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DARE 1011. Know the Technology2. Design for User Experience All aspects of user experience3. Follow good Interaction Design principles Discover, Design, Evaluate4. Consider all the Design Elements Physical, Virtual and Metaphorical5. Know Future Research Directions
What is Augmented Reality? Defining Characteristics (Azuma 97)• Combines Real and Virtual Images– Both can be seen at the same time• Interactive in real-time– The virtual content can be interacted with• Registered in 3D– Virtual objects appear fixed in spaceAzuma, R., A Survey of Augmented Reality, Presence, Vol. 6, No. 4, August 1997, pp. 355-385.
AR From Science Fiction to Fact1977 – Star Wars2008 – CNN
AR Part of MR ContinuumMixed RealityReality - Virtuality (RV) ContinuumRealEnvironmentAugmentedReality (AR)AugmentedVirtuality (AV)VirtualEnvironment"...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum."P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual DisplaysIEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
Core Technologies Combining Real and Virtual Images• Display technologies Interactive in Real-Time• Input and interactive technologies Registered in 3D• Viewpoint tracking technologiesDisplayProcessingInput Tracking
Display Technologies Types (Bimber/Raskar 2003) Head attached• Head mounted display/projector Body attached• Handheld display/projector Spatial• Spatially aligned projector/monitor HMD Optical vs. Video see-through Optical: Direct view of real world -> safer, simpler Video: Video overlay -> more image registration options
User Experience is All About You Designing good userexperience involvesmany aspects Consider all theneeds of the user Especially context ofuse
Web Based AR Flash, HTML 5 based AR Marketing, education Outdoor Mobile AR GPS, compass tracking Viewing Points of Interest in real world Handheld AR Vision based tracking Marketing, gaming Location Based Experiences HMD, fixed screens Museums, point of sale, advertisingTypical AR Experiences
What Makes a Good AR Experience? Compelling Engaging, ‘Magic’ moment Intuitive, ease of use Uses existing skills Anchored in physical world Seamless combination of real and digital
Demo: colAR Turn colouring books pages into AR scenes Markerless tracking, use your own colours.. Try it yourself: http://www.colARapp.com/
Interaction Design Answering three questions: What do you do? - How do you affect the world? What do you feel? – What do you sense of the world? What do you know? – What do you learn? The Design of UserExperience with Technology“Designing interactive products tosupport people in their everydayand working lives”Preece, J., (2002). Interaction Design
AR UI Design Consider your user Follow good HCI principles Adapt HCI guidelines for AR Design to device constraints Using Design Patterns to Inform Design Design for you interface metaphor Design for evaluation
Consider Your User Consider context of user Physical, social, emotional, cognitive, etc Mobile Phone AR User Probably Mobile One hand interaction Short application use Need to be able to multitask Use in outdoor or indoor environment Want to enhance interaction with real world
AR vs. Non AR Design Design Guidelines Design for 3D graphics + Interaction Consider elements of physical world Support implicit interactionCharacteristics Non-AR Interfaces AR InterfacesObject Graphics Mainly 2D Mainly 3DObject Types Mainly virtual objects Both virtual and physical objectsObject behaviors Mainly passive objects Both passive and active objectsCommunication Mainly simple Mainly complexHCI methods Mainly explicit Both explicit and implicit
Maps vs. Junaio Google Maps 2D, mouse driven, text/image heavy, exocentric Junaio 3D, location driven, simple graphics, egocentric
Design to Device Constraints Understand the platform and design for limitations Hardware, software platforms Eg Handheld AR game with visual tracking Use large screen icons Consider screen reflectivity Support one-hand interaction Consider the natural viewing angle Do not tire users out physically Do not encourage fast actions Keep at least one tracking surface in view32Art of Defense Game
Design Patterns“Each pattern describes a problem which occursover and over again in our environment, and thendescribes the core of the solution to that problem insuch a way that you can use this solution a milliontimes over, without ever doing it the same way twice.”– Christopher Alexander et al.Use Design Patterns to Address Reoccurring ProblemsC.A. Alexander, A Pattern Language, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1977.
