2. • – is the broad term used to describe the industry that
builds and flies aircraft.
• It is usually subdivided into – (aircraft
flown by a nation’s air force and other branches of its military)
and the one we’re concerned with,
• – The industry that flies the public from place
3. • – A flight must start and end
within the borders of the same country.
• – A flight starts in one
country and ends in another.
4. • – is one on which a traveler goes from
“POINT A” to “POINT B” on the same aircraft, with no stop in
5. • – is one on which a traveler goes from “POINT
A” to “POINT B” on the same aircraft but that aircraft stops at
an airport in between.
6. • – is one in which the traveler, to get to
his or her destination must change planes once, twice, or even
7. • – is one where the traveler flies
from “POINT A” to “POINT B”, then travels by ground
transportation (e.g. Car Rentals, Rail etc.)
8. • – is the most common.
Travelers flies from “POINT A” to “POINT B”, stays a while and
then returns from B to A. Again, it can be nonstop, direct, or
9. • – means that the traveler just
goes from“POINT A” to “POINT B”.
10. • – is one where the traveler has two
or more extended stopovers and returns to the originating city.
11. • An aircraft is a vehicle
which is able to fly by
being supported by the
air, or in general, the
atmosphere of a planet.
14. • The fuselage is that portion of the aircraft that usually contains
the crew and payload, either passengers, cargo, or weapons. Most
fuselages are long, cylindrical tubes or sometimes rectangular box
shapes. All of the other major components of the aircraft are
attached to the fuselage. Empennage is another term sometimes
used to refer to the aft portion of the fuselage plus the horizontal
and vertical tails
15. • The wing is the most important part of an aircraft since it produces
the lift that allows a plane to fly. The wing is made up of two halves,
left and right, when viewed from behind.
• These halves are connected to each other by means of the fuselage.
• A wing produces lift because of its special shape, a shape called an
16. • The other key component that makes an airplane go is its engine, or
engines. Aircraft use several different kinds of engines, but they can
all be classified in two major categories.
• Early aircraft from the Wright Flyer until World War II used
propeller-driven piston engines, and these are still common today
on light general aviation planes. Many aircraft house the engine(s)
within the fuselage itself.
17. • If an aircraft consists of only a wing or a wing and fuselage, it is
inherently unstable. Stability is defined as the tendency of an aircraft
to return to its initial state following a disturbance from that state.
• The horizontal stabilizer, also known as the horizontal tail, performs
this function when an aircraft is disturbed in pitch.
18. • In other words, if some disturbance forces the nose up or down, the
horizontal stabilizer produces a counteracting force to push the nose
in the opposite direction and restore equilibrium. When in
equilibrium, we say that an aircraft is in its trim condition. The
horizontal tail is essentially a miniature wing since it is also made up
of an airfoil cross-section.
19. • The tail produces a force similar to lift that balances out the lift of
the wing to keep the plane in equilibrium.
• To do so, the tail usually needs to produce a force pointed
downward, a quantity called down force.
20. •The vertical stabilizer, or vertical tail, functions in the same way as
the horizontal tail, except that it provides stability for a disturbance in
•Yaw is the side-to-side motion of the nose, so if a disturbance causes
the nose to deflect to one side, the vertical tail produces a
counteracting force that pushes the nose in the opposite direction to
21. • The vertical tail is also made of an airfoil cross-section and produces
forces just like a wing or horizontal tail.
• The difference is that a wing or horizontal tail produces lift or down
force, forces that are pointed up or down from the aircraft. Meanwhile
the vertical tail produces a force pointed to one side of the aircraft. This
force is called side-force
24. • The elevator is located on the horizontal stabilizer. It can be deflected
up or down to produce a change in the down force produced by the
• The angle of deflection is considered positive when the trailing edge
of the elevator is deflected upward. Such a deflection increases the down
force produced by the horizontal tail causing the nose to pitch upward.
25. • The rudder is located on the vertical stabilizer.
• It can be deflected to either side to produce a change in the side-
force produced by the vertical tail. The angle of deflection is usually
considered positive when the trailing edge of the rudder is deflected
towards the right wing. Such a deflection creates a side-force to the left
which causes the nose to yaw to the right.
26. • Ailerons are located on the tips of each wing. They are deflected in
opposite directions (one goes trailing edge up, the other trailing edge
down) to produce a change in the lift produced by each wing.
