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A Neural Global Workspace Model for
Conscious Attention
James Newman, Bernard J. Baars and Sung-Bae Cho
Soft Computing Lab...
Artificial Consciousness
• Neuroscience
– ‘의식이란 두뇌의 여러 부분들의 상호작용을 통해 생성되는 상승효과’
– Neuronal correlates of consciousness (NC...
Global Workspace (GW)
• Simple cognitive architecture in which many parallel experts
interact via a serial
– Brain viewed ...
Modeling Global Competitive Attention
• Consciousness
– Dynamic process, not a static structure
– Not localized to some ‘b...
Neural Mechanism for Global Attention
• Parallel loops of thalamo–cortical–thalamic axons, passing
through a thin sheet of...
Main model of the nRt
• Modeling a competitive
network for global attention
based upon a highly
simplified version of the
...
Simulation Result of nRt model
• The overall pattern of activation is exclusively dependent upon
the wave pattern of the N...
A Neural Model for Global Resource Allocation
• Wagon wheel model
– Contributing to global
attention an conscious
percepti...
Global Resource Allocation Method
• Global attention is acting upon a highly selective stream of
information
• Executive s...
Programmable Blackboard Model for Reading
9
Programmable
letter
Programmable
word
Central
letter
Central
word
Combine the Result of the Individual Network
• The expert networks compete each other
– The expert networks may be trained...
Conclusion & Discussion
• Introduced neuroscience and NN models for attention, binding,
and resource allocation
• Share im...
E.N.D
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발표 자료 - PowerPoint Presentation

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발표 자료 - PowerPoint Presentation

  1. 1. A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention James Newman, Bernard J. Baars and Sung-Bae Cho Soft Computing Laboratory 김 희 택 Neural Networks, 1997
  2. 2. Artificial Consciousness • Neuroscience – ‘의식이란 두뇌의 여러 부분들의 상호작용을 통해 생성되는 상승효과’ – Neuronal correlates of consciousness (NCC) • Monism and Dualism – Monism • 인간은 두뇌에서 직접 사물을 지각하고 정보를 처리 – Dualism • 인간이 지각하는 것은 일종의 정신 • 두뇌는 정보처리에 얻은 데이터 보관장소 • Attention – 어떤 것을 선택하여 집중하고 다른 것들을 무시하는 인지과정 – Unconscious attention 과 conscious attention 1
  3. 3. Global Workspace (GW) • Simple cognitive architecture in which many parallel experts interact via a serial – Brain viewed as a massive parallel distributed system of highly specialized processors (Brain web) – Control may take place by way of a central information exchange – Consciousness is the primary agent of such a global access function in humans • A theater metaphor – Spotlight : Consciousness – The rest of the theater : unconscious – Control the bright spot : selective attention • This paper present a neurocognitive model based on GW 2
  4. 4. Modeling Global Competitive Attention • Consciousness – Dynamic process, not a static structure – Not localized to some ‘brain center’ but arises at widely distributed networks of neurons – Consciousness is achieved by allocating resource to specific brain portion • Involves a higher order of resource allocation • The allocation of resources in case of non-conscious attention – Visual cortex process • Contour, movement, color, spatial location • But human’s awareness is of a single, coherent object – ’binding problem’ of how these multifarious representations are integrated into real-time ‘objects’ of perception 3
  5. 5. Neural Mechanism for Global Attention • Parallel loops of thalamo–cortical–thalamic axons, passing through a thin sheet of neurons known as the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRt) • The neurons of nRt are largely GABA-ergic, inhibitory neurons • There is an orderly topography to this array of axon collaterals and underlying thalamic nuclei – It essentially mirrors, in miniature, the modular architecture of the cortex 4 Nucleus reticularis thalami (시상망상핵) 이는 간뇌피개와 중뇌피개의 망상체핵의 계속이며, 시상수 판 내에 있는 수판내핵(Nuclei intralaminares)도 이와 같은 성질의 것이다. 흔히 내측핵에 속하던 Nucleus median, 또 는 Nucleus centrum medianum은 P.N.A에서는 중심내측핵 (Nucleus medialis centralis)이라 하나, 그 기능은 망상핵군 과 같이 취급된다.
  6. 6. Main model of the nRt • Modeling a competitive network for global attention based upon a highly simplified version of the ‘thalamus–nRt–cortex complex’ • Takes into account the effects of dendro–dendritic interactions throughout nRt – Provided the basis for a simple version of the global gating model 5 Thalamus (시상) 뇌의 제3뇌실 측벽의 대부분을 이루는 1쌍의 커다란 알 모 양의 기관. 뇌의 5개 부분 중 하나인 간뇌(間腦)의 주요구조 이다. 시상은 뇌간(腦幹)과 전뇌 사이에 위치하고, 고삐 (habenula)와 송과선을 포함하는 시상상부(epitha-lamus), 자율신경과 연결된 시상하부(hypothalamus) 와 연결되어 있다. 시상에는 2가지 중요한 기능이 있다. 시상은 각종 수용기로부터 신경충격을 대뇌피질로 전달하는데, 그곳에 서 신경충격은 깨어 있는 동안 촉각·통증·온도 등의 적절한 감각으로 경험된다. 또한 시상은 휴지상태중에는 시냅스 전 달, 즉 들어오는 충격을 조절하는데, 이러한 조절은 긴 휴지 기 이후에 오는 폭발적인 신경충격을 분산시킴으로써 이루 진다.
  7. 7. Simulation Result of nRt model • The overall pattern of activation is exclusively dependent upon the wave pattern of the NRT units – nRt is the source of global oscillatory activity • The synchronous activation of specific and non-specific loops is postulated to provide a basis for ‘perceptual unity’ by which different sensory components are gathered into one global image 6
  8. 8. A Neural Model for Global Resource Allocation • Wagon wheel model – Contributing to global attention an conscious perception • Two key aspects of this ‘conscious system’ – Polymodal, integrating sensory inputs, but motor and ‘higher-order’ cortical effects – Extended, with input/output relations reaching from the brain stem core to association cortices 7 nRt Thalamus Cerebrum cortex Sensory System
  9. 9. Global Resource Allocation Method • Global attention is acting upon a highly selective stream of information • Executive system is that it acts upon other sub-systems, modifying their inputs for its particular purposes • Present a simple, but highly relevant, connectionist model that simulates a GW system employing a gating network to selectively filter and integrate inputs as a function of central knowledge stores 8
  10. 10. Programmable Blackboard Model for Reading 9 Programmable letter Programmable word Central letter Central word
  11. 11. Combine the Result of the Individual Network • The expert networks compete each other – The expert networks may be trained separately • The gating network mediate this competition • While a single expert execute the task, an automatic (‘non- conscious’) processing are operated in instances 10
  12. 12. Conclusion & Discussion • Introduced neuroscience and NN models for attention, binding, and resource allocation • Share important features and parallels with a Neural Global Workspace System for conscious attention • 기계가 표면적으로는 사람과 같은 의식을 가진 행동을 보이더라도, 그것으로 정말로 ‘기계가 정신을 가졌다’ 라고 말할 수 있는가? • 대뇌의 물리적 구조를 모델링 하는 접근방식으로 의식을 가진 기계를 만들 수 있을까? • Conscious Attention 을 실제 어떤 분야에 응용할 수 있을까? 11
  13. 13. E.N.D

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