li>1831, Katsushika Hokusai </li></ul><ul><li>From series, Thirty-Six Views of Mt. Fuji </li></ul><ul><li>This work has inspired countless imitations and parodies </li></ul><ul><li>Mt. Fuji, sacred to Japan is at the point of disaster </li></ul><ul><li>It resembles a wave with its shape and snowy cap </li></ul><ul><li>From the Edo Period </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Fireworks by the Ryogokubashi Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>1858, Ando Hiroshige, </li></ul><ul><li>From the series, One Hundred Views of Edo </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Gleaners </li></ul><ul><li>1857, Jean-Francois Millet </li></ul><ul><li>Great French rural naturalist </li></ul><ul><li>He focused peasant life </li></ul><ul><li>He supported the Revolution, and earned a state commission that allowed him to move from Paris to the village of Barbizon </li></ul><ul><li>His art was devoted to the difficulties and simple pleasures among rural existence </li></ul><ul><li>Warm colors and hazy atmosphere = soothing </li></ul><ul><li>Scene is one of great poverty </li></ul><ul><li>His intentions were quite conservative </li></ul><ul><li>He saw the fate of humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Neither a revolutionary nor a reformer but a fatalist who found the peasant’s acceptance of the human condition exemplary </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Third-Class Carraige </li></ul><ul><li>1862, Honore Daumier </li></ul><ul><li>Known primarily as a lithographer </li></ul><ul><li>At first focused on antimonarchial cartoons, then focused more on social and cultural themes </li></ul><ul><li>He sympathized with the working class people </li></ul><ul><li>Often depicted urban scenes </li></ul><ul><li>He places the viewer in the poor section of the bus </li></ul><ul><li>Great sense of intimacy and unity among these people </li></ul><ul><li>They are physically and mentally separated from the upper and middle class passengers </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The Stone Breakers </li></ul><ul><li>1849, Gustave Courbet </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by the events of 1848 to turn his attention to poor and ordinary people </li></ul><ul><li>He completely supported the Rev. </li></ul><ul><li>“ most complete expression of poverty” </li></ul><ul><li>Actually saw 2 men breaking stones </li></ul><ul><li>Faces hidden so viewer has a hard time identifying with them </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of conservative fatalism akin to Millet’s </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the first socialist picture ever painted </li></ul><ul><li>Depiction of injustice </li></ul><ul><li>Testified to Courbet’s respect for ordinary people </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>A Burial at Ornans </li></ul><ul><li>1849, Courbet </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on another scene of ordinary life: the funeral of an unnamed bourgeois citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked by conservative critics who objected to its presentation of a mundane funeral on a scale reserved for major historical events </li></ul><ul><li>No conventional compositional standards like pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Shows a more democratic arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Political convictions are evident in the individual attention he accords the ordinary citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Many shown were Courbet’s friends and family members </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe (The Luncheon on the Grass) </li></ul><ul><li>1863, Edouard Manet </li></ul><ul><li>Modern version of a famous Venetian Renaissance painting, the Pastoral Concert </li></ul><ul><li>Some see it as a portrayal of modern alienation for the figures in Manet’s painting fail to connect with one another psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Her gaze makes us conscious of our role s outside observers </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of warm colors, and flat, sharply outlined figures </li></ul><ul><li>Figures not integrated with their natural surroundings but stand out as if seated before a painted backdrop </li></ul><ul><li>Victorine Meurent often modeled for Manet </li></ul><ul><li>All metaphors gone </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Olympia </li></ul><ul><li>1863, Manet </li></ul><ul><li>Title alludes to a socially ambitious prostitute </li></ul><ul><li>Based on a Venetian Renaissance source, Titian’s Venus of Urbino, which Manet had copied in Florence </li></ul><ul><li>Appears to pay homage to Titian’s in its subject mater </li></ul><ul><li>However, Manet made his the antithesis of the Titian </li></ul><ul><li>Manet’s is angular and flattened </li></ul><ul><li>Manet’s appears coldly indifferent to the male spectator </li></ul><ul><li>Our relationship with Olympia is underscored by the reaction of her cat, which arches its back </li></ul><ul><li>O lympia stares down at us indicating that she is in a position of power </li></ul><ul><li>Manet subverted the tradition of the accommodating female nude </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Snap the Whip </li></ul><ul><li>1872, Winslow Homer </li></ul><ul><li>Evokes the innocence of childhood and the imagined charms of a preindustrial America for an audience that was