Handheld AR PatternsTitle Meaning Embodied SkillsDevice Metaphors Using metaphor to suggest available playeractionsBody A&S Naïve physicsControl Mapping Intuitive mapping between physical anddigital objectsBody A&S Naïve physicsSeamful Design Making sense of and integrating thetechnological seams through game designBody A&SWorld Consistency Whether the laws and rules inphysical world hold in digital worldNaïve physicsEnvironmental A&SLandmarks Reinforcing the connection between digital-physical space through landmarksEnvironmental A&SPersonal Presence The way that a player is represented in thegame decides how much they feel like livingin the digital game worldEnvironmental A&SNaïve physicsLiving Creatures Game characters that are responsive tophysical, social events that mimic behavioursof living beingsSocial A&S Body A&SBody constraints Movement of one’s body positionconstrains another player’s actionBody A&S Social A&SHidden information The information that can be hidden andrevealed can foster emergent social playSocial A&S Body A&S
Example: Seamless Design Design to reduce seams in the user experience Eg: AR tracking failure, change in interaction mode Paparazzi Game Change between AR tracking to accelerometer inputYan Xu , et.al. , Pre-patterns for designing embodied interactions in handheld augmented realitygames, Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality--Arts, Media, and Humanities, p.19-28, October 26-29, 2011
Example: Living Creatures Virtual creatures respond to real world events eg. Player motion, wind, light, etc Creates illusion creatures are alive in the real world Sony EyePet Responds to player blowing on creature36
Rapid Hardware Prototyping Speed development time by using quick hardware mockups Handheld connected to PC, LCD screen, USB phone keypad,Camera Can use PC tools for rapid application development Flash, Visual Basic, etc
Build Your Own Google Glass Rapid Prototype Glass-Like HMD Myvu HMD + headphone + iOS Device + basic glue skills $300 + less than 3 hours construction http://www.instructables.com/id/DIY-Google-Glasses-AKA-the-Beady-i/
Why Evaluate AR Applications? To test and compare interfaces, new technologies,interaction techniques To validate the efficiency and efficient the ARinterface and system Test Usability (learnability, efficiency, satisfaction,...) Get user feedback, Better understand your users Refine interface design Better understand your end users ...
HIT Lab NZ Usability Survey A Survey of Evaluation Techniques Used inAugmented Reality Studies Andreas Dünser, Raphaël Grasset, Mark Billinghurst reviewed publications from 1993 to 2007 Extracted 6071 papers which mentioned “AugmentedReality” Searched to find 165 AR papers with User Studies
Types of Experiments and topics Sensation, Perception & Cognition How is virtual content perceived ? What perceptual cues are most important ? How to visualize augmented/overlay information on real environment? Visual search/attention/salience issues of human performance Interaction How can users interact with virtual content ? Which interaction techniques are most efficient in certain context ? Collaboration & Social issues How is collaboration in AR interface different ? Which collaborative cues can be conveyed best ? Privacy and security issues of AR interface
Gabbard Model for AR Design1. user task analysis2. expert guidelines-based evaluation3. formative user-centered evaluation4. summative comparative evaluationsGabbard, J.L.; Swan, J.E.; , "Usability Engineeringfor Augmented Reality: Employing User-BasedStudies to Inform Design,”Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactionson, vol.14, no.3, pp.513-525, May-June 2008
AR Design SpaceReality Virtual RealityAugmented RealityPhysical Design Virtual Design
Design of Objects Objects Purposely built – affordances “Found” – repurposed Existing – already at use in marketplace Affordance The quality of an object allowing an action-relationship with an actor An attribute of an object that allows people toknow how to use it- e.g. a door handle affords pulling
Affordance Led Design Make affordances perceivable Provide visual, haptic, tactile, auditory cues Affordance Led Usability Give feedback Provide constraints Use natural mapping Use good cognitive model
Example: AR Chemistry Tangible AR chemistry education (Fjeld)Fjeld, M., Juchli, P., and Voegtli, B. M. 2003. Chemistry education: A tangible interactionapproach. Proceedings of INTERACT 2003, September 1st -5th 2003, Zurich,Switzerland.