•On the wing with the aileron deflected downward, the lift increases
whereas the lift decreases on the other wing whose aileron is deflected
upward. The wing with more lift rolls upward causing the aircraft to
go into a bank.
29. • Flaps are usually located along the trailing edge of both the left and
right wing, typically inboard of the ailerons and close to the fuselage.
• Flaps are similar to ailerons in that they affect the amount of lift
created by the wings. However, flaps only deflect downward to increase
the lift produced by both wings simultaneously. Flaps are most often
used during takeoff and landing to increase the lift the wings generate
at a given speed.
30. • Sometimes these two terms are used synonymously, but most of the
time the term cockpit is applied to a compartment at the front of the
fuselage where the pilots and flight crew sit.
• This compartment contains the control yolks (or sticks) and equipment
the crew use to send commands to the control surfaces and engines as
well as to monitor the operation of the vehicle. Meanwhile, a cabin is
typically a compartment within the fuselage where passengers are seated.
31. • The landing gear is used during takeoff, landing, and to taxi on the
• Most planes today use what is called a tricycle landing gear
• This system has two large main gear units located near the middle of
the plane and a single smaller nose gear unit near the nose of the
32. • The above diagram illustrates a "trim tab" located on the elevator.
These control tabs may be located on other surfaces as well, such as a
rudder control tab or a balance tab on the aileron.
• Nonetheless, the purpose of all these tabs is the same. In the
previous section, we discussed that the horizontal stabilizer and
elevator are used to provide stability and control in pitch.
33. • In order to keep a plane in a steady, level orientation, the elevator
usually has to be deflected by some small amount.
• Since it would be very tiring for a pilot to physically hold the control
stick in position to keep the elevator at that deflection angle for an
entire flight, the elevator is fitted with a small "tab" that creates that
elevator deflection automatically.
34. • The trim tab can be thought of almost as a "mini-elevator." By
deflecting the tab up or down, it increases or decreases the down force
created by the elevator and forces the elevator to a certain position.
• The pilot can set the deflection of the trim tab which will cause the
elevator to remain at the deflection required to remain trimmed
37. • Airline seats are chairs on an airliner
in which passengers are accommodated
for the duration of the journey.
• Such seats are usually arranged in rows
running across the airplane's fuselage.
• A diagram of such seats in an aircraft is
called an aircraft seat map.
39. you will be among the
first passengers to leave the
plane; less turbulence; quieter
closeness to the
washrooms- people passing by
40. when flying with a
child, so your spouse and you
can "lock" the kid in between;
when flying in a group.
least privacy on board
42. you can board the plane
first to take more room in the
overhead storage bins.
more noise from airplane
engines, more turbulence.
43. BULKHEAD ROW seats
there is no row in front of you, so if
you are flying with children, they will not
bother people in front of you; there are no
people reclining into your lap
too close to watch a movie if it
projected on a screen; less legroom
44. nice view (unless it is the
one over the wing!); more
colder area; less room for
elbows and legs
45. more leg and elbow
room; easier access getting up
people pass by your seat
all the time; a passenger sitting
by the window can ask you to
let him get out.
48. • It is a common misunderstanding
that "pitch" is the same as "legroom".
is an indication of legroom,
referring to the space between a point
on one seat and the same point on the
seat in front of it.
49. • It is usually given in inches. For many carriers, the pitch in
Economy class is 30 to 32 inches (76 to 81 cm).
• More seat pitch can mean more legroom, but it is also affected by
the thickness of the seat back.
•Airlines have claimed that a reduction of seat pitch can be
compensated for by a thinner seat-back design
58. • Is the most luxurious class of
accommodation on a train,
passenger ship, airplane, or other
• It is usually much more expensive
than business class and economy
class, and offers the best amenities.
59. • Is (also known as executive class or
upper class) is a high quality second-tier
travel class available on some commercial
airlines and rail lines.
•Its level of accommodation is higher
than economy class and domestic first
class but lower than international first
60. • Two Types of
2. ECONOMY CLASS
61. • Is Premium Economy, slightly better Economy
Class seating (greater distance between rows of seats;
the seats themselves may or may not be wider than
regular economy class)
62. • Is (also known as coach class or travel class), basic
accommodation, commonly purchased by leisure