increasingly urbanized </li></ul><ul><li>He thought unadorned realism was the more appropriate style for democratic values </li></ul><ul><li>Began his career as a freelance illustrator for periodicals like Harper’s Weekly </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The Gross Clinic </li></ul><ul><li>1875, Thomas Eakins </li></ul><ul><li>Great American realist </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrated the human mind </li></ul><ul><li>Trained at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized in frank portraits and scenes of everyday life which generated little popular interest </li></ul><ul><li>Severly criticized and was refused exhibition space </li></ul><ul><li>Shows Dr. Samuel David Gross performing an operation with young medical students </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic use of light inspired by Rembrandt not meant to stir emotions but to make a point: Amid the darkness of ignorance and fear, modern science shines the light of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Eakins includes a self portrait, testimony to his personal knowledge of the subject </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Resurrection of Lazarus </li></ul><ul><li>Henry O. Tanner </li></ul><ul><li>He believed biblical storied could illustrate the struggles and hopes of contemporary African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Many black preachers connected this story’s theme of redemption and rebirth with the Emancipation Proclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Received favorable reception at the Paris Salon </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased by the museum for living artists </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the moment following the miracle </li></ul><ul><li>Limited palette = reminiscent of Rembrandt </li></ul><ul><li>Unifies the witnesses watching the miracle </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Central Park </li></ul><ul><li>1858-1880, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux </li></ul><ul><li>843 acre tract purchased by the city </li></ul><ul><li>A competition was held for its design as Central Park </li></ul><ul><li>Architect Calvert Vaux drew up a design </li></ul><ul><li>Park superintendent Olmsted drew routes for carriages and pedestrians </li></ul><ul><li>Contains some formal elements </li></ul><ul><li>Followed English tradition by designing it in a naturalistic manner based on irregularities </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 2 </li></ul><ul><li>South more for sports </li></ul><ul><li>North more of a nature preserve </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The Hireling Shepherd </li></ul><ul><li>1851, William Holman Hunt </li></ul><ul><li>Combined didacticism and naturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Painted landscape portions of the composition outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Depicts a farmhand neglecting his duties to flirt with a woman and try to discuss a moth </li></ul><ul><li>Some of his employers sheep are wandering into an adjacent field </li></ul><ul><li>He meant to satirize pastors who waste time discussing irrelevant theological questions rather than tend their flock </li></ul><ul><li>Moral lesson on perils of temptation </li></ul><ul><li>Woman = later day Eve </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Crystal Palace </li></ul><ul><li>1850-51, Sir John Paxton </li></ul><ul><li>Created for the London Great Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Featured a structural skeleton of cast iron </li></ul><ul><li>Largest space ever enclosed up to that time </li></ul><ul><li>The central transept meant to echo imperial Roman architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Technological marvel </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a work of engineering rather than architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed in a fire in 1936 </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Brooklyn Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>1867-83, John Augustus and Washington Augustus Roebling </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous early steel bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Roebling was a German born engineer who invented twisted-wire cable </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed chief engineer of this bridge </li></ul><ul><li>His son completed the project </li></ul><ul><li>No decorative adornment </li></ul><ul><li>Granite towers that feature projecting cornices over pointed-arch openings allude to Gothic cathedrals and to Roman triumphal arches </li></ul><ul><li>Arches celebrate triumphs of modern engineers </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Eiffel Tower </li></ul><ul><li>1887-1889, Gustave Eiffel </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative artists were violently opposed to the tower </li></ul><ul><li>At the time it was the tallest structure in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Was to be the main attraction of the Universal Exposition in 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>Because it did not conceal its construction, detractors saw is as an ugly work of engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies the 19th century belief in the progress and ultimate perfection of civilization through science and technology </li></ul>