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Birds do it. Bees do it. So do dolphins, monkeys, apes and humans. You know what I am talking about....communicate! That's right, all these animals can communicate. They can exchange information with one another. Although these animals can communicate, do they have LANGUAGE? Some scientists have argued that language is what sets humans apart from all other animals. Other researchers wonder if humans are really the only species with language . Certainly other animals communicate ...bees have the ability to communicate with other bees using their special &quot;dance.&quot; However, human language is more than just communication. Humans use symbols that have meaning. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/lang.html
Many people assume the physical basis of language lies in the lips, the tongue, or the ear. But deaf and mute people can also possess language fully. People who have no capacity to use their vocal cords may still be able to comprehend language and use its written forms. And human sign language, which is based on visible gesture rather than the creation of sound waves, is an infinitely creative system just like spoken forms of language. But the basis of sign language is not in the hand, just as spoken language is not based in the lips or tongue. There are many examples of aphasics who lose both the ability to write as well as to express themselves using sign-language, yet they never lose manual dexterity in other tasks, such as sipping with a straw or tying their shoes. Language is brain stuff--not tongue, lip, ear, or hand stuff. The language organ is the mind . More specifically, the language faculty seems to be located in certain areas of the left hemispheric cortex in most healthy adults . A special branch of linguistics, called neurolinguistics , studies the physical structure of the brain as it relates to language production and comprehension.
The average human brain weighs about 3 pounds. Removed from the skull, it looks a bit like a large pinkish-gray walnut. Divided down the middle lengthwise, the brain has two roughly identical halves -- the left and the right hemispheres.
Divided down the middle lengthwise, the brain has two roughly identical halves -- the left and the right hemispheres. The two hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum (&quot;callous body&quot;), seen here in a coronal section.
Broca's area is a region of the brain responsible for speech production . The importance of Broca’s area in producing language has been recognized since Paul Pierre Broca reported impairments in two patients he encountered. They had lost the ability to speak after injury to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the brain. [ Wernicke's area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex . it is located in the left hemisphere , as the left hemisphere is specialized for language skills. Wernicke's area is named after Carl Wernicke , a German neurologist and psychiatrist who, in 1874, discovered that damage to this area could cause a type of aphasia that is now called Wernicke's aphasia or receptive aphasia . (French anthropologist and surgeon. He became the first to offer anatomical proof of the localization of brain functions when he discovered (1861) the center of articulate speech in the brain.)
To speak a word that is read, information must first get to the primary visual cortex. From the primary visual cortex, information is transmitted to the posterior speech area, including Wernicke's area. From Wernicke's area, information travels to Broca's area, then to the Primary Motor Cortex. To speak a word that is heard, information must first get to the primary auditory cortex. From the primary auditory cortex, information is transmitted to the posterior speech area, including Wernicke's area. From Wernicke's area, information travels to Broca's area, then to the Primary Motor Cortex.
Motor cortex is a term that describes regions of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary motor functions.
A number of researchers have noted that we all experience occasional difficulty in getting brain and speech production to work together smoothly.
sometimes called “spoonerism” after William Spooner, an Anglican clergyman at Oxford Univfersity, who was renowned for his tongue slips
Aphasia (&quot;not speaking&quot;) is an impairment of language, affecting the production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write. Aphasia is always due to injury to the brain -- most commonly from a stroke, particularly in older individuals. But brain injuries resulting in aphasia may also arise from head trauma, from brain tumors, or from infections.
The two most famous types of aphasia result from injury to two specific areas of the brain, with dramatically different consequences. These areas and their aphasias are called Broca's and Wernicke's. A very general distinction is that Broca's aphasia limits speech, while Wernicke's aphasia limits comprehension.
http://www.gazzaro.it/g/Language%20in%20the%20brain.htm Broca's aphasia, involves damage to the front part of the left hemisphere of the brain. This results in labored, stilted speech in which the speaker drops words and can only speak in short sentences. It is most often named after Pierre-Paul Broca (1824-1880), a French surgeon and anthropologist who first described the syndrome and its association with injuries to a specific region of the brain. It is sometimes called disfluent or agrammatic aphasia.
Lesions causing Wernicke's aphasia usually occur in the auditory association area of the left temporal lobe or in the fiber tracts connecting it with other areas of the brain. It results in speech that uses the wrong words, nonsense words and the like. People with Wernicke's aphasia can speak as if fluently (no stopping, no labor), but the words often come out strange. People with this aphasia also have difficulty understanding the speech of others. It is named after the German neurologist Carl Wernicke (1848-1905).
This way of speaking has been called &quot;word salad&quot; because it appears that the words are all mixed up like the vegetables in a salad.
This way of speaking has been called &quot;word salad&quot; because it appears that the words are all mixed up like the vegetables in a salad.
There is the distinction between Acquisition and Learning (Krashen, 1982). Acquisition is a process by which children unconsciously acquire their native language Learning is a conscious knowledge of a second language, knowing the rules, being aware of them, and being able to talk about them. A cquisition is used to refer to the gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations with others who know the language.
- it’s against the belief that consciously learning the grammar rules of a language will necessarily result in an ability to use the language
L earning applies to a more conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the features such as vocabulary and grammar of a language t ypically in an institutional setting
Neurolinguistics - a special branch of linguistics which studies the physical structure of the brain as it relates to language production and comprehension
So do dolphins, monkeys, apes and humans. So do dolphins, monkeys, apes and humans. Speaking the Written Word Speaking the Heard Word
Dichotic Listening - an experimental technique that has demonstrated a left hemisphere dominance for syllable and word processing.