AR Interaction Metaphors Information Browsing View AR content 3D AR Interfaces 3D UI interaction techniques Augmented Surfaces Tangible UI techniques Tangible AR Tangible UI input + AR output
1. Information Browsing Information is registered toreal-world context Hand held AR displays Interaction Manipulation of a windowinto information space Applications Context-awareinformation displaysRekimoto, et al. 1997
2. 3D AR Interfaces Virtual objects displayed in 3Dphysical space and manipulated HMDs and 6DOF head-tracking 6DOF hand trackers for input Interaction Viewpoint control Traditional 3D user interfaceinteraction: manipulation,selection, etc.Kiyokawa, et al. 2000
3. Augmented Surfaces Basic principles Virtual objects are projected on a surface Physical objects are used as controls forvirtual objects Support for collaboration Rekimoto, et al. 1998 Front projection Marker-based tracking Multiple projection surfaces
Lessons from Tangible Interfaces Physical objects make us smart Norman’s “Things that Make Us Smart” encode affordances, constraints Objects aid collaboration establish shared meaning Objects increase understanding serve as cognitive artifacts
TUI Limitations Difficult to change object properties Can’t tell state of digital data Limited display capabilities projection screen = 2D dependent on physical display surface Separation between object and display Augmented Surfaces
4. Tangible AR Metaphor AR overcomes limitation of TUIs enhance display possibilities merge task/display space provide public and private views TUI + AR = Tangible AR Apply TUI methods to AR interface design
Tangible AR Demo Use of natural physical objectmanipulations to control virtual objects VOMAR Demo Catalog book:- Turn over the page Paddle operation:- Push, shake, incline, hit, scoop
Object Based Interaction: MagicCup Intuitive Virtual Object Manipulationon a Table-Top Workspace Time multiplexed Multiple Markers- Robust Tracking Tangible User Interface- Intuitive Manipulation Stereo Display- Good Presence
Tangible AR Design Principles Tangible AR Interfaces use TUI principles Physical controllers for moving virtual content Support for spatial 3D interaction techniques Time and space multiplexed interaction Support for multi-handed interaction Match object affordances to task requirements Support parallel activity with multiple objects Allow collaboration between multiple users
Example 1: AR Lens Physical Components Lens handle- Virtual lens attached to real object Display Elements Lens view- Reveal layers in dataset Interaction Metaphor Physically holding lens
Example 2: LevelHead Physical Components Real blocks Display Elements Virtual person and rooms Interaction Metaphor Blocks are rooms
To Make the Vision Real.. Hardware/software requirements Contact lens displays Free space hand/body tracking Speech/gesture recognition Etc.. Most importantly Usability/User Experience
Natural Interaction Automatically detecting real environment Environmental awareness Physically based interaction Gesture Input Free-hand interaction Multimodal Input Speech and gesture interaction Implicit rather than Explicit interaction
AR MicroMachines AR experience with environment awarenessand physically-based interaction Based on MS Kinect RGB-D sensor Augmented environment supports occlusion, shadows physically-based interaction between real andvirtual objects
Physics Simulation Create virtual mesh over real world Update at 10 fps – can move real objects Use by physics engine for collision detection (virtual/real) Use by OpenScenegraph for occlusion and shadows
Conclusion There is need for better designed AR experiences Through use of Interaction Design principles understanding of the technology use of rapid prototyping tools rigorous user evaluation There a number of important areas for future research Natural interaction, Multimodal interfaces, Intelligent agents, …
More Information• Mark Billinghurst– firstname.lastname@example.org• Websites– www.hitlabnz.org