The tip of the tongue phenomenon <ul><li>speakers generally have an accurate phonological outline of the word, can get the initial sound correct and mostly know the number of syllables in the word. </li></ul><ul><li>mainly occurs with uncommon words and names. </li></ul>
Example: transcendental medication fire extinguisher fire distinguisher transcendental meditation
Slips of the tongue <ul><li>sometimes called “spoonerism” after William Spooner </li></ul><ul><li>are often simply the result of a sound being carried over from one word to another </li></ul>
Example: long story short long shory stort use the door to open the key use the key to open the door loop before you leak look before you leap
Slips of the ear <ul><li>this may provide some clues to how the brain tries to make sense of the auditory signal it receives </li></ul>
Example: great ape gray tape 'Don't cry for me, Marge and Tina’. 'Row, row, row your boat…Life is a but a dream’. 'Row, row, row your boat…Life's a butter dream’. ‘ Don’t cry for me, Argentina’.
Aphasia Serious Disorders in Brain Function - an impairment of language function due to localized brain damage that leads to difficulty in understanding and / or producing linguistic forms
Common Cause: <ul><li>stroke through traumatic head injuries from violence or an accident or an may have similar effects </li></ul><ul><li>brain tumors </li></ul><ul><li>infections </li></ul>
Broca’s Aphasia <ul><li>also called ‘motor aphasia’ </li></ul><ul><li>reduced amount of speech, distorted articulation and slow, often effortful speech </li></ul><ul><li>frequent omission of functional morphemes and inflections </li></ul><ul><li>often consists almost entirely of lexical morphemes </li></ul>
Example: I eggs and eat and drink coffee breakfast. Ah ... Monday ... ah, Dad and Paul and Dad ..went... hospital. Two ... ah, doctors ... and ah ... thirty minutes ... and yes ... ah ... hospital. And, er, Wednesday ... nine o'clock. And er Thursday, ten o'clock ... doctors. Two doctors ... and ah... teeth. Yeah,... fine.
Wernicke’s Aphasia <ul><li>also known as ‘sensory aphasia’ </li></ul><ul><li>the type of language disorder that results in difficulties in auditory comprehension </li></ul>
Example: Examiner: What kind of work have you done? -- We, the kids, all of us, and I, we were working for a long time in the... You know... it's the kind of space, I mean place rear to the spedawn...
Examiner: Excuse me, but I wanted to know what kind of work you have been doing. -- If you had said that, we had said that, poomer, near the fortunate, porpunate, tamppoo, all around the fourth of martz. Oh, I get all confused.
Conduction Aphasia <ul><li>individuals suffering from this disorder sometimes mispronounce words, but typically do not have articulation problems </li></ul>
Example: velitision for television vaysse for base fosh for wash
First language Acquisition Language acquisition is the study of the processes through which learners acquire language. By itself, language acquisition refers to first language acquisition , which studies infants' acquisition of their native language.
Caregiver speech a - a characteristically simplified speech style adopted by someone who spends a lot of time interacting with a young child. - featured with the use of question, often using exaggerated intonation, extra loudness, and a slower tempo with longer pauses.
Cooing and Babbling <ul><li>the earliest use of speech-like sounds has been described as cooing; </li></ul><ul><li>create sounds similar to the consonants (k) and (g) and high vowels similar to (i) and (u) </li></ul>
<ul><li>between six and eight months, the child is able to produce a number of different vowels and consonants such as ba-ba-ba and ga-ga-ga which is described as babbling. </li></ul>
One-word stage - is characterized by speech in which single terms are uttered for everyday objects. Example: milk cookie cat cup spoon
Two-word stage - this can begin around eighteen to twenty months, as the child’s vocabulary moves beyond fifty words. Example: mommy come daddy sit baby eat
Telegraphic Speech - characterized by strings of words in phrases or sentences Example: this shoe all wet cat drink milk daddy go bye-bye
Developing morphology By the time a child is two-and-a-half years old, he or she is incorporating some of the inflectional morphemes that indicate the grammatical function of the nouns and verbs.
Example: cat sitt ing mommy read ing book foot s man s go ed come d
Developing syntax - young children are able to use syntactic structures on their own way.
Example: Adult: The owl who eats candy runs fast. Child: owl eat candy and he run fast Adult: I'm having this little one. Child: Me'll have that.
Developing semantics One interesting feature of the young child’s semantics is the way certain lexical relations are treated.
Example: Hyponymy animal – dog – poodle plants – flowers – rose
I come it closer so it won’t fall. (bring it closer) Mommy, can you stay this open? (keep this open)
<ul><li>When did you learn the English language? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Second Language Acquisition </li></ul>- deals with acquisition of additional languages in both children and adults.
Acquisition vs. Learning (Krashen) Acquisition is a process by which children unconsciously acquire their native language. Learning is a conscious knowledge of a second language, knowing the rules, being aware of them, and being able to talk about them.
Approaches Grammar-translation method Vocabulary lists and sets of grammar rules are used to define the target of learning, memorization is encouraged, and written language rather than spoken language is emphasized.
<ul><li>It involved a systematic presentation of the structures of the L2, moving from simple to the more complex, in the form of drills that the student had to repeat. </li></ul>Audiolingual method
Communicative approaches - it’s partially a reaction against the artificiality of ‘pattern-practice.’ - it’s against the belief that consciously learning the grammar rules will necessarily result in an ability to use the language
Communicative Competence - the general ability to use language accurately, appropriately, and flexibly.
Grammatical competence Concentration on grammatical competence only, however, will not provide the learner with the ability to interpret or produce L2 expressions appropriately.
Sociolinguistic Competence The ability to use appropriate language. Strategic Competence The ability to organize a message effectively and to compensate, via strategies, for any difficulties.
Applied Linguistics - is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems.